Rade Mihaljčić is a Serbian historian and academic. Most of his works deal with medieval Serbia the Serbian empire and the Battle of Kosovo. Monographies: The Fall of the Serbian Empire, 1975. Lazar Hrebeljanović - istorija, predanje, 1984. Heroes of the Kosovo Legends, 1989; the Battle of Kosovo in History and in Popular Tradition, 1989. Bezimeni junak, 1995. Boj na Kosovu u bugaršticama i epskim pesmama kratkog stiha, 1995, co-author with Jelka Ređep Prošlost i narodno sećanje, 1995. Izvorna vrednost stare srpske građe, 2001. Vladarske titule oblasnih gospodara - prilog vladarskoj ideologiji u starijoj srpskoj prošlosti, 2001. Zakoni u starim srpskim ispravama, 2006. Articles: Selišta. Prilog istoriji naselja u srednjovekovnoj srpskoj državi, Zbornik FF u Beogradu IX-1 173–224. Gde se nalaѕio grad Petrus?, Prilozi KJIF 34, 3–4 264–267. Bitka kod Aheloja, Zbornik FF u Beogradu XI-1 271–275. Vojnički zakon, Zbornik FF u Beogradu XII-1 305–309. Knez Lazar i obnova srpske države, O knezu Lazaru, Beograd 1975, 1–11.
Stavilac, IČ HHIII 5–21. L‘Etat Serbe et l‘universalisme de la seconde Rome, Da Roma alla terza Roma, Constatinopoli, Roma 1983, 375–386. Djed, Dmitar Zvinimir, Lexikon des Mittelalters III-6, München 1985. Dabiša, Lexikon des Mittelalters III-7, München 1985. Drijeva, Lexikon des Mittelalters III-7, München 1985. Otroci, IG 1-2 51–57. Lazar Hrebeljanović, Lexikon des Mittelalters V, München 1990. Istorijska podloga izreke „Od Kulina bana“, IG 1-2 7–13. