The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Gun-Marie Fredriksson, known as Marie Fredriksson, is a Swedish pop singer-songwriter and pianist, best known for forming one half of the pop rock duo Roxette, which she created together with Per Gessle in 1986. She and Gessle achieved international success from the late 1980s to the early 1990s with a total of six top 10 US hit songs such as "It Must Have Been Love", "Listen to Your Heart", "The Look", "Joyride", "Dangerous". In 2002, after fainting at home, she was diagnosed with brain cancer. During her rehabilitation she continued resulting in the album The Change, she reunited with Gessle to record more Roxette albums, embarked on worldwide tour and continued to record as a solo artist in her native Sweden. Marie Fredriksson was born on 30 May 1958 outside the small Swedish village of Össjö, she is the youngest of five children born of Charles Gösta Inez Fredriksson. When she was four years old, her parents sold their farm and relocated to Östra Ljungby, where Charles took a job as a postman and Inez became a factory worker.
Three years her oldest sibling Anna-Lisa was involved in a fatal traffic collision. Marie explained: "She was 20 – and I can remember her today, but I remember the grief. Completely. After that I had to fend for myself. I was only seven years old."With both parents in full-time employment but unable to afford child care and her underage siblings would be left unaccompanied at home while their parents worked. It was during this period, with the help of siblings and friends, that she learned how to sing, read notation and play musical instruments, she credited her pastor with encouraging her love of music, said that she had been performing "ever since I was little and me and my sister Tina went to Sunday school. We had a wonderful pastor in Östra Ljungby. I've got bright, lovely memories of that place when my big sister died. I loved all the songs, it was such a source of freedom for me… for both of us."Her interest in music continued to grow throughout her teens, as she discovered artists such as The Beatles, Joni Mitchell, Jimi Hendrix and Deep Purple.
She enrolled in a music school in the Svalöv Municipality at the age of seventeen, where she befriended students from the theatre department by composing music for their amateur plays. Since no other vocalist in the school could emulate Fredriksson's vocal range, she joined the cast of a musical she co-wrote; this musical toured throughout Sweden, with its run culminating in a performance in Stockholm for Prime Minister Olof Palme. After graduating from music school in 1977, Fredriksson moved to Halmstad, where she worked in theatre before becoming involved in the local indie music scene, she formed punk group Strul in 1978 with then-boyfriend Stefan Dernbrandt. Strul consisted of an fractious lineup of musicians; the majority of the band's members would leave after a single performance. The group auditioned extensively for Swedish record labels, but would not be offered a recording contract until 1981. In spite of this, they established their own independent music festival in 1979, "Strulfestivalen", financially lucrative for the band.
The festival would be held annually every summer until 1981. Dernbrandt exited the group in December 1980. Due to the success of the festival, she opted to continue performing under the Strul name alongside the band's other longest-serving member, guitarist Martin Sternhufvud; the group's popularity increased in 1981, culminating in several performances on Swedish music television programmes. This exposure led to Strul signing with independent record label Bastun, which released their first and only single in June, the double A-side "Ki-I-Ai-Oo" / "Strul igen"; the release was timed to coincide with the 1981 version of "Strulfestivalen", which would be the last. Vocalist Sternhufvud and keyboardist Fredriksson were the only permanent members of their next project, MaMas Barn; the name was created by combining the first two letters of both members' given name. The duo shared a rehearsal space with Gyllene Tider, leading to the latter band's bassist and drummer – Anders Herrlin and Mickael "Syd" Andersson – becoming members.
This close relationship between the two bands resulted in Fredriksson performing vocals on Tider's 1981 song "Ingenting av vad du behöver". The following year, MaMas Barn signed with CBS Records International before being sold to WEA International, who financed the recording of their only album, Barn som barn; the album was produced by ABBA guitarist Finn Sjöberg and released in November 1982. Although it was a critical success, the record struggled commercially, selling 1,000 copies; the group disbanded shortly after. Believing Fredriksson to be "too talented to be hiding behind keyboards", Gessle invited her to audition for Tider producer Lars-Göran "Lasse" Lindbom. Impressed with her voice, Lindbom offered Fredriksson a contract as a solo artist on EMI Sweden, although she refused the deal, saying she was "too nervous" and "lacked the confidence" to be a solo artist, she performed duet vocals on "Så nära nu" (English: "So Close Now"
Roxette are a Swedish pop rock duo, consisting of Marie Fredriksson and Per Gessle. Formed in 1986, the duo became an international act in the late 1980s, when they released their breakthrough album Look Sharp! Their third album Joyride, released in 1991, became just as successful as its predecessor. Roxette went on to achieve nineteen UK Top 40 hits and several US Hot 100 hits, including four US number-ones with "The Look", "Listen to Your Heart", "It Must Have Been Love", "Joyride". Other hits include "Dressed for Success", "Dangerous", "Fading Like a Flower". Before coming together to form the duo and Gessle were established artists in Sweden, with Fredriksson releasing a number of solo albums and Gessle being the lead singer and songwriter of Gyllene Tider, which had three No. 1 albums. On the advice of the managing director of their record label, they came together to record "Neverending Love", which became a hit single in Sweden. After the release of Don't Bore Us, Get to the Chorus!, a greatest hits record, the duo took a hiatus before returning with the albums Have a Nice Day and Room Service.
