Saint George was a soldier of Cappadocian Greek origins, member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints and megalo-martyrs in Christianity, was venerated as a military saint since the Crusaders. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the legend of Saint George and the Dragon, his memorial, Saint George's Day, is traditionally celebrated on 23 April. England and several other nation states, universities and organisations all claim Saint George as their patron. Little is known about St George’s life, but it is thought he was a Roman officer of Greek descent from Cappadocia, martyred in one of the pre-Constantinian persecutions. Beyond this, early sources give conflicting information. There are two main versions of the legend, a Greek and a Latin version, which can both be traced to the 5th or 6th century.
The saint's veneration dates to the 5th century with some certainty, still to the 4th. The addition of the dragon legend dates to the 11th century; the earliest text preserving fragments of George's narrative is in a Greek hagiography identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists to be a palimpsest of the 5th century. An earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail; the work of the Bollandists Daniel Papebroch, Jean Bolland, Godfrey Henschen in the 17th century was one of the first pieces of scholarly research to establish the saint's historicity via their publications in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca. Pope Gelasius I stated that George was among those saints "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God." A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E. W. Brooks in 1925.
The compiler of this Acta Sancti Georgii, according to Hippolyte Delehaye, "confused the martyr with his namesake, the celebrated George of Cappadocia, the Arian intruder into the see of Alexandria and enemy of St. Athanasius". In the Greek tradition, George was born in Cappadocia, his father died for the faith when George was fourteen, his mother returned with George to her homeland of Syria Palaestina. A few years George's mother died. George joins the Roman army. George is persecuted by one Dadianus. In versions of the Greek legend, this name is rationalized to Diocletian, George's martyrdom is placed in the Diocletian persecution of AD 303; the setting in Nicomedia is secondary, inconsistent with the earliest cultus of the saint being located in Diospolis. George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 April 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra of Rome to become a Christian as well, so she joined George in martyrdom, his body was returned to Lydda for burial.
The Latin Acta Sancti Georgii follows the general course of the Greek legend, but Diocletian here becomes Dacian, Emperor of the Persians. George dies in Melitene in Cappadocia, his martyrdom is extended, to more than twenty separate tortures over the course of seven years. Over the course of his martyrdom, 40,900 pagans are converted to Christianity, including the empress Alexandra; when George dies, the wicked Dacian is carried away in a whirlwind of fire. In Latin versions, the persecutor is the Roman emperor Decius, or a Roman judge named Dacian serving under Diocletian. There is little information on the early life of Saint George. Herbert Thurston in The Catholic Encyclopedia states that based upon an ancient cultus, narratives of the early pilgrims, the early dedications of churches to Saint George, going back to the fourth century, "there seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St. George", although no faith can be placed in either the details of his history or his alleged exploits.
According to Donald Attwater, "No historical particulars of his life have survived... The widespread veneration for St George as a soldier saint from early times had its centre in Palestine at Diospolis, now Lydda. St George was martyred there, at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century, and that Saint George in all likelihood was martyred before the year 290. Although the Diocletianic Persecution of 303, associated with military saints because the persecution was aimed at Christians among the professional soldiers of the Roman army, is of undisputed historicity, the identity of Saint George as a historical individual had not been ascertained as of Edmund Spenser's day, Edward Gibbon argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Cappadocia, a notorious Arian bishop
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
The Settlers of Catan, sometimes shortened to Catan or to Settlers, is a multiplayer board game designed by Klaus Teuber and first published in 1995 in Germany by Franckh-Kosmos Verlag as Die Siedler von Catan. Players assume the roles of settlers, each attempting to build and develop holdings while trading and acquiring resources. Players gain points as their settlements grow; the game and its many expansions are published by Catan Studio, Filosofia, GP, Inc. 999 Games, Κάισσα, Devir. The Settlers of Catan became one of the first German-style board games to achieve popularity outside Europe; as of 2015, more than 22 million copies in 30 languages had been sold. The game involves large amounts of strategy, while still being simple to learn; the players in the game represent settlers establishing colonies on the island of Catan. Players build settlements and roads to connect them as they settle the island; the game board, which represents the island, is composed of hexagonal tiles of different land types, which are laid out randomly at the beginning of each game.
Newer editions of the game began to depict a fixed layout in their manual, proven by computer simulations to be even-handed, recommend this to be used by beginners. In 2016, editions of the game were released with a conventional fixed layout board in this configuration, the hexes of which cannot be rearranged. Players build by spending resources, represented by resource cards. On each player's turn, two six-sided dice are rolled to determine. Players with a settlement adjacent to a hex containing the number just rolled receive one card of the corresponding resource. For example, if a player has one city and two settlements adjacent to a grain hex, that player would take four grain resource cards if the corresponding number was rolled. There is a robber token placed on the desert; that player may steal a resource card from another player. In addition, when a 7 is rolled, all players with 8 or more resource cards must discard their choice of half of their cards, rounded down. For example, If a player has 9 resource cards, a 7 is rolled, the player must get rid of 4 cards.
On the player's turn, the player may spend resource cards to build roads, cities, or development cards. Players can trade resource cards between each other. By building settlements adjacent to ports, players may trade with the bank at three-to-one or two-to-one ratios, depending on the port's location; the goal of the game is to reach ten victory points. Players score one point for two for each city. Various other achievements, such as establishing the longest road and the largest army, grant a player additional victory points. Resource cards can be spent to buy a development card. Three types of development cards include cards worth one victory point. Teuber's original design was for a large game of development in a new land. Between 1993 and 1995 Teuber and Kosmos simplified the game into its current form. Unused mechanics from that design went on to be used in Teuber's following games, Entdecker and Löwenherz; the game's first expansion, Catan: Seafarers, adds the concept of exploration, the combined game is the closest game to Teuber's original intentions.
The base game of the Catan series, Settlers of Catan, includes support for 3-4 players. In 1996, an extension to allow up to six players was released for the base game; as well as extra components to accommodate more players, the expansion adds an extra building phase to the turn, so that players can participate in the game during each other's turns. After releasing the 5-6 player extension, Teuber began to publish expansions for the base game; the first, Seafarers of Catan, was released in 1997. Seafarers adds ships that allow players to cross sea hexes, includes scenarios in which players explore an archipelago of islands, it adds gold-producing hexes that allow players to take the resource of their choice. The second major expansion to the game and Knights of Catan, was released in 1998, it adds concepts from the card game and its first expansion to Catan, including Knights who must be used to defend Catan from invading barbarians, improvements that can be bought for cities that give benefits to players.
In addition, three commodities can be produced, as well as the original resources. A 5–6 player extension for Cities & Knights was released at the same time. Released in 2000 was a book of variations for Settlers; the third large expansion, Catan: Traders & Barbarians, was released in 2008. Traders & Barbarians collects a number of smaller scenarios, some of which have been published elsewhere; the set includes an official two-player variant. A special edition of th
St. George, Utah
St. George is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, United States. Located in the southwestern part of the state on the Arizona border, near the tri-state junction of Utah and Nevada, it is the principal city of the St. George Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city lies in the northeasternmost part of the Mojave Desert, adjacent to the Pine Valley Mountains near the convergence of three distinct geological areas: the Mojave Desert, Colorado Plateau, Great Basin. The city is 118 miles northeast of Las Vegas and 300 miles south-southwest of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15; the St. George area is well known for its natural environment and proximity to several state and national parks; as of the 2015 U. S Census estimates, the city had a population of 80,202, the St. George metropolitan area had an estimated population of 155,600. St. George is the seventh-largest city in Utah and the largest urban area in the state outside of the Wasatch Front. In 2005, St. George was ranked the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States, surpassed only by Greeley, Colorado.
This trend continued through 2010, when growth slowed due to the economic recession. Growth has since rebounded and St. George was declared the fastest growing metropolitan area in the U. S. in 2018. Prior to the arrival of the first European settlers, the St. George area was inhabited by the Virgin River Anasazi and by the Paiute tribe; the first Europeans in the area were part of the Dominguez–Escalante Expedition in 1776. St. George was founded as a cotton mission in 1861 under the direction of Apostle Erastus Snow, it was called Dixie by Brigham Young, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. While early settlers cultivated cotton as a commodity crop, they did not succeed in producing it at competitive market rates. More important to the economy was tourism, which developed as the railroads began to carry visitors to the nearby Zion National Park. At the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Brigham Young organized the settlement of what is now Washington County. Fearing that the war would take away the cotton supply, he began plans for raising enough in this southwestern country to supply the needs of his people.
Enough favorable reports had come to him from this warm region below the rim of the Great Basin, that he was convinced cotton could be raised here. At the general church conference in Salt Lake City on October 6th, 1861, about three hundred families were "called" to the Dixie mission to promote the cotton industry. Most of the people knew nothing of this expedition; the families were selected so as to ensure the communities the right number of farmers, blacksmiths, educators, carpenters, as needed. The settlement was named after George A. Smith, an apostle of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In April 1877, the LDS Church completed Utah Temple, it is the Church's third temple. It is the oldest continually operating LDS temple in the world. St. George was the location of the 1997 United States Academic Decathlon national finals. In January 2005 a 100-year flood occurred throughout the region, due to prolonged heavy rainfall overflowing the Virgin River and Santa Clara River. One person was killed and 28 homes were destroyed by the Santa Clara River.
In the early 1950s, St. George received the brunt of the fallout of above-ground nuclear testing at the Yucca Flats/Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas. Winds carried the fallout of these tests directly through the St. George and southern Utah area. Marked increases in the frequency of cancer in the population, not limited to leukemia, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, bone cancer, brain tumors, gastrointestinal tract cancers, were reported from the mid-1950s until the early 1980s, it is believed that much of the crew of The Conqueror contracted cancer because of this. A 1962 United States Atomic Energy Commission report found children living in St. George, Utah, at the time of the fallout may have received doses to the thyroid of radioiodine as high as 120 to 440 rads". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 64.9 square miles, of which, 64.4 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. St. George lies with most of the city lying below 3,000 feet.
Wildlife and vegetation are typical of the Mojave Desert. It is situated near a unique geological transition zone where the Mojave, Colorado Plateau, Great Basin all converge; the Beaver Dam Mountains referred to as Utah Hill, lie to the west, the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area and Pine Valley Mountains to the north, the western edge of the Colorado Plateau and Zion National Park to the east, the Arizona Strip to the south. The Virgin and Santa Clara rivers flow through the valley and converge near the western base of Webb Hill; the urban area sprawls between and around numerous hills, mesas and desert habitat reserves creating natural boundaries of sections and communities within the city, which makes for a somewhat rural feel despite being urban. St. George is bordered by its suburbs; the downtown area is in the central valley between the natural boundaries, Black Hill to the west, the red sandstone bluff or Red Hill to the north, Foremaster
Carcassonne (board game)
Carcassonne is a tile-based German-style board game for two to five players, designed by Klaus-Jürgen Wrede and published in 2000 by Hans im Glück in German and by Rio Grande Games and Z-Man Games in English. It received the Spiel des Jahres and the Deutscher Spiele Preis awards in 2001, it is named after the medieval fortified town of Carcassonne in southern France, famed for its city walls. The game has spawned many expansions and spin-offs, several PC, console and mobile versions. A new edition, with updated artwork on the tiles and the box, was released in 2014; the game board is a medieval landscape built by the players. The game starts with a single terrain tile face up and 71 others shuffled face down for the players to draw from. On each turn a player draws a new terrain tile and places it adjacent to tiles that are face up; the new tile must be placed in a way that extends features on the tiles it touches: roads must connect to roads, fields to fields, cities to cities. After placing each new tile, the placing player may opt to station a piece on a feature of that newly placed tile.
The placing player may not use a follower to claim any features of the tile that extend or connect features claimed by another player. However, it is possible for terrain features claimed by opposing players to become "shared" by the subsequent placement of tiles connecting them. For example, two field tiles which each having a follower can become connected into a single field by another terrain tile; the game ends. At that time, all features score points for the players with the most followers on them; the player with the most points wins the game. During the players' turns, cities and roads are scored when they are completed—cities and roads when they are completed, cloisters when surrounded by eight tiles. At the end of the game, when there are no tiles remaining, all incomplete features are scored. Points are awarded to the players with the most followers in a feature. If there is a tie for the most followers in any given feature, all of the tied players are awarded the full number of points.
In general, points are awarded for the number of tiles covered by a feature. Once a feature is scored, all of the followers in that feature are returned to their owners. There are two older editions of Carcassonne, differing in scoring of fields. Though, until the first edition scoring rules were included with English releases of Carcassonne, third edition rules are now included with all editions, are assumed by all expansions in all languages. In the first and second editions of the game, completed cities covering just two tiles scored two points and one extra point for every pennant that resides in the city; this exception is removed from the third edition, in which there is no difference between two-tile cities and cities of larger size. The greatest divergence in scoring rules between the editions of Carcassonne is in scoring for fields. In the first edition, the players with the greatest number of followers adjacent to a city were awarded four points for that city. Thus, followers from different fields contributed to the scoring for a city, followers on a field may contribute to the scoring for multiple cities.
The second edition considered different fields separately – for each field, the players with the greatest number of followers in a field scored three points for each city adjacent to the field, although points were only scored once for any given city. The third edition removes these exceptions and brings field scoring in line with the scoring of other features. Carcassonne is considered to be an excellent "gateway game" by many board game players as it is a game that can be used to introduce new players to board games; the rules are simple, no one is eliminated, the play is fast. A typical game, without any expansions, takes about 45 minutes to play. There is a substantial luck component to the game. Examples of tactical considerations include: Conserving followers. Since each player has only seven followers, it can be easy to run out; this is important with fewer players, because each player will play more tiles during the game. Joining in on other players' features, it is possible to add a separate road or castle segment near a big road or castle and join them up.
This allows a player to gain points from their opponents' work. Avoiding sharing. An advantage can be gained by preventing other players from getting points; this is more important with fewer players. Judicious placement of followers in fields. Followers in the right field can be worth a lot of points. However, once placed, they are there for the whole game. Trapping opponents' followers. Not all possible tile configurations exist in the game. So if a player knows which tiles exist or are more common, they can create situations where it is hard or impossible for an opponent to complete some feature; the result is the opponent's follower. The 2000 base box contains the following items: 72 terrain tiles, each 45 mm × 45 mm × 2 mm 1 score table of up to 50 points 40 wood followers in 5 colors Instructions on 4 sheetsThe 2014 redesign contains the same items as the original and adds the following items: 5 Abbot followers 12 tile
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Ra (board game)
Ra is a board game for two to five players designed by Reiner Knizia and themed around Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis in ancient Egyptian culture. Published in Germany, it was republished in an English language translation by Rio Grande Games. Subsequent English language editions have been again by Rio Grande Games; the last of these increased the number of players from the original 3-5 to 2-5, but otherwise all editions have used the same rules. Ra placed 2nd in the 1999 Deutscher Spiele Preis. Ra is an auction game; the game is played in three rounds, called Epochs, reflecting the history of ancient Egypt. Players use their sun tokens to bid against each other on auctions for tiles. At the end of an epoch, points will be scored for the number and types of tiles a player managed to win; the price of the tiles is determined by the players bidding for them, values can shift rapidly. Players are faced with a constant balance between "what should be done eventually" and "what can be done now", a hallmark of many of Knizia's games, of German-style board games in general.
Ra was published in 1999 by Alea in Germany. In an interview with Funagain Games, Knizia explains how he created the game: "Ra has a good story behind it. Two or three weeks after my retirement I said,'Okay, now let's get started.' That's the time, when I do a big game. I concentrate on nothing else, and since I had more time, this concentration became more extreme. For four to six weeks I work on this game. " Almost the game was picked up for distribution and English translation by Rio Grande Games. Rio Grande owner Jay Tummelson explains how he chose Ra for distribution so early in its life: "Games I like are to be liked by others. With Ra, I decided I would like to do it in English. I offered to do it. We negotiated and I did it. I try to get involved earlier in the process…. I am working with some companies on games they are considering for next year, but have not decided on final theme or look." 999 Games published a Dutch edition of Ra in the Netherlands in 2000. Besides these three published language translations, fans of the game have translated the rules into Hungarian, Italian and French.
All of these translations, along with reviews and discussions about the game can be found on BoardGameGeek.com, a board game database and fan community. Ra sold out, was out of print for several years. In October 2005 Überplay reprinted the English version; the Überplay edition has minor differences from earlier editions: larger tiles, a larger board, a cloth sack to pull the tiles from, a smaller box, a scoring summary printed on the board, marks on tiles to indicate which are kept at the end of a round. In 2005 Knizia, working with Michael Menzel designed a new game called Razzia, the basic game of Ra with a mafia theme. A third edition of Ra was published by Rio Grande Games in 2009; this increased the range of the number of players to 2-5 from the 3-5 of earlier editions. Alea's official Ra site Ra at BoardGameGeek