Île Sainte-Marie

Nosy Boraha known as Île Sainte-Marie, is an island off the east coast of Madagascar, to which it belongs. The main town is Ambodifotatra; the island forms an administrative district within Analanjirofo Region, covers an area of 222 km2. It had a population estimated at 26,547 in 2013; the island is organized as the city and district of Nosy Boraha in Analanjirofo Region, is part of the nation of Madagascar. The population has changed over the centuries, it was Austronesian, as on the larger islands of Madagascar and reverted to pirate control, however most inhabitants now are similar to the rest of the northeast coast of Madagascar. This island is less than 10 kilometres wide. An airport serves the town; the channel between Nosy Boraha and Madagascar is known for whale watching. Substantial groups of humpback whales migrate from the Antarctic to this breeding ground; the whales find conditions here that are well suited to their courtship and favourable for the growth of their young and before their annual migration to colder water.

Although scarce, southern right whales, as a part of the recolonization of their former ranges, are known to appear along the coast from time to time. Ile Sainte-Marie, or St. Mary's Island as it is known in English, became a popular base for pirates, starting with Adam Baldridge in 1691 and ending with John Pro in 1719, in the 17th and 18th centuries due to several reasons: it was not far from the maritime routes along which ships returning from the East Indies sailed in transit, their holds overflowing with wealth. Legendary pirates including William Kidd, Robert Culliford, Olivier Levasseur, Henry Every, Abraham Samuel and Thomas Tew lived in the île aux Forbans, an island located in the bay of Sainte Marie's main town, Ambodifotatra. Many of them would found a family line. Numerous vestiges of this history remain on Nosy Boraha, but at this time the remains have not been yet identified; the utopian pirate republic of Libertalia was rumored to exist in this area, although the republic's existence, let alone its location, has never been proven.

Free from sharks, the lagoon of the island is endowed with significant coralline growth. Its underwater fauna is conserved as a natural heritage and popular diving site in the Indian Ocean. On 7 May 2015, a large 55 kg "silver" ingot, believed to be Captain Kidd's treasure, was found off the coast of the island. After further analysis, UNESCO determined that the piece consisted of 95% lead. On Nosy Boraha, the inhabitants are attached to traditions; the social or family events are faithfully linked to practices invoking the ancestors' spirits. The wealth and variety of these rituals underline the authenticity and depth of the "Saint-marien" cultural identity; the island is the setting for the fourth Uncharted game, released for the PlayStation 4. In the game, the main characters explore the island while on a quest to discover the rumored pirate utopia of Libertalia and the fictitious bounty of the famed pirate Henry Avery; the insular character and the coralline soil encouraged various adaptations, as much of animal as of plant structure.

Thus, Sainte Marie is endowed with a rich flora. Sainte-Marie has several species of lemur as well as numerous orchid species, among, the "Queen of Madagascar"; the island was the only place where a non-parasitic cuckoo, was known to occur. Bety of Betsimisaraka Île aux Nattes Tourist map of Ste. Marie Humpback whale of Sainte Marie island Sainte Marie island All maps of Sainte Marie island and accommodation on the island


Skipton-on-Swale is a small village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. The population at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are included in the civil parish of North Yorkshire, it lies on the A61 road, about 4 miles west of Thirsk on the east bank of the River Swale. The village is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Schipetune in the Yarlestre hundred under the manor of Topeclive. At the time of the Norman invasion, the manor was owned by Bernwulf and afterwards by William of Percy. In 1086 there were 35 villagers; the overlordship remained with and followed that of Topcliffe, but there were grants as mesne lord to various families over the centuries. For example, in 1284, son of John de Skipton owned land. In the 14th century, John Minniott of nearby Carlton bought land in the village. From 1600, one of the main land owners were the Clough family who were recorded as still in possession in 1710. After manorial rights seem to cease; the name is derived from the Anglian word Scēp, meaning Sheep and the Old English word tun for settlement/farm, therefore Sheep farm.

The bridge that crosses the River Swale is a Grade II Listed building designed by John Carr and built in 1781. To the north of the village is an abandoned airfield, used by four squadrons from the Royal Canadian Air Force and one Polish Bomber Squadron between 1942 and 1947; the village is within the Malton UK Parliament constituency. It lies within the Sowerby electoral division of North Yorkshire County Council and the Topcliffe ward of Hambleton District Council; the nearest settlements are Howe 0.5 miles to the north west, Carlton Miniott 1.7 miles to the north east, Baldersby 1 mile to the south west and Catton 1.1 miles to the south. It is located on the A61 road. In 1881, the UK Census recorded the population as 145. There is a church dedicated to St John the Evangelist built in 1848 and is a Grade II Listed building; the Wesleyans built a chapel in the village in 1810 that had a school attached in 1882, both now disused. Media related to Skipton-on-Swale at Wikimedia Commons

Ginevra King

Ginevra King Pirie was an American socialite and heiress. She was the inspiration for several characters in the novels and short stories of American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, in particular, the character of Daisy Buchanan in The Great Gatsby. King and Fitzgerald shared a youthful romance from 1915 to 1917, but their relationship stagnated after King's father warned the impressionable young writer that "poor boys shouldn't think of marrying rich girls." Scholars regard King as a "prototype of the aloof, upper-crust woman, popular and rich and for becomes an archetype" of "the American dream."King's first husband, William Mitchell—whom she divorced after an unhappy marriage—served as the model for Tom Buchanan in the same novel. Mitchell would become the director of Texaco, one of the largest and most successful oil companies of the era. King's second husband, John T. Pirie, Jr. was a business tycoon and owner of the Chicago department retailer Carson Pirie Scott & Company. King was born in Chicago in 1898, the daughter of socialite Ginevra Fuller and successful Chicago financier Charles Garfield King.

Like her mother and her grandmother, she was named after Leonardo da Vinci's oil-on-wood painting Ginevra de' Benci. Both sides of her family were extravagantly wealthy, they tended to prefer the company of "other prominent families in Chicago—the Swifts, Cudahys, Palmers, McCormicks, Chatfield-Taylors; the children of these families went to schools and churches together and played with one another in Lake Forest during the summers." Ginevra had two younger sisters and Barbara. Ginevra enjoyed a privileged upbringing and was feted in the Chicago social scene as a member of the elite "Big Four" Chicago debutantes during World War I, she was raised at her family's sprawling estate in Lake Forest and was accustomed to "a life of tennis and polo ponies, private-school intrigues, country-club flirtations." As a young woman, King "had a clear sense of her family's wealth and position and, from an early age, a developed understanding of how social status worked." Accordingly, she socialized in a small circle of her immediate "Big Four" friends which included Edith Cummings, Courtney Letts, Margaret Carry: "The girls went to dances and house parties together, they were seen as a foursome on the golf links and tennis courts at Onwentsia.

If other girls were jealous and her three friends did not care. The Big Four was complete; as a young woman, King was "intensely competitive" and was loathe "to lose at anything—golf, tennis, or basketball." However, her intense competitiveness did not extend to her academic studies where she was "reasonably diligent about her schoolwork but wasn't interested in it. She preferred athletics and parties, she liked to sit up late talking with her friends." She was "not much inclined towards introspection or self-analysis."In 1914, King's father sent Ginevra to Middlebury, Connecticut, to attend the Westover School, an "exclusive finishing school." Her Westover schoolmates included such notable persons as Isabel Stillman Rockefeller of the Rockefeller dynasty, as well as Margaret Livingston Bush and Mary Eleanor Bush, the aunts of President George H. W. Bush. Most of Westover's attendees "were destined to be the wives of wealthy men; this was a point much stressed at Westover. Ginevra first met a young F. Scott Fitzgerald in St. Paul, Minnesota, on January 4, 1915, while visiting Marie Hersey, her roommate from Westover.

They met at a sledding party on Summit Avenue. She was a 16-year-old at the Westover School and he was a 19-year-old at Princeton. According to letters and diary entries, they both became infatuated. After their first meeting, Fitzgerald began deluging Ginevra with voluminous correspondence which pleased her as "a girl's popularity was measured in part by which boys wrote to her and how many letters she received." Against his wishes, Ginevra read Fitzgerald's intimate letters aloud to her Westover classmates for their amusement. At one point, Ginevra asked for a photograph of him as she professed to only recall that he had "yellow hair and big blue eyes."They corresponded back and forth for months, they exchanged numerous photographs. Over time, their letters became passionate. Ginevra began having erotic dreams "about Scott" and "slept with his letters" in the hope "that dreams about him would come in the night." Fitzgerald visited the King estate several times, Ginevra wrote in her diary that she was "madly in love with him."

In March 1915, Fitzgerald asked Ginevra to be his consort for the Sophomore Prom—"the most important social event of the year at Princeton for members of his class"—but Ginevra's mother did not permit her to attend. In February-March 1916, Fitzgerald wrote a short story entitled "The Perfect Hour" in which he imagined Ginevra and he blissfully together at last, he mailed the love story to her by post as a token of his affection. Ginevra read the story to one of her other male suitors who nonetheless generously praised Fitzgerald's writing as excellent. Despite Fitzgerald's frequent letters of affection, Ginevra nonetheless continued entertaining other suitors and, on May 22, 1916, she was expelled from Westover School for flirting with several young men from her dormitory window. Mary Robbins Hillard, the stern headmistress of Westover school, declared King to be a "bold, bad hussy" and an "adventuress." After threats by Ginevra's imperious father, Hillard readmitte