They continued to chart in other territories in Europe and Latin America, where they earned various Gold and Platinum awards until the beginning of the new millennium. In 2002, the duo took a break from recording and touring when Fredriksson was diagnosed with a brain tumour. Gessle went on to release solo albums and reunited with Gyllene Tider before Roxette took to the stage together again for the first time in 8 years, in 2009, during Gessle's European Party Crasher tour. In 2011, they released Charm School, their first studio album in ten years, followed by Travelling in 2012, their latest studio album, Good Karma, was released in 2016. Their songs "It Must Have Been Love" and "Listen to Your Heart" continue to receive wide radio airplay, with both singles receiving awards from BMI for achieving five million radio plays, they have sold an estimated 75 million records worldwide, with over 10 million in certified units from Germany, the US and the UK, achieving gold and platinum certifications for Joyride and Look Sharp! in all three regions.
Per Gessle and Marie Fredriksson first met in Sweden, in the late 1970s. Gessle performed in Gyllene Tider, one of Sweden's most popular bands at the time, Fredriksson in the less successful Strul and MaMas Barn before both embarked on solo careers. In 1981, Fredriksson sang for the first time with Gyllene Tider on stage and was featured as a background vocalist for a Swedish-language album the band released in 1982. Gessle worked with ex-ABBA singer Frida, for a song that appeared on her 1982 album Something's Going On, setting music to a Dorothy Parker poem. While working on her first solo album, Het vind, Fredriksson performed more background vocals for Gyllene Tider's only album in English, The Heartland Café; the 11-track album was sold 45,000 copies in Sweden. According to Gessle, the group's first English-language release was in response to interest expressed by EMI's American label Capitol Records. Capitol took six of the tracks and released an extended play record in the US with an abridged title, but the company insisted on a different name for the band.
Gessle and the other members of Gyllene Tider chose the title of a 1975 Dr. Feelgood song, "Roxette"; the newly named Roxette issued one near-invisible release in the US, "Teaser Japanese", whose video reached MTV's studio but received no rotation to speak of. It, subsequent singles, fared better in Sweden, Gyllene Tider toured the country to support the album. However, "the album died soon enough and the international career died before it started", Gessle wrote. "We decided to put Gyllene Tider to rest... until further notice." Gessle turned solo work, recording his second Swedish-language solo album, released in 1985 and again featuring Fredriksson on background vocals. While Fredriksson recorded her second solo album, Den sjunde vågen, it was that the Managing Director of EMI, Rolf Nygren, suggested that Gessle and Fredriksson should sing together. Gessle translated a song called "Svarta glas" into English, which became their first single, "Neverending Love", it was released in the summer of 1986 under the name "Roxette" and reached the Swedish top 10, selling 50,000 copies.
After the success of "Neverending Love" in Sweden and Fredriksson recorded a full-length album, translating songs Gessle had written for his third solo album. With the release of Pearls of Passion in October 1986, Roxette maintained their commercial momentum in Sweden with their next singles "Goodbye to You" and "Soul Deep." Some singles from Passion were released in other countries, but these international releases failed to emulate their Swedish success. The album was followed by a compilation of remixes of the same songs, titled Dance Passion. In 1987, Fredriksson released her third solo album Efter stormen. Meanwhile, Roxette released the single "I Want You" in collaboration with Eva Ratata. In the year, they released "It Must Have Been Love" after EMI Germany asked the duo to come up with an intelligent Christmas single; the holiday themed song received some attention in their native country as Roxette prepared their next album, though EMI Germany decided against releasing the single. Pearls of Passion was re-released internationally in 1997, included "It Must Have Been Love" as a bonus track.
In native Sweden, "Dressed for Success" and "Listen
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th