The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain and at Kannauj; the Gurjara-Pratiharas were instrumental in containing Arab armies moving east of the Indus River. Nagabhata I defeated the Arab army under Tamin during the Caliphate campaigns in India. Under Nagabhata II, the Gurjara-Pratiharas became the most powerful dynasty in northern India, he was succeeded by his son Ramabhadra, who ruled before being succeeded by his son, Mihira Bhoja. Under Bhoja and his successor Mahendrapala I, the Pratihara Empire reached its peak of prosperity and power. By the time of Mahendrapala, the extent of its territory rivalled that of the Gupta Empire stretching from the border of Sindh in the west to Bengal in the east and from the Himalayas in the north to areas past the Narmada in the south; the expansion triggered a tripartite power struggle with the Rashtrakuta and Pala empires for control of the Indian Subcontinent.
During this period, Imperial Pratihara took the title of Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta. Gurjara-Pratihara are known for carved panels and open pavilion style temples; the greatest development of their style of temple building was at Khajuraho, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The power of the Pratiharas was weakened by dynastic strife, it was further diminished as a result of a great raid led by the Rashtrakuta ruler Indra III who, in about 916, sacked Kannauj. Under a succession of rather obscure rulers, the Pratiharas never regained their former influence, their feudatories became more and more powerful, one by one throwing off their allegiance until, by the end of the 10th century, the Pratiharas controlled little more than the Gangetic Doab. Their last important king, was driven from Kannauj by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018; the origin of the dynasty and the meaning of the term "Gurjara" in its name is a topic of debate among historians. The rulers of this dynasty used the self-designation "Pratihara" for their clan, never referred to themselves as Gurjaras.
The Imperial Pratiharas could have emphasized their Kshatriya, instead of Gurjara, identity for political reasons. However, at local levels Pratiharas were not wary of projecting their tribal identity, they claimed descent from the legendary hero Lakshmana, said to have acted as a pratihara for his brother Rama. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri theorized that the ancestors of the Pratiharas served the Rashtrakutas, the term "Pratihara" derives from the title of their office in the Rashtrakuta court. Multiple inscriptions of their neighbouring dynasties describe the Pratiharas as "Gurjara"; the term "Gurjara-Pratihara" occurs only in the Rajor inscription of a feudatory ruler named Mathanadeva, who describes himself as a "Gurjara-Pratihara". Another Pratihara king named Hariraja is mentioned as a "ferocious Gurjara" in the Kadwaha inscription. According to one school of thought, Gurjara was the name of the territory ruled by the Pratiharas. An opposing theory is that Gurjara was the name of the tribe to which the dynasty belonged, Pratihara was a clan of this tribe.
Several historians consider Gurjaras to be the ancestors of the modern Gujjar tribe. The proponents of the tribal designation theory argue that the Rajor inscription mentions the phrase: "all the fields cultivated by the Gurjaras". Here, the term "Gurjara" refers to a group of people rather than a region; the Pampa Bharata refers the Gurjara-Pratihara king Mahipala as a Gurjara king. Rama Shankar Tripathi argues that here Gurjara can only refer to the king's ethnicity, not territory, since the Pratiharas ruled a much larger area of which Gurjara-desha was only a small part. Critics of this theory, such as D. C. Ganguly, argue that the term "Gurjara" is used as a demonym in the phrase "cultivated by the Gurjaras". Several ancient sources including inscriptions mention "Gurjara" as the name of a country. Shanta Rani Sharma notes that an inscription of Gallaka in 795 CE states that Nagabhata I, the founder of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty, conquered the "invincible Gurjaras," which makes it unlikely that the Pratiharas were themselves Gurjaras.
