Vadstena is a locality and the seat of Vadstena Municipality, Östergötland County, with 5,613 inhabitants in 2010. From 1974 to 1979 Vadstena was administered as part of Motala Municipality. Despite its small population, Vadstena is, for historical reasons, still referred to as a city: though it received its city privileges in 1400), Statistics Sweden only counts as cities Swedish urban localities with more than 10,000 inhabitants. Above all, the city of Vadstena is noted for two important facts of Swedish history, it was in Vadstena, in 1350, that Saint Bridget of Sweden founded the first monastery of her Bridgettine Order, Vadstena Castle is one of Sweden’s best-preserved castles from the era of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, when Sweden became Protestant. Today the surviving buildings of the monastery are occupied by a hotel, the castle houses the provincial archives and a museum of 16th and 17th century furniture and paintings. Since the 16th century, Vadstena has been the location of a hospital.
Earlier in history, it housed mental patients. Today, some of the oldest buildings present the Vadstena Hospital Museum; the buildings in the city centre date from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The old town is well preserved and the streets have not changed much over the centuries; the Town Hall is Sweden's oldest, dating back to the early 15th century. Notable is the main street where all the shops are gathered, as they would have been during the Middle Ages. Vadstena preserves elements of more recent history in the museum of the Vadstena-Fågelsta narrow gauge railway; this 891 mm railway was once part of a large network of narrow-gauge railways in Östergötland constructed in the latter part of the 19th century. Tourism website of Vadstena
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Östergötland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden in the south of Sweden. It borders the Baltic Sea. In older English literature, one might encounter the Latinized version, Ostrogothia; the corresponding administrative county, Östergötland County, covers the entire province and parts of neighbouring provinces. From 1560, Östergötland was represented with two separate coats-of-arms seals until 1884, when the current one was granted; the coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Gules a Griffin with Dragon Wings and Tongue rampant Or armed, beaked and membered Azure between four Roses Argent." From west to east, in the middle parts, extends the Östgöta Plain. It is agricultural. In the southern part of the province, the terrain becomes marked by the south Swedish highlands, with hills and countless lakes; the northern parts are hilly, are otherwise dominated by forests. Outside the eastern shore of Östergötland lies an archipelago, the islands and islets of which cover an area of 118 square kilometres.
The Bråviken bay continues further into the country. Some of the more notable islands are Korsö, Gränsö, Arkö, Djursö, Yxnö, Finnö, Emtö, Fångö and Stora Ålö. Traditionally, the region is divided into two halves and west of the river Stångån, which flows from the south into Lake Roxen at Linköping; the eastern part of Göta Canal traverses the province from the Baltic Sea at Mem to Lake Vättern at Motala. Highest mountain: Stenabohöjden, 327 meters Largest lake: Vättern Cities and the year of their now defunct royal charter. Linköping Mjölby Motala Norrköping Skänninge Söderköping Vadstena Today, the largest city in the province is Linköping, with Norrköping second. Skänninge is one of the oldest areas but small. Additional towns without a royal charter that have emerged in the 20th century are Finspång and Åtvidaberg; the earliest mention of Östergötland appears in the Getica by the Goth scholar Jordanes. The traditions of Östergötland date back into the Viking age, the undocumented Iron Age, earlier, when this region had its own laws and kings.
It is said that the famous Viking warrior Beowulf may have been from what is now the Östergötland region. The region kept the Östgötalagen, into the Middle Ages. Östergötland belonged to the Christian heartland of the late Iron Age and early medieval Sweden. The Sverker and Bjälbo dynasties played pivotal roles in the consolidation of Sweden; the province has about 50,000 ancient remains of different kinds. Some 1,749 are, for instance, grave fields. Industry was most significant in the cities of Norrköping, Linköping, Finspång, Motala. Since the 13th century, Swedish princes and princesses in some dynasties have been created dukes and duchesses of various provinces. Since 1772, these are only honorary titles. There have been several Duchesses of Östergötland; the current duchess is Princess Estelle since her birth in 2012. The östgöta or dialect spectrum were considered true göta dialects, but is nowadays considered being a transition area between true göta dialects and svea dialects; the dialects are still used in rural areas, but in the cities, the Standard Swedish is spoken with a certain östgöta accent.
The accent Östgötska can be distinguished from Standard Swedish just by accent and pronunciation of vowels ad sje- and the- sounds, which makes Östgöta accent an eastern variety of the Götaland accent. In some parts bordering to Södermanland, a variety of the Svealand accent is spoken. In Östergötland several older churches are still standing and many castles and palaces are open to the public. Ekenäs Castle, one of the best preserved renaissance castles in Sweden, has belonged to the families Sture and Banér. Löfstad Castle has its origin in the early 17th century. Vadstena Castle, built by the Royal Vasa dynasty 1545–1620, is a combined fortress and renaissance castle. Vreta Abbey was the first convent to be established in Sweden, dating from the early 12th century, while Vadstena Abbey was the dominant convent in Medieval Sweden. Notable is the ruins of the Alvastra Abbey near mountain Omberg and Lake Tåkern; the cathedral in Linköping is the second largest church in Sweden and is well preserved from the Middle Age.
The Göta Canal crosses the province East-West with several locks and the Kinda Canal connects the lakes in the southern parts of the province with the central plains. Övralid Manor was the last home of Nobel Prize laureate Verner von Heidenstam 1925–40. There are several museums in all parts of the province, for example the Swedish Broadcasting Museum, the open-air museum Old Linköping, Swedish Air Force Museum, Sancta Birgitta Convent Museum, Museum of Work and the Motala Motor Museum; the Rök Runestone is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone. It can now be seen by the church in Rök, it is considered the first piece of written Swedish literature and thus it marks the beginning of the history of Swedish literature. The Hundreds of Sweden were jurisdictional divisions in effect until the early 20th century. Football in the province is administered by Östergötlands Fotbo
The term "runestone style" in the singular may refer to the Urnes style. The style or design of runestones varied during the Viking Age; the early runestones were simple in design, but towards the end of the runestone era they became complex and made by travelling runemasters such as Öpir and Visäte. A categorization of the styles was developed by Anne-Sophie Gräslund in the 1990s, her systematization is today a standard. The styles are RAK, Fp, Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, they cover the period 980-1130, the period during which most runestones were made; the styles Pr1 and Pr2 correspond to the Ringerike style, whereas Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5 belong to what is more known as the Urnes style. Below follows a brief presentation of the various styles by showing sample runestones according to Rundata's annotation. RAK is the oldest style and covers the period 980-1015 AD, but the Rundata project includes the older runestones in this group, as well as younger ones; this style has no dragon heads and the ends of the runic bands are straight.
This style is from the period c. 1010/1015 to c. 1040/1050, when Pr3 appeared. It is characterized by runic bands. In the styles called Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, the runic bands end with animal heads seen in profile; this style is contemporary with FP dated to c. 1010- c. 1050 when it was succeeded by Pr3. This style is only somewhat younger than the previous style and it is dated to c. 1020- c. 1050, it was succeeded by Pr3. This style succeeded FP, Pr1 and Pr2 and is dated to c. 1050- c. 1080. This style appeared somewhat c. 1060/1070 and lasted until c. 1100. This style was the last one, it appeared c. 1080/1100 and lasted until c. 1130. This style is used by the Rundata project; the style is common in western Södermanland and it is characterized by bordered crosses. Norse art Runemaster Anglo-Saxon art Rundata Edberg, Rune. Runriket Täby-Vallentuna – en Handledning Fuglesang, Signe Horn. Swedish Runestones of the Eleventh Century: Ornament and Dating, Runeninschriften als Quellen Interdisziplinärer Forschung.
Göttingen. Pp. 197–218 Sawyer, Peter.. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285434-6
Algiz is the name conventionally given to the "z-rune" ᛉ of the Elder Futhark runic alphabet. Its transliteration is z, understood as a phoneme of the Proto-Germanic language, the terminal *z continuing Proto-Indo-European terminal *s, it is one of two runes which express a phoneme that does not occur word-initially, thus could not be named acrophonically, the other being the ŋ-rune Ingwaz ᛜ. As the terminal *-z phoneme marks the nominative singular suffix of masculine nouns, the rune occurs comparatively in early epigraphy; because this specific phoneme was lost at an early time, the Elder Futhark rune underwent changes in the medieval runic alphabets. In the Anglo-Saxon futhorc it retained its shape; this is a secondary development due to runic manuscript tradition, there is no known instance of the rune being used in an Old English inscription. In Proto-Norse and Old Norse, the Germanic *z phoneme developed into an R sound realized as a retroflex approximant, transcribed as ʀ; this sound was written in the Younger Futhark using the Yr rune ᛦ, the Algiz rune turned upside down, from about the 7th century.
This phoneme became indistinguishable from the regular r sound in the stages of Old Norse, at about the 11th or 12th century. The shape of the rune may be derived from that a letter expressing /x/ in certain Old Italic alphabets, in turn derived from the Greek letter Ψ which had the value of /kʰ/ in the Western Greek alphabet; the Elder Futhark rune ᛉ is conventionally called Algiz or Elhaz, from the Common Germanic word for "elk". There is wide agreement that this is most not the historical name of the rune, but in the absence of any positive evidence of what the historical name may have been, the conventional name is based on a reading of the rune name in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, first suggested by Wilhelm Grimm, as eolh or eolug "elk". Like the ng-rune, the z-rune is a special case inasmuch as it could not have been named acrophonically, since the sound it represents did not occur in word-initial position. Choosing a name that terminates in -z would have been more or less arbitrary, as this was the nominative singular suffix of every masculine noun of the language.
Since the name eolh, or more eolh-secg "elk-sedge" in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem represents not the rune's original sound value, but rather the sound of Latin x, it becomes arbitrary to suggest that the original rune should have been named after the elk. There are a number of speculative suggestions surrounding the history of the rune's name; the difficulty lies in the circumstance that the Younger Futhark rune did not inherit this name at all, but acquired the name of the obsolete Eihwaz rune, as yr. The only independent evidence of the Elder Futhark rune's name would be the name of the corresponding Gothic letter, ezec; the Gothic letter was an adoption of Greek Zeta, while it did express the /z/ phoneme, this Gothic sound did not occur terminally, but in positions where West and North Germanic have r, e.g. Gothic máiza "greater"; the name of the Anglo-Saxon rune ᛉ is variously recorded as eolx, ilcs, iolx, elux. Manuscript tradition gives its sound value as Latin x, i.e. /ks/, or alternatively as il, or yet again as "l and x".
The reading of this opaque name as eolh "elk" is due to the reading of the Anglo-Saxon rune poem's ᛉ secg as eolh-secg "elk-sedge" the name of a species of sedge. This reading of the poem is due to Wilhelm Grimm, remains standard; the suggestion is that this compound is realized as eolk-secg, thus containing the Latin x sound sequence. The manuscript testimony that the rune is to be read as il would be a mistaken assumption that its name must be acrophonic; the name of the corresponding Gothic letter ezec, suggests that the old name of this rune was not just eolx, but the full eolh-secg. This is puzzling, because the sound value of the rune was not /ks/ in the Elder Futhark period. Furthermore, the name of the sedge in question is recorded in the older Epinal-Erfurt glossary as ilugsegg, which cannot be derived from the word for elk. A suggestion by Warren and Elliott takes the Old English eolh at face value, reconstructs a Common Germanic form of either *algiz or *alhiz, they cite a "more fanciful school" which assumes an original meaning of "elk" based on a theonym Alcis recorded by Tacitus.
The authors dismiss the Old English "elk-sedge" as a late attempt to give the then-obsolete rune a value of Latin x. Instead, they suggest that the original name of the rune could have been Common Germanic *algiz, meaning not "elk" but "protection, defence". Redbond suggested. Seebold took this up to suggest that the name of the rune may be connected to the use of elux for helix by Notker to describe the constellation of Ursa major. An earlier suggestion is that of Zacher, to the effect that the earliest value of this rune was the labiovelar /hw/, that its name may have been hweol "wheel". In the Elder Futhark, Algiz represents the Germanic phoneme * z, it is attested in that position in e.g. in ansuz, þewaz. It was present in the Ovre Stabu spearhead inscription, reading raunija, but is hardl
The Abbey of Our Lady and of St. Bridget, more referred to as Vadstena Abbey, situated on Lake Vättern in the Diocese of Linköping, was the motherhouse of the Bridgettine Order; the abbey started on one of the farms donated to it by the king, but the town of Vadstena grew up around it. It was active from 1346 until 1595; the abbey was founded in 1346 by Saint Bridget with the assistance of King Magnus IV of Sweden and his Queen Blanche, who made a will donating ten farms, including that of Vadstena in Dal Hundred, Östergötland, to the abbey founded by Bridget. The daughter of Saint Bridget, Saint Catherine, on arriving there in 1374 with the relics of her mother, found only a few novices under a Religious Superior, they chose Catherine as their abbess. She died in 1381, it was not until 1384 that the abbey was blessed by the Bishop of Linköping; the first recognized abbess was granddaughter of Saint Bridget. The canonization of Saint Bridget in 1391 and the translation of her remains to the Abbey Church in 1394 added to the fame and riches of her community.
