The Stockholm Underground is a rapid transit system in Stockholm, Sweden. The first line opened in 1950, today the system has 100 stations in use, of which 47 are underground and 53 above ground. There are three coloured main lines on the tube maps; these do however form seven actual routes. Routes number 17, 18 and 19, 13 and 14 and 10 and 11 all go through Stockholm City Centre in a centralized metro system. All seven actual lines use The T-Centralen hub station. Apart from this central station for the metro, there exists just one other junction, the Fridhemsplan station, although both the green and red lines are mutually accessible at the Slussen and Gamla Stan stations; the underground is like the London Underground and the Paris Métro, but unlike the U-Bahn and S-Bahn in Berlin, in that it is equipped with ticket gates. Single tickets must be bought in advance, or at ticket machines that are available in all underground stations and on several tram- bus- or boat stops. Passengers can buy tickets at the ticket booth, just by the gates to the underground.
In 2017, the underground carried 353 million passengers, which corresponds to 1,2 million in a normal weekday. The 105.7-kilometre-long underground system is owned by the Stockholm County Council through the company Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. The operation is contracted to MTR Nordic since 2 November 2009; the Stockholm underground system has been called'the world's longest art gallery', with more than 90 of the network's 100 stations decorated with sculptures, rock formations, paintings, installations and reliefs by over 150 different artists. The decision to build an underground was made in 1941; the following years, in some cases earlier, some routes were built with near underground standard but operated with trams. These included Slussen -- Blåsut and Telefonplan -- Hägerstensåsen; the first part of the metro was opened on 1 October 1950, from Slussen to Hökarängen, having been converted from tram to metro operation. In 1951 a second line from Slussen to Stureby was opened. In 1952, a second system, from Hötorget to the western suburbs was opened.
In 1957, the two parts were connected via the Central station and the Old Town, forming the Green Line. During the period 1950-1960 the Green Line was extended piece by piece; the Red Line was opened in 1964, from T-Centralen over Liljeholmen ending in Fruängen and Örnsberg, both in the Southwest. It was extended piece by piece until 1978, when it reached Mörby centrum via a bridge over Stocksundet sea strait; the third and final system, the Blue Line, was opened in 1975, with two lines running northwest from the city center. As the construction requirements have become more strict over the years, newer segments have more tunnels than older, the Blue Line is all in tunnel; the latest addition to the whole network, Skarpnäck station, was opened in 1994. There are 100 stations in use in the Stockholm metro. One station, was built but never taken into use. One station has been demolished; the Bagarmossen old surface station was demolished and replaced with a new underground station, this being prior to the metro extension to the Skarpnäck metro station.
The Stockholm metro is well known for its decoration of the stations. Several of the stations are left with the bedrock exposed and unfinished, or as part of the decorations. At Rissne, an informative wall fresco about the history of Earth's civilizations runs along both sides of the platform; the following details relate to the present network. The designations "blue line", etc. have only been used since the late 1970s, only since the 1990s. They originated from the fact that the "blue line" tended to operate newer train stock painted blue, while the "green line" had older stock in the original green livery. There was never any red painted stock, but red was chosen to differentiate this line from the other two networks on route maps; the Green line has 3 routes and 49 stations: 37 above ground stations. The track is 41,256 metres long, it opened 1 October 1950. It is used by 451,000 passengers per workday or 146 million per year; the Red line has 2 routes and 36 stations: 15 above ground stations.
The track is 41,238 metres long. It opened 5 April 1964, it is used by 394,000 passengers per workday or 128 million per year. The Blue line has 20 stations: 19 subterranean and one elevated station; the track is 25,516 metres long. It opened 31 August 1975, it is used by 171,000 passengers per 55 million per year. Trains are operated with extended all night service on Fridays and Saturdays. All lines have trains every 10 minutes during daytime, reduced to every 15 minutes in early mornings and late evenings, every 30 minutes during nights. Additional trains in peak hours gives a train every 5–6 minutes on most stations, with 2–3 minutes between trains on the central parts of the network; the metro contains four interchanges and lacks any kind
Diplomatstaden is a neighbourhood in the Östermalm district in central Stockholm, Sweden. As the name suggests, the neighborhood is the home of ambassadorial residencies. Diplomatstaden encompasses the area facing the Djurgårdsbrunnsviken bay, located south of the easternmost part of Strandvägen, it is an exclusive residential area composed of a group of brick villas built in the 1910s and 1920s. The municipal council had scrapped its plans for a Nobel institute in the neighbouring Nobel Park in 1906. Instead, city planning authority Per Olof Hallman designed a city plan for the area in 1911 and 1914, his plan specified what materials should be used and detailed much of the exterior shapes of the buildings. Additionally, the irregularly shaped sites, over time criticized by involved architects dictated the design of the buildings. Most buildings facing the street passing north of the area are surrounded by walls, while open gardens surround those facing the southern waterfront. Hallman placed the villas in a semicircle around the English Church.
Designed by James Souttar in 1863, the church was located at Wallingatan north of the Norra Bantorget square, but was moved brick by brick to its present location in 1913. The first villa to be built was banker Philip Geber's, designed by Ragnar Östberg in 1913. Two years United Kingdom had their embassy built to the design of British architect Sir Richard Allison; the villas in the area are: Bengt O H. Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag AB. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. Stugart, Martin. "Diplomatstaden vore kul att få veta mera om". Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original on 2012-01-29. Retrieved 2008-06-10. "Sveriges dyraste villa får ny ägare". E24. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2011-02-20. "Historical photographs of Diplomatstaden". Stockholmkällan. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-19
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Berwaldhallen is a concert hall situated in a park landscape at Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 3 in the Östermalm district of Stockholm, Sweden. Construction on the building began in 1976 based on a design by architects Erik Ahnborg and Sune Lindström; the hall is shaped as a hexagon. The seating is 1,302 places; the hall won a Europa Nostra architecture award as an "admirably sensitive designed concert hall". In 1966 the head of Swedish radio Olaf Rydbeck and director of music Karl-Birger Blomdahl approached the Minister of Transport and Communications Olof Palme about the need for a new home for the national radio orchestra where they could rehearse and give concerts in the same hall. Plans began in the 1970s; the hall was supposed be located at the end of the Karlavägen esplanade but was moved further along the water. The site was selected to allow the hall to merge with nature and was positioned in the rock so it would not look too large; the interior hexagonal shape was for acoustic reasons, but the hall had to be acoustically adjusted several times subsequently.
Gaps between the wood panels were adjusted to control the reverberation time. The inaugural concert was on 30 November 1979. Herbert Blomstedt conducted the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Choir in Franz Berwald's Sinfonie singulière, a commission from Sven-Erik Bäck - the cantata'Vid havets yttersta gräns', the Symphonie fantastique by Berlioz. Since 1979, Berwaldhallen has been home not only to the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, but to the Swedish Radio Choir, it welcomes guest orchestras from Sweden and abroad. Most SRSO concerts at the hall are broadcast live nationally on P2 while others are broadcast via the European Broadcasting Union. Berwaldhallen is named after Franz Berwald one of Sweden's foremost composers of the 19th century. At the main entrance to the concert hall there is a sculpture of Berwald by the Swedish artist Carl Eldh. Since 2003 the Östersjöfestivalen in late summer each year is based at the Berwaldhallen for a series of events. Orchestras from around the Baltic and northern Europe participate, including youth ensembles.
The building is sometimes casually called "the mine" in reference to the hall's location underground. Diplomatstaden and the American embassy are located next to Berwaldhallen. Swedish Radio - Berwaldhallen
Embassy of the United Kingdom, Stockholm
The Embassy of the United Kingdom in Stockholm is the chief diplomatic mission of the United Kingdom in Sweden. The Embassy represents the British Overseas Territories in Sweden, it is located on Skarpögatan in the Diplomatstaden neighborhood. The current British Ambassador to Sweden is David Cairns. Great Britain established a diplomatic mission in Stockholm in 1720; the current embassy building located at Skarpögatan 6-8, was opened in 1967 and was designed by the architect William S. Bryant; the British Ambassador's residence, built between 1914–1915 and designed by Richard Allison, is located in the same area as the embassy at Laboratoriegatan 8. Until 1939 it was served as the British Embassy. Gallery List of diplomatic missions in Sweden List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Sweden
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Roslagsbanan is a narrow gauge urban railway system in Roslagen, Stockholm County, Sweden. Its combined route length is 65 kilometres and there are 38 stations, it is built to the Swedish three foot gauge. The line starts in Stockholm at Stockholm East Station, it goes north and splits into three branch lines at the junction stations Djursholms Ösby and Roslags Näsby. It is double track between Rydbo and Åkersberga; the rest is single track, but the line to Vallentuna was being doubled in 2012 and Rydbo-Åkers Runö in 2013. There are passing loops at some stations on the single track sections: at Altorp, Hägernäs, Österskär, Visinge, Täby kyrkby, Lindholmen and Kårsta. Following a 2017 agreement between the Swedish state, Stockholm County, the affected municipalities, the line will be extended to the centrally located underground hub T-Centralen, with construction to begin in 2022; the railway, owned by the Stockholm County Council through the public transport company Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, is not part of the nationally owned network.
It is the only narrow gauge railway in Sweden still in use for commercial traffic. Roslagsbanan is part of the Stockholm public transport system, it is operated under contract by Arriva Sverige from 7 January 2013. Arriva Sverige took over from previous contracted company Roslagståg AB, a joint venture by the Danish DSB and Tågkompaniet. Despite its age and limited capacity it is one of the most used railways in Sweden. Since the late 1980s, the railway has but been upgraded to a modern standard with modernised rolling stock, higher platforms and straighter tracks allowing increased speed. There are 15 departures from Stockholm East in the evening rush hour. In 2016, the raliway had a ridership of 48,000 journeys per day; the stations along Roslagsbanan are marked with a J symbol, which stands for the generic term järnvägsstation and is similar to the T symbol used by the Stockholm underground railway stations and the S used for tram stops. Roslagsbanan is now used by Storstockholms lokaltrafik for commuter transport.
The present network comprises most of the southern part of what was once a much bigger network, made up of owned railways all over Roslagen, connecting Stockholm and Uppsala with the countryside and used for passenger and freight trains. For more information on this, see the history section below; the line numbers are not displayed on the trains. In the timetables of Samtrafiken, the lines do not have the numbers as stated above, but the numbers 121 for the line to Kårsta, 122 for the line to Österskär and 123 for the line to Näsbypark; the present train sets were manufactured by ABB Railcar and delivered in 1988–1995. The train sets are maintained and operated by Roslagståg; the trains are made up of three different bogie vehicle types: Motor coach X10p Number of vehicles: 35, Seating capacity: 72, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 27.7 tonnes, Power rating: 400 kW, Maximum speed: 80 km/h Driving trailer UBxp Number of vehicles: 34, Seating Capacity: 76, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 16.3 tonnes Intermediate trailer UBp Number of vehicles: 32, Seating Capacity: 80, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 16 tonnes The trains were refurbished in 2011–2013, where some carriages were rebuilt with low floors, enabling wheelchair and pram access.
The refurbishment included new interiors and exteriors. There are some problems with the rolling stock; the carriages had poor wheelchair accessibility due to narrow doors and stairs. The trains are very noisy considering the railway goes through built up suburban areas; because of this SL began the process of finding a company from which to order modern trains to meet the rising demand for departures on Roslagsbanan in 2010. 22 new trains were ordered from Stadler Rail in 2016 and are scheduled to be delivered in 2020. They are going to be named X15p. Improvements are ongoing to reduce congestion and improve service on the biggest lines serving Täby and Vallentuna. New double track sections are built; the plan is to have double track to Åkersberga and to Vallentuna in 2014. There are plans to upgrade the current maximum speed of 80 to 120 km/h. New trains are needed for the traffic increase which are expected to be delivered in 2014. Along with the new trains, the old X10p in service will be repaired and modified into a more modern look.
A feasibility study into extending the Roslagsbanan to Arlanda Airport was completed in 2010, followed by a public consultation in 2012. The present Roslagsbanan was once just the southern part of a large narrow gauge system throughout Roslagen and eastern Uppland, connecting Stockholm and Uppsala with ports, smaller towns and parts of the countryside and used for both freight and passenger transport. In 1885 the line from Stockholm East Station to Rimbo was opened, today the longest branch of Roslagsbanan, it was built and operated by the private enterprise Stockholm-Rimbo Järnväg. In 1909 SRJ changed its name to Stockholm–Roslagens Järnvägar following the take-over of companies running adjacent lines. Roslagsbanan is one of the oldest electrified railway lines for public transport in Europe; the first Stockholm–Djursholm suburban section, was electrified in 1892, at the time continued in