However, she does concede that Imperial Pratiharas were indeed known as Gurjaras, on account of their nationality. She mentions two groups of people who were known as Gurjaras, draws a line between them. According to her, Gujjars are the descendants of ethnic Gurjaras, have nothing to do with imperial Pratiharas and Chalukyas who were known as Gurjaras. Among those who believe that the term Gurjara was a tribal designation, there are disagreements over whether they were native Indians or foreigners; the proponents of the foreign origin theory point out that the Gurjara-Pratiharas emerged as a political power in north India around 6th century CE, shortly after the Huna invasion of that region. Critics of the foreign origin theory argue that there is no conclusive evidence of their foreign origin: they were well-assimilated in the Indian culture. Moreover, if they invaded Indian through the north-west, it is inexplicable why would they choose to settle in the semi-arid area of present-day Rajasthan, rather than the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain.
According to the Agnivansha legend given in the manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso, the Pratiharas and three other Rajput dynasties originated from
The Indian subcontinent known as the Asian subcontinent and Indo subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".
It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.
There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.
It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes. More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans.
These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.
The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and no
Dharmaśāstra is a genre of Sanskrit theological texts, refers to the treatises of Hinduism on dharma. There are many Dharmashastras, variously estimated to be 18 to about 100, with different and conflicting points of view; each of these texts exist in many different versions, each is rooted in Dharmasutra texts dated to 1st millennium BCE that emerged from Kalpa studies in the Vedic era. The textual corpus of Dharmaśāstra were composed in poetic verses, are part of the Hindu Smritis, constituting divergent commentaries and treatises on duties and ethics to oneself, to family and as a member of society; the texts include discussion of ashrama, purushartha, personal virtues and duties such as ahimsa against all living beings, rules of just war, other topics. Dharmaśāstra became influential in modern colonial India history, when they were formulated by early British colonial administrators to be the law of the land for all non-Muslims in India, after Sharia was accepted as the law for Muslims in colonial India.
The Dharmashastras are based on ancient Dharmasūtra texts, which themselves emerged from the literary tradition of the Vedas composed in 2nd millennium BCE to the early centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. These Vedic branches split into various other schools for a variety of reasons such as geography and disputes; each Veda is further divided into two categories namely the Saṃhitā, a collection of mantra verses and the Brahmanas which are prose texts that explain the meaning of the Samhita verses. The Brāhmaṇa layer expanded and some of the newer esoteric speculative layers of text were called Aranyakas while the mystical and philosophical sections came to be called the Upanishads; the Vedic basis of Dharma literature is found in the Brahmana layer of the Vedas. Towards the end of the vedic period, after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE, the language of the Vedic texts composed centuries earlier grew too archaic to the people of that time; this led to the formation of Vedic Supplements called the Vedangas which means ‘limbs of the Veda’.
The Vedangas were ancillary sciences that focused on understanding and interpreting the Vedas composed many centuries earlier, included Shiksha, Vyakarana, Nirukta and Kalpa. The Kalpa Vedanga studies gave rise to the Dharma-sutras, which expanded into Dharma-shastras; the Dharmasutras were numerous. The most important of these texts are the sutras of Apastamba, Gautama and Vasistha; these extant texts cite writers and refer opinions of seventeen authorities, implying that a rich Dharmasutras tradition existed prior to when these texts were composed. The extant Dharmasutras are written in concise sutra format, with a terse incomplete sentence structure which are difficult to understand and leave much to the reader to interpret; the Dharmasastras are derivative works on the Dharmasutras, using a shloka, which are clearer. The Dharmasutras can be called the guidebooks of dharma as they contain guidelines for individual and social behavior, ethical norms, as well as personal and criminal law, they discuss the duties and rights of people at different stages of life like studenthood, householdership and renunciation.
These stages are called ashramas. They discuss the rites and duties of kings, judicial matters, personal law such as matters relating to marriage and inheritance. However, Dharmasutras did not deal with rituals and ceremonies, a topic, covered in the Shrautasutras and Grihyasutras texts of the Kalpa; the hymns of Ṛgveda are one of the earliest texts composed in verse. The Brāhmaṇa which belongs to the middle vedic period followed by the vedāṇga are composed in prose; the basic texts are composed in an aphoristic style known as the sutra which means thread on which each aphorism is strung like a pearl. The Dharmasūtras are composed in sutra style and were part of a larger compilation of texts, called the Kalpasūtras which give an aphoristic description of the rituals and proper procedures; the Kalpasutras contain three sections, namely the Śrautasūtras which deal with vedic ceremonies, Gṛhyasūtras which deal with rites of passage rituals and domestic matters, Dharmasūtras which deal with proper procedures in one's life.
The Dharmasūtras of Āpastamba and Baudhāyana form a part of larger Kalpasutra texts, all of which has survived into the modern era. The sūtra tradition ended around the beginning of the common era and was followed by the poetic octosyllable verse style called the śloka; the verse style was used to compose the Dharmaśāstras such as the Manusmriti, the Hindu epics, the Puranas. The age of Smṛtis that ended around the second half of the first millennium CE was followed by that of commentaries around the 9th century called nibandha; this legal tradition consisted of commentaries on earlier Smritis. About 20 Dharmasutras are known, some surviving into the modern era just as fragments of their original. Four Dharmasūtras have been translated into English, most remain in manuscripts. All carry the names of their authors, but it is still difficult to determine who these real authors were; the extant Dharmasūtra texts are listed below: Apastamba this Dharmasūtra forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra of Apastamba.
It contains 1,364 sut
Patañjali is the name of one or more authors of a number of Sanskrit works. A great deal of scholarship has been devoted over the last century or so to the issue of the historicity or identity of this author or these authors. Amongst the more important authors called Patañjali are: The author of the Mahābhāṣya, an ancient treatise on Sanskrit grammar and linguistics, based on the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; this Patañjali's life is dated to mid 2nd century BCE by both Indian scholars. This text was titled as a bhasya or "commentary" on Katyayana-Panini's work by Patanjali, but is so revered in the Hindu traditions that it is known as Maha-bhasya or "Great commentary". So vigorous, well reasoned and vast is his text, that this Patanjali has been the authority as the last grammarian of classical Sanskrit for 2,000 years, with Panini and Katyayana preceding him, their ideas on structure and philosophy of language have influenced scholars of other Indian religions such as Buddhism and Jainism. The compiler of the Yoga sūtras, a text on Yoga theory and practice, a notable scholar of Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
He is variously estimated to have lived between 2nd century BCE to 4th century CE, with more scholars accepting dates between 2nd and 4th century CE. The Yogasutras is one of the most important texts in the Hindu tradition and the foundation of classical Yoga, it is the Indian Yoga text, most translated in its medieval era into forty Indian languages. The third chapter is the basis for the TM-Sidhis; the author of a medical text called Patanjalatantra. He is cited and this text is quoted in many medieval health sciences-related texts, Patanjali is called a medical authority in a number of Sanskrit texts such as Yogaratnakara, Yogaratnasamuccaya and Padarthavijnana. There is a fourth Hindu scholar named Patanjali, who lived in 8th-century CE and wrote a commentary on Charaka Samhita and this text is called Carakavarttika. According to some modern era Indian scholars such as P. V. Sharma, the two medical scholars named Patanjali may be the same person, but different person from the Patanjali who wrote the Sanskrit grammar classic Mahabhasya.
Patanjali is one of the 18 siddhars in the Tamil siddha tradition. He is said to have attainted Samadhi through yogic meditation at the Brahmapureeswarar Temple located at Tirupattur, Tamil Nadu, India According to Monier Monier-Williams, the word "Patañjali" is a compound name from "patta" and "añj" or "añjali". Louis Renou was among the many scholars who have suggested that the Patañjali who wrote on Yoga was a different person than the Patanjali who wrote a commentary on Panini's grammar. In 1914, James Wood proposed. In 1922, Surendranath Dasgupta presented a series of arguments to tentatively propose that the famed Grammar text and the Yoga text author may be identical; the view that these were two different authors is accepted, but some Western scholars consider them as a single entity. Some in the Indian tradition have held that one Patañjali wrote treatises on grammar and yoga; this has been memorialised in a verse by Bhoja at the start of his commentary on the Yogasutras called Rājamārttanda, the following verse found in Shivarama's 18th-century text: योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां मलं शरीरस्य च वैद्यकेन। योपाकरोत्तं प्रवरं मुनीनां पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिरानतोस्मि॥ English translation: I bow with my hands together to the eminent sage Patañjali, who removed the impurities of the mind through yoga, of speech through grammar, of the body through medicine.