In 1400 Duke Eric of Pomerania was invested at Vadstena by his great-aunt, Queen Margaret, as King of Denmark and Sweden. The grave of his wife, Queen Philippa, that of Catherine, Queen Consort of King Carl II of Sweden, are located here. Bridgetine literature consisted of translations into Swedish of portions of the Bible or of the legends of the saints; such writings as are extant have been published for the most part by the Svenska fornskriftsällskapet of Stockholm. The manuscripts are held in the Royal Library, at the University Libraries of Uppsala, Lund. Of these authors, the best known belonging to Vadstena are Margareta Clausdotter, author of a work on the family of St. Bridget, Nicolaus Ragvaldi and General Confessor of the abbey, who composed several works; the abbey was a double monastery, with both a male section of 25 monks and a female section of 60 nuns. The monks were organised under the General Confessor and the nuns under a prioress, while the abbey as a whole was organised under an abbess, elected by both the monks and the nuns.
The abbey was favored by the royal house and nobility and became the spiritual center of the country as well as the greatest landowner in Sweden. The abbey was known to manage a hospital and retirement home, recorded from 1401. Early on, Vadstena Abbey supported Beghards and Beguines, the latter aristocratic women, who had a poor reputation among Church authorities. In 1412, the abbey was ordered to expel them, but this was not done until 1506. In 1436, the rebel Jösse Eriksson sought asylum in the abbey, but was forced out and arrested all the same. In 1419, the abbey was subjected to an investigation wherein the abbess, as well as the nuns, were accused of having accepted personal gifts and having entertained male guests at unacceptable hours. Vadstena Abbey had international fame as the motherhouse of all the monasteries of the Bridgettine Order, such as Reval, Nådendal and Danzig, it kept in contact with other monasteries, performed inspections of them and sent both nuns and monks to them when they were lacking in members.
In 1406, for example, an English delegation headed by Henry FitzHugh, 3rd Baron FitzHugh arrived asking for members in order to establish a Bridgettine monastery in England, in 1415 four nuns, three female novices, one monk and one priest left the abbey under great celebrations for the foundation of what became the famed Syon Abbey. After the introduction of the Reformation in Sweden in 1527, monastic communities in Sweden were ended by the ban against accepting new novices and assets where declared crown property in accordance with the Reduction of Gustav I of Sweden; the existing members were allowed to stay until their death, to be supported by an allowance from the former property of the monastery, or to leave if they wished. Vadstena Abbey, was exempted from this ban and allowed to accept novices after the Reformation, though only by special permission from the monarch; this regulation was directed to Bishop Hans Brask by King Gustav Vasa in 1527 after an elopement by a novice the previous year.
The Abbey had a favorable position because of its international fame and because of its strong ties with the Swedish nobility, due to its foundress. Many of the monks and nuns were including the King's own sister, Anna, it served as a burial ground for many noble families. The nuns and monks of Vadstena Abbey were, allowed to leave the abbey if they wished. Among the most notable who did leave was Abbess Birgitta Botolfsdotter, who left the abbey to marry. In 1544 the King after having been asked by some of the monks and nuns, issued an instruction which allowed the nuns and monks to leave the Vadstena Abbey to marry if they wished to, forbade the abbess and the other members of the abbey from stopping them; the younger nuns were more willing to leave than the older, but the nuns in general stayed more than the monks. In large part, this may be due to the fact that the monks, after having converted to Lutheranism, were provided with the professions of medical doctor, pastor or teacher, while the nuns had a choice other than marriage.
As a result, far more of them remained in the abbey. In May 1540, the Abbey was visited by the local Protestant bisho
A runestone is a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, but most of the runestones date from the late Viking Age. Most runestones are located in Scandinavia, but there are scattered runestones in locations that were visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. Runestones are memorials to dead men. Runestones were brightly coloured when erected, though this is no longer evident as the colour has worn off. Most Runestones are found in present day Sweden; the tradition of raising stones that had runic inscriptions first appeared in the 4th and 5th century, in Norway and Sweden, these early runestones were placed next to graves. The earliest Danish runestones appeared in the 8th and 9th centuries, there are about 50 runestones from the Migration Period in Scandinavia. Most runestones were erected during the period 950-1100 CE, they were raised in Sweden, to a lesser degree in Denmark and Norway.
The tradition is mentioned in both Ynglinga saga and Hávamál: For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, for all other warriors, distinguished for manhood a standing stone, a custom that remained long after Odin's time. —The Ynglinga saga What may have increased the spread of runestones was an event in Denmark in the 960s. King Harald Bluetooth had just been baptised and in order to mark the arrival of a new order and a new age, he commanded the construction of a runestone; the inscription reads King Haraldr ordered this monument made in memory of Gormr, his father, in memory of Þyrvé, his mother. The runestone has three sides. On one side, there is an animal, the prototype of the runic animals that would be engraved on runestones, on another side there is Denmark's oldest depiction of Jesus. Shortly after this stone had been made, something happened in Scandinavia's runic tradition. Scores of chieftains and powerful Norse clans consciously tried to imitate King Harald, from Denmark a runestone wave spread northwards through Sweden.
In most districts, the fad died out after a generation, but, in the central Swedish provinces of Uppland and Södermanland, the fashion lasted into the 12th century. There are about 3,000 runestones among the about 6,000 runic inscriptions in Scandinavia. There are runestones in other parts of the world as the tradition of raising runestones followed the Norsemen wherever they went, from the Isle of Man in the west to the Black Sea in the east, from Jämtland in the north to Schleswig in the south; the runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia: Denmark has 250 runestones, Norway has 50 while Iceland has none. Sweden has as many as between 2,500 depending on definition; the Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1,196 inscriptions in stone, whereas Södermanland is second with 391. Outside of Scandinavia, the Isle of Man stands out with its 30 runestones from the 9th century and early 11th century. Scattered runestones have been found in England, Ireland and the Faroe Islands.
With the exception of the runestone on Berezan', there are no runestones in Eastern Europe, due to a lack of available stones and the fact that the local population did not treat the foreigners' stones with much respect. Runestones were placed on selected spots in the landscape, such as assembly locations, bridge constructions, fords. In medieval churches, there are runestones that have been inserted as construction material, it is debated whether they were part of the church location or had been moved there. In southern Scania, runestones can be tied to large estates that had churches constructed on their land. In the Mälaren Valley, the runestones appear to be placed so that they mark essential parts of the domains of an estate, such as courtyard, grave field, borders to neighbouring estates. Runestones appear as single monuments and more as pairs. In some cases, they are part of larger monuments together with other raised stones. However, although scholars know where 95% of all runestones were discovered, only about 40% were discovered in their original location.
The remainder have been found in churches, bridges, graves and water routes. On the other hand, scholars agree that the stones were not moved far from their original sites. In many districts, 50% of the stone inscriptions have traces of Christianity, but, in Uppland, which has the highest concentration of runic inscriptions in the world, about 70% of the 1,196 stone inscriptions are explicitly Christian, shown by engraved crosses or added Christian prayers, only a few runestones are not Christian. Scholars have suggested that the reason why so many Christian runestones were raised in Uppland is that the district was the focal point in the conflict between Norse paganism and the newly Christianized King of Sweden, it is possible that the chieftains tried to demonstrate their allegiance to the king and to display their Christian faith to the world and to God by adding Christian crosses and prayers on their runestones. What speaks against this theory is the fact that Norway, Götaland did not have any corresponding development in the runestone tradition.
Moreover, not a single runestone declares. Additionally, the runestones appear to show. According to another theory, it was a social fashion, popular among