Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
Frederiksborg Castle is a palatial complex in Hillerød, Denmark. Situated on three islets in the Slotssøen, it is adjoined by a formal garden in the Baroque style. After a serious fire in 1859, the castle was rebuilt on the basis of old plans, thanks to public support and the brewer J. C. Jacobsen, the building and its apartments were fully restored by 1882 when it was reopened to the public as the Danish Museum of National History, open throughout the year, the museum contains the largest collection of portrait paintings in Denmark. The estate originally known as Hillerødsholm near Hillerød had traditionally belonged to the Gøyes, in the 1520s and 1530s, Mogens Gøye, Steward of the Realm, had been instrumental in introducing the Danish Reformation. He lived in a building on the most northerly of three adjoining islets on the estates lake. The property was known as Hillerødsholm, after his daughter, married the courtier and naval hero Herluf Trolle in 1544, the couple became its proprietors.
In the 1540s, Trolle replaced the old building with a manor house. As the old building with towers was too small for the king. At the kings request, Trolle remained on the premises until the work was completed, the king renamed the estate Frederiksborg. Interested in deer hunting, he used the castle with the neighbouring Bath House as a hunting lodge, centred as it was in the fields. The additions included a wall to the south, separating the estate from the town. Still standing today is the quadrangular red-brick, tip-roofed house on Staldgade known as Herluf Trolles Tower, adjoining this are two long, narrow red-brick stable buildings, the Kings Stables to the west and the Hussars Stables to the east. These in turn lead to a wall along the lake with two round towers completed in 1562 bearing the arms of Frederick II and his motto Mein Hoffnung zu Gott allein, on the central islet, the long pantry house with stepped gables can be seen today. The most important building from Frederick IIs times is the Bath House in the park northwest of the islets, completed in 1581 in the Renaissance style with three protruding step-gabled wings, it served the king as a hunting lodge during the summer months.
Frederiksborg Castle was the first Danish castle to be built inland, all previous castles had been on the coast or close to ports as the sea had traditionally been the principal means of travel. It was the first to be built for recreational purposes rather than for defence. Its location in Hillerød led to the development of improved roads
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk,35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, noted for the synthesis it creates of art, the museum has at occasions exhibitions with works of the great impressionists and expressionists, like the large Claude Monet impressionist exhibition in 1994. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, the name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all named Louise. The museum was created in 1958 by Knud W. Jensen and he contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape. This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991, in late November 2012 Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the continual development of the museum as a cultural platform.
In 2013 the music department of the museum launch Louisiana Music, the videos are often housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a garden between the museums two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, and Jean Arp. Besides the collection of art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001 and it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, who was a Danish dancer and art collector living in California and who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing which had built in 1966 and 1971. Its acoustics make it fit for chamber music but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates, lectures. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis.
In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé, all the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website. The grounds around the museum contain a sculpture garden. It is made up by a plateau and the sloping terrain towards Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea. It contains works by artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró. The sculptures are placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees
Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Located on the island is the territorial capital and port of Charlotte Amalie. As of the 2010 census, the population of Saint Thomas was 51,634 about 48. 5% of the US Virgin Islands total, the district has a land area of 31.24 square miles. The island was settled around 1500 BC by the Ciboney people. They were replaced by the Arawaks and the Caribs, christopher Columbus sighted the island in 1493 on his second voyage to the New World. The Dutch West India Company established a post on Saint Thomas in 1657, the first congregation was the St. Thomas Reformed Church, which was established in 1660 and was associated with the Dutch Reformed Church. Denmark-Norway conquered the island in 1666, and by 1672 had established control over the island through the Danish West India. The land was divided into plantations and sugarcane became the primary economic activity. As a result, the economies of Saint Thomas and the islands of Saint John and Saint Croix became highly dependent on slave labor. In 1685, the Brandenburgisch-Africanische Compagnie took control of the trade on Saint Thomas.
Saint Thomass fine natural harbor became known as Taphus for the establishments located nearby. In 1691, the settlement there was renamed Charlotte Amalie in honor of the wife of Denmarks King Christian V. It was declared a port by Frederick V. In December 1732, the first two of many Moravian Brethren missionaries came from Herrnhut Saxony in present-day Germany to minister to them, distrusted at first by the white masters, they lived among the slaves and soon won their confidence. From 1796 a small Jewish community developed in Charlotte Amalie and it established a historic synagogue, Beracha Veshalom Vegmiluth Hasidim, the oldest synagogue in continuous anywhere in the United States or its external territories. The first British invasion and occupation of the Danish West Indies occurred at the end of March 1801 when a British fleet arrived at St Thomas, Denmark-Norway accepted the Articles of Capitulation the British proposed and the British occupied the islands without a shot being fired.
