Lund University is a public university ranked among the world's top 100 universities. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, arguably traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral. After Sweden won Scania from Denmark in the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, the university was founded in 1666 on the location of the old studium generale next to Lund Cathedral. Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 40,000 students in 270 different programmes and 1 300 freestanding courses; the University has some 600 partner universities in nearly 70 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network. Two major facilities for materials research are in Lund University: MAX IV, a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory – inaugurated in June 2016, European Spallation Source, a new European facility that will provide up to 100 times brighter neutron beams than existing facilities today, to be opened in 2023.
The university centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school; the university traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studia generalia in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. After Sweden won Scania from Denmark in the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, the university was founded in 1666 on the location of the old studium generale next to Lund Cathedral.
The studium generale had not survived the Lutheran Reformation of 1536, why the university is considered a separate institution when founded in 1666. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the Scanian lands came under the possession of the Swedish Crown, which founded the University in 1666 as a means of making Scania Swedish by educating teachers in Swedish, to culturally integrate the Scania region with Sweden; the university was named Academia Carolina after Charles X Gustav of Sweden until the late 19th century, when Lund University became the widespread denomination. It was the fifth university under the Swedish king, after Uppsala University, the University of Tartu, the Academy of Åbo, the University of Greifswald; the university was at its founding granted four faculties: law, theological and philosophy. They were the cornerstones, for more than 200 years this system was in effect. Towards the end of the 17th century, the number of students hovered around 100; some notable professors in the early days were a juridical historian.
The Scanian War in 1676 led to a shut-down, which lasted until 1682. The university was re-opened due to regional patriots, but the university was not to enjoy a high status until well into the 19th century. Lecturing rooms were few, lectures were held in the Lund Cathedral and its adjacent chapel; the professors were underpaid. In 1716, Charles XII of Sweden entered Lund, he stayed in Lund in between his warlike expeditions. Lund and the university attracted a temporary attention boost; the most notable lecturer during this time was Andreas Rydelius. Peace was restored with the death of Charles XII in 1718, during the first half of the 18th century the university was granted added funds; the number of students was now well around 500. Despite not being on par with Uppsala University, it had still built a solid reputation and managed to attract prominent professors. Around 1760 the university reputation dropped as the number of students fell below 200, most of whom hailed from around the province.
However, by 1780 its reputation was restored, continued to rise through the 1820s. This was owing to popular and well-educated lecturers in philology. He, in turn, attracted others towards Lund. One of these was the young theological student C. G. Brunius, who studied ancient languages under Tegnér and were to become professor of Greek. With time he was to devote himself to architectures and he redesigned several of Lund's buildings, as well as churches of the province. In 1845 and 1862 Lund co-hosted Nordic student meetings together with the University of Copenhagen. A student called. In the early 20th century, the university had a student population as small as one thousand, consisting of upper-class pupils training to become civil servants and doctors. In the coming decades it started to grow until it became one of the country's largest. In 1964 the social sciences were split from the Faculty of Humanities. Lund Institute of Technology was established in 1961 but was merged with Lund University eight years later.
In recent years, Lund University has been popular amon
The Scanian War was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway and Sweden. It was fought from 1675 to 1679 on Scanian soil, in the former Danish provinces along the border with Sweden and in Northern Germany. While the latter battles are regarded as a theater of the Scanian war in English and Swedish historiography, they are seen as a separate war in German historiography, called the Swedish-Brandenburgian War; the war was prompted by Swedish involvement in the Franco-Dutch War. Sweden had allied with France against several European countries; the United Provinces, under attack by France, sought support from Denmark–Norway. After some hesitation, King Christian V started the invasion of Skåneland in 1675, while the Swedish were occupied with a war against Brandenburg; the invasion of Scania was combined with a simultaneous Norwegian front called the Gyldenløve War, forcing the defending Swedes to fight a two-front war in addition to their entanglements in the Holy Roman Empire.
The Danish objective was to retrieve the Scanian lands, ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde, after the Northern Wars. Although the Danish offensive was a great success, Swedish counter-offensives led by the 19-year-old Charles XI of Sweden nullified much of the gain. At the end of the war, the Swedish navy had lost at sea, the Danish army had been defeated in Scania by the Swedes, who in turn had been beaten in Northern Germany by the Brandenburgers; the war and the hostilities ended when Denmark's ally the United Provinces settled with Sweden's ally France and the Swedish king Charles XI married Danish princess Ulrike Eleonora, sister of Christian V. Peace was made on behalf of France with the treaties of Fontainebleau and Lund and Saint-Germain-en-Laye, restoring most of the lost territories to Sweden. In the 1660s and early 1670s, the Swedish Empire experienced a financial crisis. In hope of subsidies, Charles XI of Sweden had entered the anti-French Triple Alliance with the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of England, which broke apart when Charles II of England rapproached France in 1670, after the War of Devolution.
In April 1672, Sweden and France concluded an alliance, with France promising 400,000 riksdalers of subsidies in peace time, to be raised to 600,000 in war time, for Sweden maintaining a 16,000 men strong army in her German dominions. Sweden maintained good relations to the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp south of Denmark. By September 1674, Sweden had enlarged her army to 22,000 men after France had increased the subsidies to 900,000 riksdalers, which she threatened to withdraw if Sweden was not using this army, stationed in Swedish Pomerania, for an attack on her adversaries. By December, the Swedish army had grown to 25,000 to 26,000 men, 4,000 to 5,000 of whom stationed in Bremen, 2,000 to 3,000 in Wismar, 6,000 to 7,000 in Pomeranian garrisons, 13,000 free to operate under Lord High Constable and field marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel. Another defensive alliance formed in September 1672 between Denmark, Emperor Leopold I, the Electorate of Brandenburg, the duchies of Brunswick-Celle, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Hesse-Cassel.
This alliance maintained an army of 21,000 foot and 10,500 horse, since May 1673, an additional 12,000 men and twenty vessels maintained with Dutch subsidies. At that time in history, Brandenburg was the second most powerful German state, maintained its own standing army of 23,000 men; the Netherlands had been attacked by the French army in 1672, known as the rampjaar, the ensuing Franco-Dutch War would only be concluded by the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678. Roi soleil Louis XIV intended to weaken the anti-French alliance by engaging them on their eastern frontiers: he supported John Sobieski, candidate for the Polish throne, he supported a contemporary revolt of nobles in Hungary, aimed at binding the Brandenburgian army in a war with Sweden. In December 1674, Louis XIV of France called upon Sweden to invade Brandenburg. Wrangel advanced into the Uckermark, a region on the Brandenburg-Pomeranian frontier, securing quarters for his forces until the weather would permit him to turn westwards to Hanover.
Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg received the news in the Rhine valley, turned northeast to confront Wrangel. On 18 June or 28 June the armies met in the Battle of FehrbellinThe Fehrbellin affair was a mere skirmish, with actual casualties amounting to fewer than 600 men—but it was a defeat by a numerically inferior force from a territory Sweden had little regard for; as a result of this defeat, Sweden appeared vulnerable, encouraging neighbouring countries that had suffered invasion by Sweden in the prior Swedish campaigns to join in the Scanian War. Wrangel retreated to Swedish Demmin; when the United Provinces asked for Danish support against the French and their allies in the Franco-Dutch War, Danish-Norwegian King Christian V wanted to join them, go to war with Sweden to recapture the Danish provinces of Scania and Halland. Count Peder Griffenfeld, an influential royal adviser, advised against it, instead advocated a more pro-France policy, but when the numerically superior Swedes lost the Battle of Fehrbellin on June 28, 1675, it was the first such defeat of Swedish forces since the Thirty Years' War.
Christian V saw his chance, overcoming Griffenfeld's opposition, attacked. The second largest Swedish garrison in North Germany, after Swedish Pomerania, was the twin Duchy of Bremen-Verden. For political reasons, to prevent the Swedes from advertising and recruiting mercenaries, the Allies decid
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Östergötland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden in the south of Sweden. It borders the Baltic Sea. In older English literature, one might encounter the Latinized version, Ostrogothia; the corresponding administrative county, Östergötland County, covers the entire province and parts of neighbouring provinces. From 1560, Östergötland was represented with two separate coats-of-arms seals until 1884, when the current one was granted; the coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Gules a Griffin with Dragon Wings and Tongue rampant Or armed, beaked and membered Azure between four Roses Argent." From west to east, in the middle parts, extends the Östgöta Plain. It is agricultural. In the southern part of the province, the terrain becomes marked by the south Swedish highlands, with hills and countless lakes; the northern parts are hilly, are otherwise dominated by forests. Outside the eastern shore of Östergötland lies an archipelago, the islands and islets of which cover an area of 118 square kilometres.
The Bråviken bay continues further into the country. Some of the more notable islands are Korsö, Gränsö, Arkö, Djursö, Yxnö, Finnö, Emtö, Fångö and Stora Ålö. Traditionally, the region is divided into two halves and west of the river Stångån, which flows from the south into Lake Roxen at Linköping; the eastern part of Göta Canal traverses the province from the Baltic Sea at Mem to Lake Vättern at Motala. Highest mountain: Stenabohöjden, 327 meters Largest lake: Vättern Cities and the year of their now defunct royal charter. Linköping Mjölby Motala Norrköping Skänninge Söderköping Vadstena Today, the largest city in the province is Linköping, with Norrköping second. Skänninge is one of the oldest areas but small. Additional towns without a royal charter that have emerged in the 20th century are Finspång and Åtvidaberg; the earliest mention of Östergötland appears in the Getica by the Goth scholar Jordanes. The traditions of Östergötland date back into the Viking age, the undocumented Iron Age, earlier, when this region had its own laws and kings.
It is said that the famous Viking warrior Beowulf may have been from what is now the Östergötland region. The region kept the Östgötalagen, into the Middle Ages. Östergötland belonged to the Christian heartland of the late Iron Age and early medieval Sweden. The Sverker and Bjälbo dynasties played pivotal roles in the consolidation of Sweden; the province has about 50,000 ancient remains of different kinds. Some 1,749 are, for instance, grave fields. Industry was most significant in the cities of Norrköping, Linköping, Finspång, Motala. Since the 13th century, Swedish princes and princesses in some dynasties have been created dukes and duchesses of various provinces. Since 1772, these are only honorary titles. There have been several Duchesses of Östergötland; the current duchess is Princess Estelle since her birth in 2012. The östgöta or dialect spectrum were considered true göta dialects, but is nowadays considered being a transition area between true göta dialects and svea dialects; the dialects are still used in rural areas, but in the cities, the Standard Swedish is spoken with a certain östgöta accent.
The accent Östgötska can be distinguished from Standard Swedish just by accent and pronunciation of vowels ad sje- and the- sounds, which makes Östgöta accent an eastern variety of the Götaland accent. In some parts bordering to Södermanland, a variety of the Svealand accent is spoken. In Östergötland several older churches are still standing and many castles and palaces are open to the public. Ekenäs Castle, one of the best preserved renaissance castles in Sweden, has belonged to the families Sture and Banér. Löfstad Castle has its origin in the early 17th century. Vadstena Castle, built by the Royal Vasa dynasty 1545–1620, is a combined fortress and renaissance castle. Vreta Abbey was the first convent to be established in Sweden, dating from the early 12th century, while Vadstena Abbey was the dominant convent in Medieval Sweden. Notable is the ruins of the Alvastra Abbey near mountain Omberg and Lake Tåkern; the cathedral in Linköping is the second largest church in Sweden and is well preserved from the Middle Age.
The Göta Canal crosses the province East-West with several locks and the Kinda Canal connects the lakes in the southern parts of the province with the central plains. Övralid Manor was the last home of Nobel Prize laureate Verner von Heidenstam 1925–40. There are several museums in all parts of the province, for example the Swedish Broadcasting Museum, the open-air museum Old Linköping, Swedish Air Force Museum, Sancta Birgitta Convent Museum, Museum of Work and the Motala Motor Museum; the Rök Runestone is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone. It can now be seen by the church in Rök, it is considered the first piece of written Swedish literature and thus it marks the beginning of the history of Swedish literature. The Hundreds of Sweden were jurisdictional divisions in effect until the early 20th century. Football in the province is administered by Östergötlands Fotbo
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and high schools. In higher education, the students' union is accorded its own building on the campus, dedicated to social, organizational activities and academic support of the membership. In the United States, student union only refers to a physical building owned by the university with the purpose of providing services for students without a governing body; this building is referred to as a student activity center, although the Association of College Unions International has hundreds of campus organizational members. Outside the US, student union and students' union refer to a representative body, as distinct from a student activity centre. Depending on the country, the purpose, assembly and implementation of the group might vary. Universally, the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students in some fashion.
In some cases, students' unions are run by independent of the educational facility. The purpose of these organizations is to represent students both within the institution and externally, including on local and national issues. Students' unions are responsible for providing a variety of services to students. Depending on the organization's makeup, students can get involved in the union by becoming active in a committee, by attending councils and general meetings, or by becoming an elected officer; some students' unions are politicized bodies, serve as a training ground for aspiring politicians. Students' unions have similar aims irrespective of the extent of politicization focusing on providing students with facilities and services; some students' unions officially recognize and allocate an annual budget to other organizations on campus. In some institutions, postgraduate students are within the general students' unions, whereas in others they have their own postgraduate representative body. In some cases, graduate students lack formal representation in student government.
As mentioned before universally the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students. Many times student's unions focusing on providing students with facilities and services. Simple variations on just the name include the name differences between the United States and other countries. Depending on the country there are different methods of representation compulsory education to Higher education or tertiary. In Australia, all universities have one or more student organizations. Australian student unions provide such services as eateries, small retail outlets, student media and support for a variety of social, political, special interest and sporting clubs and societies. Most operate specialized support services for female, LGBT, international and indigenous students. Many expressed concerns over the introduction of voluntary student unionism in 2006. In 2011, the Government passed legislation to allow universities to charge students a compulsory service fee to fund amenities such as sporting facilities and counselling, as well as student media and "advocating students’ interests".
The legislation passed. The National Union of Students of Australia represents most undergraduate students' unions at a national level. Azerbaijan Students Union was established by students from Baku on 15 September 2008. ASU is an organization, established on basis of international experience and it was the first student organization which united students irrespective of gender, creed, nationality. During its action period ASU has formed stable structure, presented new suggestions about student policy to appropriate bodies, made close relations with international and regional student organizations, prepared new action plan according to the universities-students-companies' relations in Azerbaijan. ASU considered international relations important. For the first time ASU's delegates were participants of the First Asia IAESTE Forum in Shanghai during 12–15 November 2009. After that forum ASU established close relations with IAESTE, one of the biggest student exchange organizations; as a result of relations on 21 January 2010 ASU was accepted a member of IAESTE.
Our union gained right to represent Azerbaijan students in IAESTE. That membership was the union's first success on international level. During 20–27 January Azerbaijan Students Union was accepted as associative member of IAESTE in 64th Annual Conference in Thailand. Azerbaijan Students Union has been a full member of European Students' Union until 2015. In China, the student body is referred to as 学生会 or 学生联合会. Membership in different universities has different functions; some universities may give the membership a task of recording the students' attendance and the complex grades. Student associations of Chinese universities are under the leadership of Communist Youth League of China, which to a large extent limit its function as an organization purely belonging to students themselves. All universities in Hong Kong have students' unions. Most of these students' unions are members of the Hong Kong Federation of Students. Many secondary schools have students' unions or the equivalent. India
Lund University Main Building
The main building of the Swedish Lund University was designed by architect Helgo Zettervall and inaugurated by King Oscar II in 1882. Construction began in 1874, when the old main building Kungshuset had become too small for the growing number of students; the design is characterised by Helgo Zettervall's fascination with classical antiquity, features columns and fancy copings. There were four sphinxes on the roof, but they had to be removed after some 30 years because of bad quality. In the 1990s four new sphinxes were located on the roof. Like many of Zettervall's buildings, it was criticized for a lack of uniformity and not being well thought out. Media related to Universitetshuset, Lund at Wikimedia Commons
Lund Cathedral is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Sweden. It is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden; until the Danish Reformation, it was the Catholic episcopal see of the Diocese of Lund, dedicated to Saint Lawrence. Lund was an important town. Lund was the site of the Skåne Assembly at St Liber's Hill into the Middle Ages, it was the site of a pre-Christian religious center. A cathedral was built in Lund before 1085, but it is difficult to know if the present building was built in the same place. In the gift letter of Canute the Holy, dated to 21 May 1085, there is a mention of a cathedral built during the 1080s. Canute gave several properties. However, sources indicate; the Cathedral School was established in 1085. King Eric I of Denmark went to Rome on a pilgrimage and secured two important concessions from Pope Pascal II: sainthood for his murdered brother, Saint Canute IV and the creation of an archdiocese that included all of Scandinavia. Lund was named as the headquarters.
Bishop Asser Thorkilsson became the first archbishop for all of Scandinavia in 1104 and the cathedral was begun sometime after he took office. The building was constructed in the typical basilica style with half-rounded arches supporting a flat timber ceiling; the cathedral was constructed out of blocks of sandstone from a quarry near Höör. The high altar of the crypt was consecrated in 1123; the cathedral and the high altar were consecrated to St Lawrence on 1 September 1145 by Archbishop Eskil, Asser's successor. Of the present church only the apse has remained unchanged. Lund became the religious heart of Denmark and over the years many monasteries, priories sprang up around the cathedral. Lund played a vital role in Denmark's history from the time it was made a bishopric, it was the place of many important meeting between kings and nobility. Valdemar II was crowned there in 1202. In 1234 the church suffered an extensive fire; when the church was rebuilt a lecture hall, new vaults and a new facade to the west were added.
Many valuable artistic additions were done to the church in mediaeval times. In 1294 Archbishop Jens Grand was arrested in the Cathedral. In the 1370s, magnificent gothic choir stalls where installed in the church, in 1398 a gothic, cupboard-shaped wooden altarpiece was placed in the main chapel. An astronomical clock was renovated many times. In the 1510s, during the reign of King John I, German artist Adam van Düren led a major renovation of the church. In the crypt, van Düren created a well decorated with interesting reliefs and a monumental sarcophagus for the most recent archbishop of Lund, Birger Gunnersen. Lund was an important cultural and religious city in the Middle Ages, as attested by its large number of churches and monasteries; the Reformation caused a dramatic decrease of the influence of the church in the country. In 1527 the Franciscan Monastery was forcibly shut down by a mob of townspeople who had received permission to close the monastery. Franciscans were hated because they lived by soliciting alms in addition to tithes and other fees ordinary people had to pay to the church.
Torben Bille was the last Archbishop and struggled vainly against the Lutherans until he was imprisoned in 1536. He was released the following year; the cathedral was stripped of statues, medieval artwork, side altars, reliquaries. After the Treaty of Roskilde, in 1658, the Bishopric of Lund was transferred to Sweden. An extensive restoration was done by Helgo Zettervall in the late 19th century, when the towers got their present appearance. Mosaic decoration was added to the interior of the apse in the 1920s. Pope Francis visited the cathedral on 31 October 2016 to observe the 499th anniversary of the Reformation; the church was built of sandstone following the Romanesque style of the Rhine region. These influences are evident in the floorplan, the crypt and the arched gallery that decorate the upper floor of the apse; the cathedral's towers stand 55 meters high and are, with their pyramidical roofs, a landmark on the skyline of Lund and visible from the surrounding wide plain. The towers are not open to the general public.
The oldest church bell was made in 1513. Two bronze doors built by Carl Johan Dyfverman serve as the main entrance, they hold 24 reliefs with motifs from the Bible the Old Testament. Above the doorway, a concrete pediment has three holy men as motifs: Jesus Christ, Canute IV of Denmark and Saint Lawrence; as a typical Romanesque building, Lund Cathedral is distinctively dark, with only small windows to allow sunshine to pass through. The Latin-cross church has a transept; the quire has splendid gothic choir stalls from the 1370s. The gothic winged-altarpiece of the main chapel of the apse dates from 1398; the cathedral's south aisle has a globe of light and various exhibitions. See Horologium mirabile Lundense In the Lund Cathedral there are five organs; the biggest one is the gallery organ, built between 1932 and 1934 by the Danish company Marcussen & Søn and is one of the largest in Sweden. The gallery organ has 102 stops distributed between a pedalboard. There are 7,074 pipes in total. In 1992 it was renovated by the same company.
The smallest organ is in the astronomical clock. It plays In dulci jubilo daily; the three other organs are in the Crypt, the Baptism Chap