An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to pragmatic and cost-effective reasons, an alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks. The historical use of island platforms depends greatly upon the location, the island platform layout is a popular, cost-effective and practical solution in modern railway systems. Island platforms allow facilities such as escalators, shops and this is essential for wheelchair accessible stations. An island platform makes it easier for users and the infirm to change services between tracks. Additionally, an island platform layout eliminates the need to construct a crossover or subway between two platforms, island platforms may become overcrowded, especially at busy stations, and this can lead to safety issues such as Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground.
However, for the tracks to diverge around the platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are normally 3 to 5 meters, if the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks have to slew out by the same distance. While this is not a problem on a new line that is being constructed, in addition, a single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are usually between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, high-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms. This arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where trains can be passed by faster trains. The purpose of this design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form and this was because the line was planned to connect to a Channel Tunnel.
Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. Almost all railway stations in India consist of island platforms, in Toronto,29 subway stations use island platforms. A slight disadvantage is that crossovers have to be rather long, in southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 stations, to facilitate one-person train operation. Most elevated stations in Singapores Mass Rapid Transit system use island platforms, the exception is Dover MRT Station, which uses side platforms as it is built on an existing rail line. The planned Canberra MRT Station will use side platforms, as it be built on an existing rail line
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
H is an S-train service in Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark that serves mainly the outer part of Frederikssundbanen, running partially non-stop between Ballerup and Flintholm. It is one of the six lines of the S-train network. On Friday and Saturday nights there is a 30 minutes service throughout the night, frederikssund opened September 29,1989 Ølstykke opened September 29,1989 Gl. The service letter disappeared in the 1979 timetable, but was reinvented in 1989, a limited-stop daytime line called H+ ran from 1993 to 2007, initially superseding rush-hour services Cx and Bx on the Ballerup and Farum radials
EuroCity, abbreviated as EC, and meaning EuroCity express or EuroCity express train, is a cross-border train category within the European inter-city rail network. In contrast to trains allocated to the lower-level IC category, EC trains are international services that meet 20 criteria covering comfort, food service and cleanliness. Each EC train is operated by more than one EU -based rail company, under a multilateral co-operative arrangement, the EuroCity label replaced the older Trans Europ Express name for border-crossing trains in Europe. Whereas TEE services were only, EuroCity trains convey first. The EuroCity schedule was designed with train pairs running one train in both directions, thus resulting in a frequent service than the TEE, which normally ran only once a day. The night services are operated as EuroNight since 23 May 1993, all EuroCity trains carried names, and many still do, continuing the practice started with the luxury trains of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The names are printed on brochures showing the times of arrival and departure at every stop and details of the journey, these are placed on the seats by the train staff.
A few trains have used the names of the earlier Trans Europ Express or InterCity trains that they replaced on the same route, for example Iris for Brussels to Zürich. The names were related to the cities and region the trains served and chosen from historical or mythological figures. In 1991, the decision was made to name the EuroCity services after famous Europeans, on 29 July 1991, the European Community decided to reorganise the legal structure of the railways in order to stimulate commercial operation and reduce government subsidies. After 20 years the implementation is still ongoing, but it has affected the railway operators already, as a consequence of this trend, the named EC trains on the Paris–Brussels–Amsterdam route disappeared in 1995–96, replaced by unnamed TGV trains and by Thalys service. Between the Netherlands and Germany the Intercity-Express was introduced in 2000, resulting in the disappearance of the EuroCity brand on those train routes. The French–Swiss TGV services lost their names on 17 May 2003.
After the collapse of Cisalpino on 13 December 2009, the trains between Italy and Switzerland disappeared as well. Farther east, all EC services continue to carry names, on 31 May 1987 the EuroCity network started with 64 EuroCity trains, serving 200 cities in 13 countries. They were made up of 56 day services and eight night services, the network included the international TGVs between France and Switzerland, shown in orange on the 1987 map. Night services are shown in blue on the map, with the exception of the boat-train Benjamin Britten, whose overnight portion was by ferry, the other EuroCity trains are shown in green on the map. The TEE Gottardo is shown in red on the map, because it was converted to EuroCity only one year later, three international InterCity trains did not qualify as EuroCity and are shown on the map in grey
The Copenhagen S-train, is the S-train of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a hybrid urban-suburban rail serving the Greater Copenhagen region, the average distance between stations is 2.0 km, shorter in the city core and inner boroughs, longer at the end of lines that serves suburbs. Of the 85 stations,32 are located within the ticket fare zones,1 and 2. The S-tog is analogous to S-Bahn systems in Germany, and is a system from the Copenhagen Metro, which operates in the city centre, Frederiksberg. On weekdays all stations are served at least every 10 minutes until the evening, There are six main lines and one peak hour support line. Since all lines, with exception of one, use the path through the city core, train departures occur every second minute there. On most suburban lines, trains depart every five minutes, on Sundays these time intervals are doubled. The first line was opened in 1934, which was Klampenborg-Copenhagen H-Vanløse-Frederiksberg, most were converted from steam operated railways to electric, metro-like operation and stations.
Today the network forms the heart of public transport in the city, the S-train is owned and run by DSB S-tog A/S. Similar to the S-Bahns of Berlin and Hamburg, the S-train network covers the greater urban area. The different networks use a system for fare zones and tickets. Copenhagens two different city rail systems, the S-train and the Metro, serve more than half a million people a day, as of January 2009 there are 170 km of dual track and 84 S-train stations, of which eight are in neighbouring towns outside greater Copenhagen. Trains across Øresund to Scania and its city, Malmö. In the city centre, the trains run underground in two tunnel sections, elsewhere they are in the open, occasionally above or below street level. There is only one station, Nørreport, but many stations are elevated above street level. Flintholm, Ny Ellebjerg and Danshøj stations have tracks crossing each other at different levels with platforms on each level, while at Ryparken they are on the same level. The ring line or F line has a section including Nørrebro Station.
Also, the junctions of the Farumbane with the lines at Ryparken and Svanemøllen include a short elevated section
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Gedser is a town at the southern tip of the Danish island of Falster in the Guldborgsund Municipality in Sjælland region. It is the southernmost town in Denmark, the town has a population of 768. It is an important port town on the Baltic Sea, Gedser Church was designed by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint and dates from 1915. Gedser was the first place German troops landed during the occupation of Denmark on April 9,1940 at 3,55 in the morning. A number of armored cars and infantry troops hid in the ferry from Rostock and advanced into the harbor as soon as the ship docked, until January 1,2007, Gedser was a parish of the former municipality of Sydfalster in Storstrøm County. In the Kommunalreformen that municipality merged with Nykøbing Falster, Nysted, Nørre Alslev, situated in the southernmost part of Denmark on the island of Falster, Gedser is a port town on the Baltic Sea. European route E55 passes through the town, Gedser Odde is the southernmost point in Denmark. A car ferry route has operated from Gedser to Rostock in Germany since 1995, there were train and car ferry routes to Großenbrode and Warnemünde and a car ferry route to Travemünde, all in Germany.
A bridge linking Gedser to Rostock was proposed, although a decision was made in 2007 to support a fixed link across the Fehmarn Belt to the west of Gedser instead. Gedser travel guide from Wikivoyage Gedser website