The British occupation lasted until April 1802, when the British returned the islands to Denmark-Norway, the second British invasion of the Danish West Indies took place in December 1807 when a British fleet captured St Thomas on 22 December and Santa Cruz on 25 December. Denmark-Norway did not resist and the invasion was bloodless and this British occupation of the Danish West Indies lasted until 20 November 1815, when Britain returned the islands to Denmark. While the sugar trade had brought prosperity to the free citizens
Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands
Saint John is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and a constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. At 50 km2 the smallest of the three main US Virgin Islands, Saint John is located four miles east of Saint Thomas. It is four miles southwest of Tortola, part of the British Virgin Islands and its largest settlement is Cruz Bay with a population of 2,700. St. Johns nickname is Love City, since 1956, approximately 60% of the island is protected as Virgin Islands National Park, administered by the United States National Park Service. The economy is based on tourism, Saint John is 50.8 km² in area with a population of 4,170. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population of the US Virgin Islands territory was 106,405. Saint John was first settled by the Taíno Indians who migrated north from coastal areas of present-day Colombia, the Arawak inhabited the island until around the year AD1300, when they were driven off by the more aggressive and warlike Carib.
Extensive archaeological work started in 1996 at Cinnamon Bay, the artifacts from this dig are being studied and are expected to yield more detailed information on pre-Columbian civilization in the US Virgin Islands. Explorer Christopher Columbus, traveling on behalf of the Spanish Crown, is credited with being the first European to see the Virgin Islands in 1493, during his second voyage to the New World. A Catholic, he named the group of islands as Once Mil Virgenes, in honor of the feast day of Saint Ursula. The Danish West India and Guinea Company represented the first Europeans to settle the island in 1718 and they are credited with naming the island Saint John. The Danish crown took control of this and nearby colonies in 1754, including those founded on the similarly named islands of Saint Thomas. Sugar cane plantations, such as the famous Annaberg Sugar Plantation, were established in great numbers on Saint John, the establishment of sugarcane plantations created a high demand for labor.
The indigenous Carib and Arawak were initially used as slave labor, the planters imported many slaves from Africa in an established slave trade dominated by Portugal in the early years, but which Britain entered. In 1733 Saint John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World, enslaved Akwamu from the Gold Coast rebelled and took control of the island for six months before being defeated by a combination of better armed forces. The Danish defeated the enslaved Africans with help from French colonists of Martinique, instead of submitting to captivity and slavery, more than a dozen men and women shot and killed themselves before the French forces reached them. It is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers on Saint John by a ratio of 5,1, denmark finally abolished slavery in Saint John and its other islands on July 3,1848. In 1917, during the First World War, the United States purchased the U. S. Virgin Islands for $25 million from the Danish government in order to establish a naval base and it was intended to prevent expansion of the German Empire into the Western Hemisphere
A legally defined class of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city. This bourgeoisie destroyed aristocratic privilege and established civic equality after the French monarchy collapsed, the aristocracy crumbled because it refused to reform institutions and financial systems. An affluent and often opulent stratum of the class who stand opposite the proletariat class. In English, bourgeoisie identified a social class oriented to economic materialism and hedonism, since the 19th century, the term bourgeoisie usually is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper class of a capitalist society. The 18th century saw a partial rehabilitation of bourgeois values in such as the drame bourgeois and bourgeois tragedy. The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and this urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds.
Guilds arose when individual businessmen conflicted with their feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than previously agreed. In English, the bourgeoisie is often used to denote the middle classes. In fact, the French term encompasses both the upper and middle classes, a misunderstanding which has occurred in other languages as well. The bourgeoisie in France and many French-speaking countries consists of four evolving social layers, petite bourgeoisie, moyenne bourgeoisie, grande bourgeoisie, the petite bourgeoisie consists of people who have experienced a brief ascension in social mobility for one or two generations. It usually starts with a trade or craft, and by the second and third generation, the petite bourgeois would belong to the British lower middle class and would be American middle income. They are distinguished mainly by their mentality, and would differentiate themselves from the proletariat or working class and this class would include artisans, small traders and small farm owners.
They are not employed, but may not be able to afford employees themselves, the moyenne bourgeoisie or middle bourgeoisie contains people who have solid incomes and assets, but not the aura of those who have become established at a higher level. They tend to belong to a family that has been bourgeois for three or more generations, some members of this class may have relatives from similar backgrounds, or may even have aristocratic connections. The moyenne bourgeoisie is the equivalent of the British and American upper-middle classes, the grande bourgeoisie are families that have been bourgeois since the 19th century, or for at least four or five generations. Members of these tend to marry with the aristocracy or make other advantageous marriages. This bourgeoisie family has acquired an established historical and cultural heritage over the decades, the names of these families are generally known in the city where they reside, and their ancestors have often contributed to the regions history.
