George Buchanan was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar. According to historian Keith Brown, Buchanan was "the most profound intellectual sixteenth century Scotland produced." His ideology of resistance to royal usurpation gained widespread acceptance during the Scottish Reformation. Brown says the ease with which King James VII was deposed in 1689 shows the power of Buchananite ideas, his father, a Highlander and a younger son of an old family, owned the farm of Moss, in the parish of Killearn, but he died young, leaving his widow, five sons, three daughters in poverty. George's mother, Agnes Heriot, was of the family of the Heriots of Trabroun, East Lothian, of which George Heriot, founder of Heriot's Hospital, was a member. Buchanan, a native speaker of Scottish Gaelic, is said to have attended Killearn school, but not much is known of his early education, his brother, Patrick Buchanan, was a scholar. In 1520 he was sent by his uncle, James Heriot, to the University of Paris, where he first came in contact with the two great influences of the age, the Renaissance and the Reformation.
There, according to him, he devoted himself to the writing of verses "partly by liking by compulsion". In 1522 his uncle died, George Buchanan, at that time ill, was unable to stay in Paris and returned to Scotland. After recovering from his illness, he joined the French auxiliaries, brought over to Scotland by John Stewart, Duke of Albany, took part in an unsuccessful siege of Wark Castle on the border with England in late 1523. In the following year he entered the University of St Andrews, where he graduated B. A. in 1525. He had gone there to attend the lectures of John Mair on logic. In 1528 Buchanan graduated M. A. at Scots College, University of Paris. The next year he was appointed regent, or professor, in the College of Sainte-Barbe, taught there for over three years. Sainte-Barbe was one of the most advanced colleges at that time. George added to that prestige by creating new reforms in teaching Latin. In 1529 he was elected "Procurator of the German Nation" in the University of Paris, was re-elected four times in four successive months.
He resigned his regentship in 1531, in 1532 became tutor to Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of Cassilis, with whom he returned to Scotland early in 1537 having acquired a great reputation for learning. At this period Buchanan assumed the same attitude toward the Roman Catholic Church as Erasmus: he did not repudiate its doctrines, but considered himself free to criticise its practice. Though he listened to the arguments of the Protestant Reformers, he did not join their ranks until 1553, his first literary production in Scotland, when he was in Lord Cassilis's household in the west country, was the poem Somnium, a satirical attack on the Franciscan friars and the monastic life generally. This assault on the monks was not displeasing to James V, who engaged Buchanan as tutor to one of his natural sons, Lord James Stewart, encouraged him in a more daring effort; the poems Palinodia and Franciscanus et Fratres remained unpublished for many years, but made the author hated by the Franciscan order. In 1539 there was persecution in Scotland of the Lutherans, Buchanan among others was arrested.
Although the King had withheld his protection, Buchanan managed to escape and made his way to London, Paris. In Paris, however, he found himself in danger when his main enemy, Cardinal David Beaton, arrived there as ambassador, on the invitation of André de Gouveia, he moved to Bordeaux. Gouveia was principal of the newly founded College of Guienne, by his influence Buchanan was appointed professor of Latin. During his time there several of his major works, the translations of Medea and Alcestis, the two dramas and Baptistes, were completed. Michel de Montaigne acted in his tragedies. In the essay Of Presumption he classes Buchanan with Jean d'Aurat, Theodore Beza, Michel de l'Hôpital, Pierre de Montdoré and Adrianus Turnebus, as one of the foremost Latin poets of his time. Here Buchanan formed a lasting friendship with Julius Caesar Scaliger. Austin Seal and Steve Philp translate this as:'Just as Scotland was at the apex of the Roman Empire, so Scotland shall be at the apex of Roman eloquence'.
In 1542 or 1543 he returned to Paris, in 1544 he was appointed regent in the Collège du cardinal Lemoine. Among his colleagues were Muretus and Turnebus. Although little is known about George during this time, we can gather that he once again fell ill according to an elegy he wrote to his comrades Tastaeus and Tevius. In 1547 Buchanan joined the band of French and Portuguese humanists, invited by Gouveia to lecture in the Portuguese University of Coimbra; the French mathematician Elie Vinet, the Portuguese historian, Jerónimo Osório, were among his colleagues. But the rectorship had been coveted by Diogo de Gouveia, uncl
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
William Forbes Skene
William Forbes Skene WS FRSE FSA DCL LLD, was a Scottish lawyer and antiquary. He co-founded the Scottish legal firm Skene Edwards, prominent throughout the 20th century but disappeared in 2008 when merged with Morton Fraser, he was born in Inverey, the second son of Sir Walter Scott's friend, James Skene, of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, his wife, Jane Forbes, daughter of Sir William Forbes, 6th Baronet of Pitsligo. The family moved to Edinburgh in 1817 living with his uncle, Andrew Skene from 1820 living at 126 Princes Street facing Edinburgh Castle, he was educated at Edinburgh Academy in Edinburgh. He was apprenticed as a lawyer first to Francis Wilson WS at Parliament Square to Henry Jardine WS at Parliament Square, he studied Law at the University of St Andrews and Edinburgh University taking a special interest in the study of Celtic philology and literature. In 1832, he became a Writer to the Signet, shortly afterwards obtained an official appointment in the bill department of the Court of Session, which he held until 1865.
His early interest in the history and antiquities of the Scottish Highlands bore its first fruit in 1837, when he published The Highlanders of Scotland, their Origin and Antiquities. In 1847, during the Highland Potato Famine, he was appointed Secretary to the Central Board for Highland Relief. In this position he worked with Sir Charles Trevelyan, Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. In 1859 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Cosmo Innes, he served as the Society's Vice President from 1869 to 1871. His chief work, however, is his Celtic Scotland, a History of Ancient Alban the most important contribution to Scottish history written during the 19th century. In 1879 he was made a Doctor of Civil Law of the University of Oxford, in 1881 Historiographer Royal for Scotland. William Forbes Skene was a leading member of the congregation of St Vincent's Scottish Episcopal Church in St Vincent Street in Stockbridge in north Edinburgh, he is commemorated there by a prominent memorial on the south wall of the nave.
An avowed Evangelical, he had argued that, since the Scottish Episcopal Church's General Synod of 1863 had established the English Book of Common Prayer as the primary authority for the Church's worship and the Scottish Episcopal Church had adopted the Church of England's Thirty Nine Articles as a doctrinal yardstick, for St Vincent's to remain outside that church could no longer be justified. In his final years he had offices at 5 Albyn Place on the Moray Estate and lived at 27 Inverleith Row, he died unmarried and childless in Edinburgh on 29 August 1892. He is buried with his family in St Johns Episcopal Churchyard on Princes Street; the graves are marked by a bronze plaque. The most important of Skene's other works are: editions of John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scotorum. MS 1467, a mediaeval Gaelic manuscript'discovered', translated by Skene "Skene, William Forbes." British Authors of the Nineteenth Century H. W. Wilson Company, New York, 1936; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Skene, William Forbes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 186. "Skene, William Forbes". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 1910 – via Wikisource. "Skene, William Forbes". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. Skene, William Forbes, Alexander, ed; the Highlanders of Scotland, Stirling: Eneas Mackay Skene, William Forbes, ed. Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, Consisting of Original Papers and Documents Relating to the History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson Skene, William Forbes, "Introduction and Additional Notes", in M'Lauchlan, The Dean of Lismore's Book: A Selection of Ancient Gaelic Poetry, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, pp. i–xc, 137–152 Skene, William Forbes, ed. Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, Edinburgh: Edinburgh General Register House Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, I, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, II, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Coronation Stone, Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Gododdin Poems, Forgotten Books, ISBN 1-60506-167-0 Skene, Felix James Henry.
Dunkeld and Birnam
Dunkeld and Birnam is a community council area and UK Census locality in Perth and Kinross, consisting of two villages on opposite banks of the River Tay: the historic cathedral "city" of Dunkeld on the north bank, Birnam on the south bank. The two were first linked by a bridge built in 1809 by Thomas Telford; the two places lie close to the Highland Boundary Fault, which marks the geological boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands, are described as the "Gateway to the Highlands" due to their position on the main road and rail lines north. Dunkeld and Birnam share a railway station, Dunkeld & Birnam, on the Highland Main Line, are about 24 kilometres north of Perth on what is now the A9 road. Dunkeld lies on the eastern side of the A9 on the north bank of the River Tay; the town is the location of Dunkeld Cathedral. Around 20 of the houses within Dunkeld have been restored by the National Trust for Scotland, who run a shop within the town; the Hermitage, on the western side of the A9, is a countryside property, a National Trust for Scotland site.
Birnam lies opposite Dunkeld, on the south bank of the Tay, to which it is linked by the Telford bridge. It is the location of the Birnam Oak, believed to the only remaining tree from the Birnam Wood named in Shakespeare's Macbeth; the Highland games held at Birnam are the location of the World Haggis Eating Championships. The name Dùn Chailleann means Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians. The'fort' is the hill fort on King's Seat north of the town. Both these place-names imply an early importance for the area of the town and bishop's seat, stretching back into the Iron Age. Dunkeld is said to have been'founded' or'built' by Caustantín son of Fergus, king of the Picts; this founding referred to one of an ecclesiastical nature on a site of secular importance, a Pictish monastery is known to have existed on the site. Kenneth I of Scotland is reputed to have brought relics of St Columba from Iona in 849, in order to preserve them from Viking raids, building a new church to replace the existing structures, which may been constructed as a simple group of wattle huts.
The relics were divided in Kenneth's time between Dunkeld and the Columban monastery at Kells, Co. Meath, Ireland, to preserve them from Viking raids. The'Apostles' Stone', an elaborate but badly worn cross-slab preserved in the cathedral museum, may date to this time. A well-preserved bronze'Celtic' hand bell kept in the church of the parish of Little Dunkeld on the south bank of the River Tay opposite Dunkeld, may survive from the early monastery: a replica is kept in the cathedral museum; the dedication of the medieval cathedral was to St Columba. This early church was for a time the chief ecclesiastical site of eastern Scotland. An entry in the Annals of Ulster for 865 refers to the death of Tuathal, son of Artgus, primepscop of Fortriu and Abbot of Dunkeld; the monastery was raided in 903 by Danish Vikings sailing up the River Tay, but continued to flourish into the 11th century. At that time, its abbot, Crínán of Dunkeld, married one of the daughters of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda and became the ancestor of Kings of Scots through their son Donnchad.
The see of Dunkeld was revived by Alexander I. Between 1183 and 1189 the newly formed diocese of Argyll was separated from that of Dunkeld, which extended to the west coast of Scotland. By 1300 the Bishops of Dunkeld administered a diocese comprising sixty parish churches, a number of them oddly scattered within the sees of St Andrews and Dunblane; the much-restored cathedral choir, still in use as the parish church, is unaisled and dates to the 13th and 14th centuries. The aisled nave was erected from the early 15th century; the western tower, south porch and chapter house were added between 1450 and 1475. The cathedral was stripped of its rich furnishings after the mid-16th century Reformation and its iconoclasm; the nave and porch have been roofless since the early 17th century. They and the tower in the 21st century are in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Below the ceiling vault of the tower ground floor are remnants of pre-Reformation murals showing biblical scenes, one of few such survivals in Scotland.
The clearest to survive is a representation of the Judgement of Solomon. This reflects the medieval use of this space as the Bishop's Court. Within the tower are preserved fragments of stonework associated with the cathedral and the surrounding area, including a Pictish carving of a horseman with a spear and drinking-horn, a number of medieval grave-monuments; the cathedral museum is housed in the former chapter house and sacristy, on the north side of the choir. After the Reformation this chamber was used as a burial aisle by the Earls and Dukes of Atholl, contains a number of elaborate monuments of the 17th-early 19th centuries. Preserved within the museum are two early Christian cross-slabs, a number of communion and other items, a display on the history of Dunkeld and the cathedral. In June 2005, there was a major theft from the cathedral museum. Items stolen included a quaich, communion cups, and'a cast-bronze beadle’s bell with a wooden handle, used in the cathedral from the 17th century.'
Most of the original town was destroyed during the Battle of Dunkeld when, in August 1689, the 26th Foot fought the Jacobites shortly after the latter's vic
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, craft, class, family or person. Saints become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making him or her the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines and Portuguese explorers named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration they first visited the place, with that saint becoming the area's patron. Professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession.
For example, when the unknown profession of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat. The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, among some Lutherans and Anglicans. Catholics believe that patron saints, having transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede for the needs of their special charges, it is, however discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, cities and villages. Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."
As the veneration accorded saints develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration. Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein. However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints, which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk. More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century; the critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence. Calendar of saints Guardian angel List of blesseds List of saints Patron saints of ailments and dangers Patron saints of occupations and activities Patron saints of places Patron saints of ethnic groups Saint symbolism Catholic Online: Patron Saints Henry Parkinson.
"Patron Saints". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Patron Saint". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, their name is the root of the name England; the name comes from Anglia, a peninsula located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. The name of the Angles may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii, in the Germania of Tacitus, it is thought to derive from the name of the area they inhabited, the Anglia Peninsula. This name has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic root for "narrow", meaning "the Narrow ", i.e. the Schlei estuary. Another theory is. During the fifth century, all Germanic tribes who invaded Britain were referred to as Englisc, who were speakers of Old English. Englisc and its descendant, English goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ-, meaning narrow. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, so England would mean "land of the fishermen", English would be "the fishermen's language".
Gregory the Great, in an epistle, simplified the Latinised name Anglii to Angli, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word. The country remained Anglia in Latin. Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius's history of the world uses Angelcynn to describe the English people; the earliest recorded mention of the Angles may be in chapter 40 of Tacitus's Germania written around AD 98. Tacitus describes the "Anglii" as one of the more remote Suebic tribes compared to the Semnones and Langobardi, who lived on the Elbe and were better known to the Romans, he grouped the Angles with several other tribes in that region, the Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses and Nuitones. These were all living behind ramparts of rivers and woods, therefore inaccessible to attack, he gives no precise indication of their geographical situation, but states that, together with the six other tribes, they worshiped Nerthus, or Mother Earth, whose sanctuary was located on "an island in the Ocean". The Eudoses are the Jutes.
The coast contains sufficient estuaries, rivers, islands and marshes to have been inaccessible to those not familiar with the terrain, such as the Romans, who considered it unknown, with a small population and of little economic interest. The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii lived on the coasts of the Baltic Sea in the southern part of the Jutish peninsula; this view is based on Old English and Danish traditions regarding persons and events of the fourth century, because striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to be found in pre-Christian Scandinavian religion. Ptolemy, writing in around 150 AD, in his atlas Geography, describes the Sueboi Angeilloi, Latinised to Suevi Angili, further south, living in a stretch of land between the northern Rhine and central Elbe, but not touching either river, with the Suebic Langobardi on the Rhine to their west, the Suebic Semnones on the Elbe stretching to their east; these Suevi Angili would have been in Lower Saxony or near it.
The three Suebic peoples are separated from the coastal Chauci, Saxones, by a series of tribes including, between the Weser and Elbe, the Angrivarii, "Laccobardi", the Dulgubnii. South of the Saxons, east of the Elbe, Ptolemy lists the "Ouirounoi" and Teutonoari, which either denotes "the Teuton men", or else it denotes people living in the area where the Teutons had lived. Ptolemy describes the coast to the east of the Saxons as inhabited by the Farodini, a name not known from any other sources. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, much speculation existed regarding the original home of the Anglii. One theory is that they or part of them dwelt or moved among other coastal people confederated up to the basin of the Saale on the Unstrut valleys below the Kyffhäuserkreis, from which region the Lex Anglorum et Werinorum hoc est Thuringorum is believed by many to have come; the ethnic names of Frisians and Warines are attested in these Saxon districts. A second possible solution is. According to Julius Pokorny, the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the same root meaning "bend", but in different senses.
In other words, the similarity of the names is coincidental and does not reflect any ethnic unity beyond Germanic. However, Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy, believes that the Angles have been moved by an error coming from Ptolemy's use of imperfect sources, he points out that Angles are placed just to the northeast of the Langobardi, but that these have been duplicated, so that they appear once on the lower Elbe, a second time, inco