In Greek mythology, a satyr known as a silenos, is a male nature spirit with ears and a tail resembling those of a horse, as well as a permanent, exaggerated erection. Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but, by the sixth century BC, they were more represented with human legs. Comically hideous, they have mane-like hair, bestial faces, snub noses and are always shown naked. Satyrs were characterized by their ribaldry and were known as lovers of wine, music and women, they were companions of the god Dionysus and were believed to inhabit remote locales, such as woodlands and pastures. They attempted to seduce or rape nymphs and mortal women alike with little success, they are sometimes shown engaging in bestiality. In classical Athens, satyrs made up the chorus in a genre of play known as a "satyr play", a parody of tragedy and was known for its bawdy and obscene humor; the only complete surviving play of this genre is Cyclops by Euripides, although a significant portion of Sophocles's Ichneutae has survived.
In mythology, the satyr Marsyas is said to have challenged the god Apollo to a musical contest and been flayed alive for his hubris. Though superficially ridiculous, satyrs were thought to possess useful knowledge, if they could be coaxed into revealing it; the satyr Silenus was the tutor of the young Dionysus and a story from Ionia told of a silenos who gave sound advice when captured. Over the course of Greek history, satyrs became portrayed as more human and less bestial, they began to acquire goat-like characteristics in some depictions as a result of conflation with the Pans, plural forms of the god Pan with the legs and horns of goats. The Romans identified satyrs with their native nature spirits fauns; the distinction between the two was lost entirely. Since the Renaissance, satyrs have been most represented with the legs and horns of goats. Representations of satyrs cavorting with nymphs have been common in western art, with many famous artists creating works on the theme. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, satyrs have lost much of their characteristic obscenity, becoming more tame and domestic figures.
They appear in works of fantasy and children's literature, in which they are most referred to as "fauns". The etymology of the name satyr is unclear, several different etymologies have been proposed for it, including a possible Pre-Greek origin; some scholars have linked the second part of name to the root of the Greek word θηρίον, meaning "wild animal". This proposal may be supported by the fact. Another proposed etymology derives the name from an ancient Peloponnesian word meaning "the full ones", alluding to their permanent state of sexual arousal. Eric Partridge suggested that the name may be related to the root sat-, meaning "to sow", proposed as the root of the name of the Roman god Saturn. Satyrs are indistinguishable from silenoi, whose iconography is identical. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the name "satyr" is sometimes derogatorily applied to a "brutish or lustful man"; the term satyriasis refers to a medical condition in males characterized by excessive sexual desire.
It is the male equivalent of nymphomania. According to classicist Martin Litchfield West and silenoi in Greek mythology are similar to a number of other entities appearing in other Indo-European mythologies, indicating that they go back, in some vague form, to Proto-Indo-European mythology. Like satyrs, these other Indo-European nature spirits are human-animal hybrids bearing equine or asinine features. Human-animal hybrids known as Kiṃpuruṣas or Kiṃnaras are mentioned in the Rāmāyaṇa, an Indian epic poem written in Sanskrit. According to Augustine of Hippo and others, the ancient Celts believed in dusii, which were hairy demons believed to take human form and seduce mortal women. Figures in Celtic folklore, including the Irish bocánach, the Scottish ùruisg and glaistig, the Manx goayr heddagh, are part human and part goat; the lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria records that the Illyrians believed in satyr-like creatures called Deuadai. The Slavic lešiy bears similarities to satyrs, since he is described as being covered in hair and having "goat's horns, ears and long clawlike fingernails."Like satyrs, these similar creatures in other Indo-European mythologies are also tricksters, mischief-makers, dancers.
The lešiy was believed to trick travelers into losing their way. The Armenian Pay were a group of male spirits said to dance in the woods. In Germanic mythology, elves were said to dance in woodland clearings and leave behind fairy rings, they were thought to play pranks, steal horses, tie knots in people's hair, steal children and replace them with changelings. West notes that satyrs and other nature spirits of this variety are a "motley crew" and that it is difficult to reconstruct a prototype behind them. Nonetheless, he concludes that "we can recognize recurrent traits" and that they can be traced back to the Proto-Indo-Europeans in some form. On the other hand, a number of commentators have noted that satyrs are similar to beings in the beliefs of ancient Near Eastern cultures. Various demons of the desert are mentioned in ancient Near Eastern texts, although the iconography of these beings is poorly-attested. Beings similar to satyrs called śě’îrîm are mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible.
Dionysus is the god of the grape-harvest and wine, of fertility, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, theatre in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, the cult of Dionysus was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption, his worship became established in the seventh century BC. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenaean Greeks. His origins are uncertain, his cults took many forms. In some cults, he arrives as an Asiatic foreigner; some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults, he is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming important over time, included in some lists of the twelve Olympians, as the last of their number, the only god born from a mortal mother.
His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. He is known as Bacchus, the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces is bakkheia, his thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a weapon used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care, subvert the oppressive restraints of the powerful; those who partake of his mysteries are empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a "cult of the souls", he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Dionysus is depicted in myth as the son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, although in the Orphic tradition, he was identified as the son of Zeus and Persephone. In the Eleusinian Mysteries he was identified with the son of Demeter; the dio- element has been associated since antiquity with Zeus. The earliest attested form of the name is Mycenaean Greek, di-wo-nu-so, written in Linear B syllabic script for /Diwonūsoio/.
This is attested on two tablets, found at Mycenaean Pylos and dated to the 12th or 13th century BC, but at the time, there could be no certainty on whether this was indeed a theonym. But the 1989–90 Greek-Swedish Excavations at Kastelli Hill, unearthed, inter alia, four artefacts bearing Linear B inscriptions. Variants include Dionūsos and Diōnūsos in Boeotia. A Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus; the second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of the god in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs, but according to Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for "tree". Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, writes that the name Dionysus means "Zeus-limp" and that Hermes named the new born Dionysus this, "because Zeus while he carried his burden lifted one foot with a limp from the weight of his thigh, nysos in Syracusan language means limping". In his note to these lines, W. H. D. Rouse writes "It need hardly be said that these etymologies are wrong".
The Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedia based on classical sources, states that Dionysus was so named "from accomplishing for each of those who live the wild life. Or from providing everything for those who live the wild life."R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name; the cult of Dionysus was associated with trees the fig tree, some of his bynames exhibit this, such as Endendros "he in the tree" or Dendritēs, "he of the tree". Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the tree"; this interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male and robed, he holds a fennel staff, known as a thyrsus. Images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".
In its developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession is made up of bearded satyrs with erect penises; the god himself is drawn in a chariot by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic and unexpected
Carlsberg A/S is a global brewer. Founded in 1847 by J. C. Jacobsen, the company's headquarters is located in Denmark. Since Jacobsen's death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation; the company's flagship brand is Carlsberg. It brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russia's best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, more than 500 local beers; the company employs around 41,000 people located in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Carlsberg was founded by J. C. Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection, housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen; the first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Scotland. Some of the company's original logos include an elephant, after which some of its lagers are named, the swastika, the use of, discontinued in the 1930s because of its association with political parties in neighboring Germany.
Jacobsen's son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg. The companies were merged and run under Carl's direction in 1906 and remained so until his death in 1914. Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing, it featured a Department of Physiology. The species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name; the Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry. In 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is an independent unit of the Centre. In 1876, J. C. Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation, run by trustees from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, which managed the Carlsberg Laboratory as well as supporting scientific research within the fields of natural sciences, philosophy, the humanities and social sciences in Denmark.
Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsen's brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887. The first overseas license for brewing was given to the Photos Photiades Breweries, in 1966 Carlsberg beer was brewed for the first time outside Denmark at the Photiades breweries in Cyprus; the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, merged with Tetley in 1992. Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, the largest brewer in the UK, for £7.8bn. In 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking. In November 2014, Carlsberg agreed to take over Greece's third largest brewery, the Olympic Brewery, adding to its operations in the country and transforming the firm into the second biggest market player in Greece; the old brewery in Copenhagen is open for tours.
The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three market areas: Northern and Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is owned by Carlsberg, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia. The company is a significant operator in the brewing industry in Russia, the Baltic countries and Uzbekistan, it has a majority interest in OAO Baltika Breweries, the largest brewery in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. The Uzbek government claimed. Lower courts claimed that Carlsberg illegally produced 1.6 million litres of beer from 2008 to 2010. For these reasons, in March 2012, Carlsberg suspended production at its Uzbek plant and asked its employees to take an unpaid leave. In late 2012, the Uzbek Court declined Carlsberg's tax appeal. Production resumed in April 2013; the brewery produces 1.3 million litres of beer under three local brands Sarbast Original, Sarbast Extra, Sarbast Special, plus the international brand Tuborg Green. Carlsberg acquired the Aldaris Brewery in Riga, Latvia, in 2008.
The brewery was founded in 1865, produces Aldaris brand beers. Carlsberg Polska is the Polish subsidiary of the Carlsberg Group. Carlsberg acquired 100% control of the Okocim Group, which included the Okocim Brewery, in 2004; the subsidiary owns four brewing plants and employs a staff of 1,250. It is the third largest brewing company in Poland with a 14.4% market share. Brands include Harnaś, Okocim, Piast and Carlsberg. Carlsberg Sweden is based in Stockholm, owns the Falcon Brewery in Falkenberg, the Ramlösa mineral water bottling facility in Helsingborg. Carnegie Porter, a 5.5% abv Baltic porter, along with the Pripps and Falcon brand lagers, are brewed in Falkenberg. Norway brands include: Arendals, Frydenlund, Nordlands and Tou. Other European brands include: Birrificio Angelo Poretti, Feldschlösschen, Jacobsen, Kronenbourg, Super Bock and Tetley. A result of the take over of Scottish & Newcastle, Carlsberg controls the San Miguel brand in the UK; the Carlsberg group brands are distributed by St. Killian Import Co. based in Everett, importing Carlsberg beer directly from Denmark.
Brands that are imported include: Carlsberg Beer, Carlsberg Elephant, Kronenbourg 1664, Tetley's English Ale, Okocim. Carls
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d'Arc or Jehanne, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War; the uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims; this long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English, she was handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.
After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte, she was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting and other cultural works since the time of her death, many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created, continue to create, cultural depictions of her; the Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace.
Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, the English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Before the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had not achieved any major victories for a generation. In the words of DeVries, "The kingdom of France was not a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype."The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanity and was unable to rule. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children; this dispute included accusations that Louis was having an extramarital affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, allegations that John the Fearless kidnapped the royal children.
The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy. The young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac, their faction became known as the "Armagnac" faction, the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the "Burgundian faction". Henry V of England took advantage of these internal divisions when he invaded the kingdom in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt on 25 October and subsequently capturing many northern French towns. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac and about 2,500 of his followers; the future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419; this ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection.
The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English. The allied forces conquered large sections of France. In 1420 the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V and his heirs instead of her son Charles; this agreement revived suspicions that the Dauphin may have been the illegitimate product of Isabeau's rumored affair with the late duke of Orléans rather than the son of King Charles VI. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent. By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control; the English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional coronation site for French kings since 816.
This was an important consideration since neither claimant to the throne of France had been crowned yet. In 1428 the English had begun the siege of Orléans, one of the few remaining cities still loyal to Charles VII and an important objective since it held a strategic position along the Loire River, which ma
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Henri-Michel-Antoine Chapu was a French sculptor in a modified Neoclassical tradition, known for his use of allegory in his work. Born in Le Mée-sur-Seine into modest circumstances, Chapu moved to Paris with his family and in 1847 entered the Petit École with the intention of studying drawing and becoming an interior decorator. There his talents began to be recognized and he was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in 1849. In 1850 he began studying with a well-known sculptor James Pradier. Following Pradier's death in 1852 Chapu began studying with Francisque Duret. After coming in second in 1851, he won the Prix de Rome in 1855 spent five years in Italy, his statues Mercury of 1861 and Jeanne d'Arc of 1870 were his first big successes, led to many commissions thereafter. He is known for his medals, led the French revival in the medal as an artistic form. An Officer of the French Legion of Honor, Chapu died in Paris in 1891. At least four full-scale reproductions of Jeanne d'Arc are on permanent display at universities in Virginia: in McConnell Library at Radford University in Radford, Virginia.
