The tribe Epidendreae of the Orchidaceae comprises six subtribes: Bletiinae sensu MMIV, which contains only the genera Basiphyllaea and Hexalectris Chysinae Coeliinae Laeliinae Pleurothallidinae Ponerinae
Laelia is a small genus of 25 species in the orchid family. Laelia species are found in areas of subtropical or temperate climate in Central and South America, but in Mexico. Laelia is abbreviated L. in the horticultural trade. Epiphyte herbs with laterally compressed pseudobulbs. One to four leathery or fleshy leaves are born near the top of each pseudobulb, can be broadly ovate to oblong; the inflorescence is a terminal raceme. The flowers have 8 pollinia. Species of Laelia can be found from western Mexico south to Bolivia, from sea level to mountain forests; the genus Laelia was described as part of subfamily Epidendroideae by John Lindley. Brazilian Laelias, after being classified for several years under Sophronitis, have now been placed in the genus Cattleya. Moreover, species placed in the genus Schomburgkia have been moved either to the genus Laelia or Myrmecophila. Laelia comprises the following species: Species in this genus are found in forests from sea level to mountain habitats above 2000 m.
Species from above 2000 m of elevation like L. albida, L. autumnalis are adapted to temperate climates and can be grown outdoors in places like the Mexican Plateau and other subtropical areas with cool summers. Laelia is one of the orchid genera known to use crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis, which reduces evapotranspiration during daylight because carbon dioxide is collected at night. Laelias can be grown fastened to tree trunks, as long; the growing medium must have good drainage drying after watering. If grown mounted they need 50-70% humidity, while cooler temperatures increase the blooming process. Watering can be with lower frequency in winter. Fertilization can be done with a dilute solution, twice a month during growing season. Media related to Laelia at Wikimedia Commons
Laeliinae is a Neotropical subtribe including 40 orchid genera, such as Brassavola and Cattleya. The genus Epidendrum is the largest within this subtribe; this is followed with over 120 species. Genus and Number of Species: Acrorchis Dressler, 1 Adamantinia Van den Berg & M. W. Chase, 1 Alamania La Llave & Lex. 1 Arpophyllum La Llave & Lex, 5 Artorima Dressler & G. E. Pollard, 1 Barkeria Knowles & Westc. 17 Syn. Dothilophis Raf. Brassavola R. Br. 17 Broughtonia R. Br. 6 Syn. Cattleyopsis Lem. Laeliopsis Lindl. Cattleya Lindl. 118 Syn. Maelenia Dum. Sophronitis Lindl. Sophronia Lindl. Lophoglottis Raf. Hoffmannseggella H. G. Jones, Hadrolaelia Chiron & V. P. Castro, Dungsia Chiron & V. P. Castro, Microlaelia Chiron & V. P. Castro, Chironiella Braem, Brasilaelia Campacci, Cattleyella Van den Berg & M. W. Chase, Schluckebieria Braem Caularthron Raf. 3 Syn. Diacrium Benth. Dothilophis Raf. Constantia Barb. Rodr. 5 Dimerandra Schltr. 1 Dinema Lindl. 1 Domingoa Schltr. 5 Syn. Hartwegia Lindl. Nageliella L. O. Williams Encyclia Hook. 120 Epidendrum L. 1500 Syn.
Amblostoma Scheidw. Amblystoma Kuntze, Amphiglottis Salisb. Amphiglottium Lindl. Ex Stein, Auliza Salisb. Auliza Salisb. Ex Small, Aulizeum Lindl. Ex Stein, Coilostylis Raf. Didothion Raf. Diothonea Lindl. Epidanthus L. O. Williams, Epidendropsis Garay & Dunst. Gastropodium Lindl. Hemiscleria Lindl. Kalopternix Garay & Dunst. Lanium Benth. Larnandra Raf. Minicolumna Brieger, Nanodes Lindl. Neohlemannia Kraenzl. Neowilliamsia Garay, Nyctosma Raf. Oerstedella Rchb.f. Physinga Lindl. Pleuranthium Benth. Pseudepidendrum Rchb.f. Psilanthemum Klotszch ex Stein, Seraphyta Fisch. & C. A. Mey. Spathiger Small, Spathium Lindl. Ex Stein, Stenoglossum Kunth, Tritelandra Raf. Guarianthe Dressler & W. E. Higgins, 4 Hagsatera R. González, 2 Homalopetalum Rolfe, 7 Syn. Pinelia Lindl. Pinelianthe Rauschert Isabelia Barb. Rodr. 3 Syn. Neolauchea Kraenzl. Sophronitella Schltr. Jacquiniella Schltr. 11 Syn. Dressleriella Brieger, Briegeria Senghas Laelia Lindl. 25 Syn. Amalia Lindl. Amalias Hofmsgg. Schomburgkia Lindl. Laeliocatarthron Leptotes Lindl. 5 Loefgrenianthus Hoehne, 1 Meiracyllium Rchb.f.
2 Microepidendrum Brieger ex W. E. Higgins, 1 Myrmecophila Rolfe, 10 Nidema Britton & Millsp. 2 Oestlundia W. E. Higgins, 4 Orleanesia Barb. Rodr. 11 Prosthechea Knowles & Westc. 100 Syn. Epithecium Knowles & Westc. Hormidium Heynh. Anacheilium Hoffmgg. Euchile Withner, Pseudencyclia Chiron & V. P. Castro. Panarica Withner & P. A. Harding, Pollardia Withner & P. A. Harding Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade, 10 Syn. Renata Ruschi Psychilis Raf. 15 Pygmaeorchis Brade, 2 Quisqueya Dod, 4 Rhyncholaelia Schltr, 2 Scaphyglottis Poepp. & Endl. 60 Syn. Hexisea Lindl. Cladobium Lindl. Hexadesmia Brongn. Tetragamestus Rchb.f. Reichenbachanthus Barb. Rodr. Fractiungis Schltr. Leaoa Schltr. & Porto, Pachystele Schltr. Costaricaea Schltr. Ramonia Schltr. Platyglottis L. O. Williams Tetramicra Lindl. 13 van den Berg, C. W. E. Higgins, R. L. Dressler, W. M. Whitten, M. A. Soto Arenas, A. Culham and M. W. Chase. 2000. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Laeliinae Based on Sequence Data from Internal Transcribed Spacers of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA. Lindleyana 15: 96–114.
Van den Berg, C. et al. 2005. Subtribe Laeliinae. Pp. 181–316 In Pridgeon, A. M. Cribb, P. J. Chase, M. W. Rasmussen, F. N. Genera Orchidacearum Vol. IV. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Van den Berg C, Chase M. W. 2005 Nomenclatural notes on Laeliinae - IV. New combinations in Sophronitis. Kew Bull. 59.: 565-567 van den Berg, C. 2014. Reaching a compromise between conflicting nuclear and plastid phylogenetic trees: a new classification for the genus Cattleya. Phytotaxa 186: 075–086. Photo album of Laeliinae species and hybrids Checklist of Laeliinae genera
The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Guarianthe aurantiaca is a species of orchid. It is widespread across much of Mexico, south to Costa Rica; the diploid chromosome number of G. aurantiaca has been determined as 2n = 40. The phananthrenoids orchinol and loroglossol have a phytoalexin effect and reduce the growth of G. aurantiaca seedlings
Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology. Habitus refers to the characteristic morphology of a species. In botany habit is the characteristic form. In zoology, habit refers to a specific behavior pattern, either adopted, pathological, innate, or directly related to physiology. For example:...the was in the habit of springing upon the in order to gain admission... If these sensitive parrots are kept in cages, they take up the habit of feather plucking; the spider monkey has an arboreal habit and ventures onto the forest floor. The brittlestar has the habit of breaking off arms as a means of defense. Mode of life is a concept related to habit, it sometimes is referred to as the habit of an animal, it may refer to the locomotor capabilities, as in ", feeding behaviour and mechanisms, nutrition mode, type of habitat, period of activity, types of ecological interaction, etc. The habits of plants and animals change in response to changes in their environment. For example: if a species develops a disease or there is a drastic change of habitat or local climate, or it is removed to a different region the normal habits may change.
Such changes may be either pathological, or adaptive. In botany, habit is growth form, or architecture. For example: Many species of maple have a shrubby habit and may form bushes or hedges rather than trees. Certain alpine plants have been chosen for cultivation because of their dwarf habit. Plants may be herbaceous; the main types of woody plants are trees and lianas. Climbing plants can be herbaceous. Plants can be categorized in terms of their habit as subshrubs, cushion plants and succulents. There is some overlap between the classifications of plants according to their habit and their life-form. Other terms in biology refer to various taxa. Lichens structure is described their growth form: foliose, fruticose or gelatinous. Bryophytes structure is described as thallose; the structure of a given species of algae is referred to as its level of organization. Bacteria are described by their shape. Animal structure is described by its body plan, which encompasses the body symmetry, the type of germ layers and of body cavities.
Since the distinction between the concepts – mode of behavior and morphological form – are significant in zoology, the term habitus is used to describe form as distinct from behaviour. The term habitus occurs in botanical texts, but there it is used interchangeably with habit, because plant behaviour does not correspond to the concept of habits in the zoological sense. Habitat Animal migration Habit The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 Biology-Online.org