These families are respected and revered and they belong to the upper class, and in the British class system are considered part of the gentry
Gentofte Kommune is a municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark on the east coast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. It covers an area of 25.54 km2, and has a population of 74,548. Since 1993, its mayor has been Hans Toft, a member of the Conservative Peoples Party, the municipality is an amalgamation of three formerly independent towns, and several other local settlements, all close to one another. The site of its council is in Charlottenlund. The three original towns were Gentofte and Ordrup and it included Tuborg, Dyssegård, Hellerup, Jægersborg, and Klampenborg. Neighboring municipalities are Lyngby-Taarbæk to the north, Gladsaxe to the west, the Øresund, the strait that separates Zealand from Sweden, is to the east. Gentofte municipality was not merged with other municipalities in the 1 January 2007 nationwide Kommunalreformen, Øregård Museum Gentofte Municipality is home to four public upper secondary schools, Øregård and Gammel Hellerup in Hellerup, Aurehøj in Gentofte and Ordrup Gymnasium in Ordrup.
Gentofte Studenterkursus offers a 2-year programme, the most important parks are Charlottenlund Beach Park, Hellerup Beach Park, Bernstorff Park. Natural habitats are found at Gentofte Sø, a lake with lots of birds on it, Ermelunden in Jægersborg and Gammelmose in Vangede, Øregård Park with a beautiful lake, benches. A small section of Jægersborg Dyrehave extends into the municipality, while the rest, arne Jacobsen and furniture designer, who built extensively in Gentofte and lived on Strandvejen. Shipping tycoon Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller had his residence in the municipality, composer Per Nørgård was born in Gentofte. Writer Dan Turèll lived in the Vangede part of Gentofte from 1955–1964 and he documented these years in his 1975 book Vangede billeder. He moved to Los Angeles in 1980, singer an songwriter Agnes Obel was born in Gentofte. She moved to Berlin in 2005, musician Alex Vargas was born in Gentofte. He moved to London at 17
National Gallery of Denmark
National Gallery of Denmark is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, maintains and handles Danish, the major part of the museums older collections comes from the art chambers of Danish kings. The display of European Art 1300–1800 is a collection of art over the 500-year period, featuring works by Mantegna, Titian, Rubens. The art is spread over thirteen rooms, and is the oldest art collection in Denmark, with a emphasis on Danish, Flemish, French, Spanish. Danish and Nordic Art 1750-1900 charts Scandinavian art from the beginnings of Danish painting through the ‘Golden Age’ to the birth of Modernism and it displays over 400 works through 24 galleries. It features work by Abildgaard, Eckersberg, Købke, Ring, SMK gained its modern French art collection in 1928 when it was donated by the late collector Johannes Rump. This collection features some of the museum’s most famous pieces from artists such as Matisse, Picasso and Braque. The collection was first offered to the SMK by Rump in 1923, housed in the museum’s 1993 extension, this 20th and 21st century collection is predominantly focused on the most important examples of modern Danish art.
A long corridor of paintings looking onto Østre Anlæg park works as an overview of the work from this period. The beginnings of this collection were made around the time of Christian II, in his diary from 1521 the German painter Albrecht Dürer says he has given the King the best pieces of all my prints. In 1843 the various works, which had so far been the private collection, were displayed to the public. It was moved into the Statens Museum for Kunst when the first building was completed in 1896, along with The Royal Collection of Paintings, although the papers contain a great number of foreign works, Danish art constitutes the main part of the collection. This collection is open to the public through the Print Room, the Royal Cast Collection is held at the West India Warehouse, Toldbodgade 40, between The Little Mermaid and Nyhavn in Copenhagen. It consists of over 2,000 naked plaster casts of statues and reliefs from collections, temples, the Royal Cast Collection is only open for special events.
At the start of the Second World War the art of antiquity became increasingly unfashionable, associated with an archaic artistic tradition. In 1966, as abstract art became popular, the Royal Cast Collection was removed to a barn outside Copenhagen for storage. The collections of the Danish National Gallery originate in the Art Chamber of the Danish monarchs, when the German Gerhard Morell became Keeper of Frederick Vs Art Chamber about 1750, he suggested that the king create a separate collection of paintings. To ensure that the collection was not inferior to those of other European royal houses and local counts, the collection became particularly well provided with Flemish and Dutch art
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen