Czechoslovak State Railways
Czechoslovak State Railways was the state-owned railway company of Czechoslovakia. The company was founded in 1918 after the end of the First World War and dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it took over the rolling infrastructure of the Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways. In 1930 Czechoslovakia had 13,600 km of railways: the fifth-largest network in Europe. Of these 81% were state -owned, the trend was to nationalize the remaining private railways. Most of the infrastructure was concentrated in the industrial regions of the Czech lands. 87% of the railroads were single-track. 135,000 people were employed on the railways: about 1% of the population. When Nazi Germany dissolved Czechoslovakia in 1939, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia formed the "Bohemian-Moravian Railway" company under the control of Deutsche Reichsbahn. In the Slovak State the "Slovak Railways" company was formed. In 1945 ČSD was re-established. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the company was divided into the state-owned České dráhy and Železnice Slovenskej republiky.
The fixed infrastructure was transferred to the successor countries according to location. Electrification of the railways started during the 1920s. In Prague the trains used a direct current system at 1.5 kV. To power the line from Prague to Chop, a direct current system using 3 kV was built after 1945. To the north of this line, trains use direct current with voltage 3 kV, to the south they use alternating current with voltage 25 kV at 50 Hz; these two systems continue today
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Motor coach (rail)
A motor coach or motorcar is a powered rail vehicle able to pull several trailers and at the same time transport passengers or luggage. With multiple unit train control, one operator can control several “motor coaches” even combined with locomotives, efficiently in the same train, making longer trains possible. A motor coach is distinguished from railbus by not being lightweight. Motor coaches can replace locomotives at the head of local freight trains. Electrified narrow gauge lines on the European continent saw this form of operation. Many of these railways closed down, many others changed to electric multiple units, but a few lines in Switzerland and Austria still work with train consists hauled by motor coaches. It can be expected that the Bernina line of Rhaetian Railway will continue for a long time to be operated with motor coaches pulling passenger and freight trains. Railcar Railbus Multiple Unit Locomotive Autorail British Rail Railbuses
Slovenská strela is the name of an express train, first operated by ČSD in Czechoslovakia on the line between Bratislava and Prague. Introduced in 1936, Slovenská strela served as a ČSD flagship between the metropolises of Slovakia and Bohemia, it ran with unique motor units named Slovenská strela with various motor and electric locomotives. The train has been in service since, except for war years 1939-1945. However, in 1965-1967, the train was renamed to Ostravan-Bratislavan expres. From December 2006 to 12 December 2009, as well as in 2011, the high-speed Pendolino ETR 680, manufactured in Italy and owned by Czech Railways as ČD Class 680 was introduced to this express. In the 2010-timetable and from 2012 onwards, the train was operating on route Bratislava - Břeclav as EC 277/278 with through coaches from Bratislava to Prague and Ostseebad Binz, from Prague detaching from EC 177 to Vienna. In the 2013 timetable, a through train between Bratislava and Stralsund via Prague and Berlin is named Slovenská strela.
Rail transport in Slovakia Rail transport in the Czech Republic ČSD Class M 290.0 Tatra Auto Club Slovakia M290 at Parostroj
Kopřivnice is a town in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. Until 1918, NESSELSDORF - KOPŘIVNICE was part of the Austrian monarchy, in the Nový Jičín - Neutitschein district, one of the 34 administrative districts in Moravia. A post-office was opened in 1870, named Nesselsdorf. In 1850, both of the former villages, Drnholec nad Lubinou and Větřkovice, became a part of the political district of Nový Jičín within the judicial district Příbor. Between the years 1939-1945, both villages were attached to the Third Reich within so called “the Nový Jičín Landrat”. In 1945 the German population was expelled according to the Benes Decrees. In 1980, Lubina covered an area of 781 hectares. In that year Lubina had a population of 1358 which increased to 1371 in 1991; the number of dwellings increased from 344 to 363. In 1971, Lubina became a seat of a collective farm „Družba“, established by uniting of collective farms Lubina, Mniší, Vlčovice and Hájov; the collective farm „Družba“stretched on an area of 1502 hectares.
Lubina is a former village situated between Příbor. It lies by the north-west border of the former Nový Jičín district in the Moravian-Silesian region. In 1959, two villages, Drnholec nad Lubinou and Větřkovice, were united and formed the old village of Lubina. In 1978, Lubina became a part of the town Kopřivnice. Vlčovice Mniší Kopřivnice and the Moravian-Silesian region have a strong industrial heritage: steel and automotive industries are strong; the Tatra truck company is based here. During the communist era Tatra employed over 16,000, it employs 3,700. The controlling interest of Tatra was owned by an international consortium of Vectra Group of U. K. Sam Eyde of Lansing, Michigan, KBC PE of Belgium and Ronald Adams, nowadays, it is owned by Jaroslav Strnad, a Czech armorer. Other important industrial sectors include chemicals, glass, rubber and textiles. Brewing is an important industry and some of the country's finest beers are produced in the area. Meanwhile in the past Tatra was bankrupt, at present, it is increasing its production.
New owners haven't only returned it back to the markets, which it had abandoned, but it had expanded its export through the world including Australia. History exhibit in Muzeum fojtství. Art exhibit in Šustalova vila. Technical museum of Tatra with famous rail motor coach Slovenská strela on display and with a special permanent exhibit on Dana and Emil Zátopek in addition to historical automobiles and trucks produced in Kopřivnice. Zdeněk Burian, painter Tomáš Fleischmann, ice hockey player Hana Šromová, tennis player Ignác Šustala and Tatra founder Zdeňka Veřmiřovská, gymnast Emil Zátopek, athlete Municipal website
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice. It is owned by the Tatra Trucks company, based in Ostrava, is the second oldest company in the world producing cars with an unbroken history, surpassed only by French automaker Peugeot; the company was founded in 1850 as Ignatz Schustala & Comp. in 1890 renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft when it became a wagon and carriage manufacturer. In 1897, Tatra produced the first motor car in the Präsident automobile. In 1918, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s. and in 1919 changed from the Nesselsdorfer marque to the Tatra badge, named after the nearby Tatra Mountains on the Czechoslovak-Polish border. During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999, but the company still produces a range of all-wheel-drive trucks, from 4×4 to 18x18; the brand is known as a result of Czech truck racer Karel Loprais: in 1988–2001 he won the off-road race Dakar Rally six times with a Tatra 815.
Ignác Šustala, founder of the company "Ignatz Schustala & Comp" in Kopřivnice, started the production of horse-drawn vehicles in 1850. In 1891 it branched out into railroad car manufacture, naming the company "Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft", employed Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstamm as technical director in 1890. After the death of Šustala, von Roeslerstamm took over running the company and in 1897 he bought a Benz automobile. Using this for inspiration, the company made its first car, the Präsident, under the direction of engineers Hans Ledwinka and Edmund Rumpler, exhibited in 1897 in Vienna. Orders were obtained for more cars, until 1900, nine improved cars based on Präsident were made; the first car to be designed by Ledwinka came in 1900 with the Type A with rear-mounted 2714 cc engine and top speed of 40 kilometres per hour, 22 units were built. This was followed by the Type B with central engine in 1902 but Ledwinka left the company to concentrate on steam engine development.
He returned in 1905 and designed a new car, the Type S with 3308 cc 4-cylinder engine. Production was badly hit in 1912 with a 23-week strike and Hugo Fischer von Roeslerstam left the company. In 1921 the company was renamed to "Kopřivnická vozovka", in 1919 the name Tatra was given to the car range. Leopold Pasching took over control and in 1921 Hans Ledwinka returned again to develop the revolutionary Tatra 11; the new car, launched in 1923 featured a rigid backbone tube with swinging semi-axles at the rear giving independent suspension. The engine, front-mounted, was an air-cooled two-cylinder unit of 1056 cc. In 1924 the company was renamed to "Závody Tatra"; the Tatra 11 was replaced in 1926 by the similar Tatra 12. A further development was the 1926 Tatra 17 with a 1,930 cc water-cooled six-cylinder engine and independent suspension. In 1927 the company was renamed "Ringhoffer-Tatra". Tatra's specialty was luxury cars of a technically advanced nature, going from air-cooled flat-twins to fours and sixes, culminating with the OHC 6-litre V12 in 1931.
In the 1930s, under the supervision of Austrian engineer Hans Ledwinka, his son Erich and German engineer Erich Übelacker, protected by high tariffs and absence of foreign assemblers, Tatra began building advanced, streamlined cars after obtaining licences from Paul Jaray, which started in 1934 with the large Tatra 77, the world's first production aerodynamic car. The average drag coefficient of a 1:5 model of the fastback Tatra 77 was recorded as 0.2455. It featured a rear-mounted, air-cooled V8 engine, in technical terms sophisticated for the time. Both Adolf Hitler and Ferdinand Porsche were influenced by the Tatras. Hitler was a keen automotive enthusiast, had ridden in Tatras during political tours of Czechoslovakia, he had dined numerous times with Ledwinka. After one of these dinners Hitler remarked to Porsche, "This is the car for my roads". From 1933 onwards and Porsche met to discuss their designs, Porsche admitted "Well, sometimes I looked over his shoulder and sometimes he looked over mine" while designing the Volkswagen.
There is no doubt that the Beetle bore a striking resemblance to the Tatras the Tatra V570. The Tatra 97 of 1936 had a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat. Another similarity between this Tatra and the Beetle is the central structural tunnel. Tatra launched a lawsuit against VW. At the same time, Tatra was forced to stop producing the T97; the matter was re-opened after World War II and in 1965 Volkswagen paid Tatra 1,000,000 DM in an out of court settlement. After the 1938 invasion of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany, Tatras were kept in production because Germans liked the cars. Many German officers died in car accidents caused by driving the heavy, rear-engined Tatras faster around corners than they could handle. At the time, as an anecdote, Tatra became known as the'Czech Secret Weapon' for the scores of officers who died behind the wheel; the factory was nationalised in 1945 three years before the Communist Party came to power and in January 1946 was renamed to "Tatra Národní Podnik".
Although production of prewar models continued, a new model, the Tatra 600 Tatraplan was designed—the name celebrating the new Communist planned economy and the aeroplane inspiration (Colloq