Monument to Henri Regnault in the courtyard of École des Beaux-Arts Tomb of Marie d'Agoult Four Seasons on the facade of grande magasin Printemps, for architect Paul Sédille Monument to Gustave Flaubert, his last major work. List of works by Henri Chapu Henri Chapu in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish sculptor of international fame and medallist, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old. Working part-time with his father, a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy, he was awarded a stipend to continue his education. In Rome, Thorvaldsen made a name for himself as a sculptor. Maintaining a large workshop in the city, he worked in a heroic neo-classicist style, his patrons resided all over Europe. Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero; the Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace. Thorvaldsen is buried within the courtyard of the museum. In his time, he was seen as the successor of master sculptor Antonio Canova, his strict adherence to classical norms has tended to estrange modern audiences. Among his more famous public monuments are the statues of Nicolaus Copernicus and Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw.
Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen in 1770, the son of Gottskálk Þorvaldsson, an Icelander who had settled in Denmark. His father was a wood-carver at a ship yard, where he made decorative carvings for large ships and was the early source of influence on his son Bertel's development as a sculptor and on his choice of career. Thorvaldsen's mother was a Jutlandic peasant girl, his birth certificate and baptismal records have never been found, the only existing record is of his confirmation in 1787. Thorvaldsen had claimed descent from the first European born in America. Thorvaldsen's childhood in Copenhagen was humble, his father had a drinking habit. Nothing is known of Thorvaldsen's early schooling, he may have been schooled at home, he never became good at writing, he never acquired much of the knowledge of fine culture, expected from an artist. In 1781, by the help of some friends, eleven-year-old Thorvaldsen was admitted to Copenhagen's Royal Danish Academy of Art first as a draftsman, from 1786 at the modeling school.
At night he would help his father in the wood carving. Among his professors were Nicolai Abildgaard and Johannes Wiedewelt, who are both influences for his neo-classicist style. At the Academy he was praised for his works and won all the prizes from the small Silver Medal to the large Gold Medal for a relief of St. Peter healing the crippled beggar in 1793; as a consequence, he was granted a Royal stipend. Leaving Copenhagen on August 30 on the frigate Thetis, he landed in Palermo in January 1797 traveled to Naples where he studied for a month before making his entry to Rome on 8 March 1797. Since the date of his birth had never been recorded, he celebrated this day as his "Roman birthday" for the rest of his life. In Rome he lived at Via Sistina in front of the Spanish Steps and had his workshop in the stables of the Palazzo Barberini, he was taken under the wing of Georg Zoëga a Danish numismatist living in Rome. Zoëga took an interest in seeing to it that the young Thorvaldsen acquired an appreciation of the antique arts.
As a frequent guest at Zoëga's house he met Anna Maria von Uhden, born Magnani. She had married a German archeologist, she became Thorvaldsen's mistress and left her husband in 1803. In 1813 she gave birth to Elisa Thorvaldsen. Thorvaldsen studied with another Dane, Asmus Jacob Carstens whose handling of classic themes became a source of inspiration. Thorvaldsen's first success was the model for a statue of Jason, but the work was slow in selling and his stipend having run out, he planned his return to Denmark. In 1803, as he was set to leave Rome, he received the commission to execute the Jason in marble from Thomas Hope, a wealthy English art-patron. From that time Thorvaldsen's success was assured, he did not leave Italy for sixteen years; the marble Jason was not finished until 25 years as Thorvaldsen became a busy man. In 1803, he started work on Achilles and Briseïs his first classically themed relief. I 1804 he finished Dance of the Muses at Helicon and a group statue of Cupid and Psyche and other important early works such as Apollo, Bacchus og Ganymedes.
During 1805, he had to enlist the help of several assistants. These assistants undertook most of the marble cutting, the master limited himself to doing the sketches and finishing touches. Commissioned by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1808 and finished in 1832 a statue of Adonis is one of the few works in marble carved by Thorvaldsen's own hand, at the same time it is one of the works, closest to the antique Greek ideals. In the spring of 1818 Thorvaldsen fell ill, during his convalescence he was nursed by the Scottish lady Miss Frances Mackenzie. Thorvaldsen proposed to her on March 29, 1819. Thorvaldsen had fallen in love with another woman: Fanny Caspers. Torn between Mackenzie and Anna Maria Von Uhden the mother of his daughter, Thorvaldsen never succeeded in making Miss Caspers his wife. In 1819, he visited his native Denmark. Here he was commissioned to make the colossal series of statues of Christ and the Twelve Apostles for the rebuilding of Vor F