This tradition is discussed by Meulenbeld who traces this "relatively late" idea back to Bhoja, influenced by a verse by Bhartṛhari that speaks of an expert in yoga and grammar who, however, is not named. No known Sanskrit text prior to the 10th century states that the one and the same Patanjali was behind all the three treatises. In the grammatical tradition, Patañjali is believed to have lived in the second century BCE, he wrote a Mahabhasya on Panini's sutras, in a form that quoted the commentary of Kātyāyana's vārttikas. This is a major influential work on linguistics; the dating of Patanjali and his Mahabhasya is established by a combination of evidence, those from the Maurya Empire period, the historical events mentioned in the examples he used to explain his ideas, the chronology of ancient classical Sanskrit texts that respect his teachings, the mention of his text or his name in ancient Indian literature. Of the three ancient grammarians, the chronological dating of Patanjali to mid 2nd century BCE is considered as "reasonably accurate" by mainstream scholarship.
The text influenced Buddhist grammatical literature, as well as memoirs of travellers to India. For example, the Chinese pilgrim I-tsing mentions that the Mahabhasya is studied in India and advanced scholars learn it in three years. In the Yoga tradition, Patañjali is a revered name; this Patañjali's oeuvre comprises the sutras about Yoga and the commentary integral to the sutras, called the Bhāṣya. Some consider the sutras and the Bhaṣya to have had different authors, the commentary being ascribed to "an editor". According to Phillipp Maas, the same person named Patanjali composed the sutras and the Bhāṣya commentary. Radhakrishnan and Moore attribute the text to the grammarian Patañjali, dating it as 2nd century BCE, during the Maurya Empire. Maas estimates Patañjali's Yogasutra's date to be about 400 CE, based on tracing the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE. Edwin Bryant, on the
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Doab is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for the "tongue," or water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers." Since North India and Pakistan are coursed by a multiplicity of Himalayan rivers that divide the plains into doabs, the Indo-Gangetic plains consist of alternating regions of river and bangar. The regions of the doabs near the rivers consist of low-lying, but very fertile khadir and the higher-lying land away from the rivers consist of bangar, less prone to flooding but less fertile on average. Khadir is called Nali or Naili, specially in northern Haryana the fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in that gets flooded during the rains. Within bangar area, the Barani is any low rain area where the rain-fed dry farming is practiced, which nowadays are dependent on the tubewells for irrigation.
Bagar tract, an example of barani land, is the dry sandy tract of land on the border of Rajasthan state adjoining the states of Haryana and Punjab. Nahri is any canal-irrigated land, for example, the Rangoi tract, an area irrigated by the Rangoi channel/canal made for the purpose of carrying flood waters of Ghagghar river to dry areas. Villages in the doabs have been classified as khadir, khadir-bangar or bangar for many centuries and different agricultural tax rates applied based on a tiered land-productivity scale; the Yamuna-Ganga Doab or Uttar Pradesh Doab designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad. The region has an area of about 23,360 square miles; the region of the Doab figures prominently in the history and myths of Vedic period. The British raj divided the Doab into three administrative districts, viz. Upper Doab, Middle Doab and Lower Doab; the following states and districts form part of the Ganga Doab: Uttarakhand:Dehradun and Haridwar Uttar Pradesh:Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Hapur, Gautam Buddh Nagar and Bulandshahr Delhi Etah, Aligarh, Hathras, Farrukhabad, Mainpuri, Etawah and Mathura.
Mathura is in the trans-Yamuna region of Braj. Kanpur, Fatehpur and Allahabad; each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India has a distinct name, said to have been coined by Raja Todar Mal, a minister of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The names are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech ='Je' +'Ch'; the names are: The Sindh Sagar Doab lies between the Indus and Jhelum rivers. The Jech Doab lies between the Chenab rivers; the Rechna Doab lies between the Ravi rivers. The Bari Doab lies between the Beas rivers; the Bist Doab - between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers. The rivers flowing through the Malwa region, covering current states of Madhya Pradesh and parts of north-eastern Rajasthan has doab region such as Upper Malwa doab and Lower Malwa doab; the Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra River, named for the town of Raichur.
Interamnia, an ancient Latin placename, meaning "between rivers" McGregor, Ronald Stuart, The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 513, ISBN 978-0-19-864339-5, retrieved 11 September 2013
Panchala was an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab of the upper Gangetic plain. During Late Vedic times, it was one of the most powerful states of the Indian subcontinent allied with the Kuru Kingdom. By the c. 5th century BCE, it had become an oligarchic confederacy, considered as one of the solasa mahajanapadas of the Indian subcontinent. After being absorbed into the Mauryan Empire, Panchala regained its independence until it was annexed by the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE; the Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges. It corresponded to modern Budaun and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh; the country was divided into Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district; the famous city of Kanyakubja or Kannauj was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The Panchala janapada is believed to have been formed by multiple janas.
The Shatapatha Brahmana suggests that Panchala was the name of the Krivi tribe. The Vedic literature uses the term Panchala to describe the close associates of the Kurus; the Mahabharata sometimes mentions the Saranjayas as a tribe or a family among the Panchalas, sometimes uses the two terms as synonyms, although it mentions the two separately at some places. The Mahabharata further mentions that the Panchala country was divided into two territories: the northern Panchala with its capital at Ahichchhatra, the southern Panchala with its capital at Kampilya. According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five janas. H. C. Ray Chaudhuri theorized that these five clans were the Krivis, the Turvashas, the Keshins, the Srinjayas, the Somakas; each of these clans is known to be associated with one or more princes mentioned in the Vedic texts - the Krivis with Kravya Panchala, the Turvashas with Sona Satrasaha, the Keshins with Keshin Dalavya, the Srinjayas with Sahadeva Sarnjaya, the Somakas with Somaka Sahadevya.
The names of the last two clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas, are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married into the Pandavas, belonged to the Somaka clan. However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan and Divodasa, Srinjaya and Drupada were the most notable rulers of this clan; the Panchala kingdom rose to its highest prominence in the aftermath of the decline and defeat of the Kuru Kingdom by the non-Vedic Salva tribe. The king of Panchala, Keśin Dālbhya, was the nephew of the Kuru king, his dynasty remained in power for many generations. A monarchical clan, the Panchalas appear to have switched to republican corporation around 500 BCE; the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya mentions Panchala as one of the sixteen mahajanapadas of the c. 6th century BCE. The 4th century BCE Arthashastra attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin constitution. Panchala was annexed into the Magadha empire during the reign of Mahapadma Nanda in the mid-4th century BCE.
Numismatic evidence reveals the existence of independent rulers of Panchala during the post-Mauryan period. Most of the coins issued by them are found at adjoining areas. All the coins are round, made of a copper alloy and have a set pattern on the obverse-a incised square punch consisting of a row of three symbols and the ruler's name placed in a single line below them; the reverse bears depictions of the deities or sometimes of their attributes, whose names form a component of the issuers' names. The names of the rulers found on these coins are Vangapala, Damagupta, Jayagupta, Phalgunimitra, Bhumimitra, Agnimitra, Vishnumitra, Prajapatimitra, Anamitra and Yugasena. Shaunakayaniputra Vangapala, ruler of Ahichatra, whom Vaidehiputra Ashadhasena mentioned as his grandfather in his Pabhosa inscription, is identified with king Vangapala, known from his coins; the name of Damagupta is found on a clay sealing. The last independent ruler of Ahichatra was Achyuta, defeated by Samudragupta, after which Panchala was annexed into the Gupta Empire.
The coins of Achyuta found from Ahichatra have a wheel of eight spokes on the reverse and the legend Achyu on the obverse. Kuru Kingdom Vedic period Painted Grey Ware culture Mahajanapadas Mahabharata Coins of Panchala janapada Coins of Post-Mauryan Panchala Kingdom Panchal Details from IGNCA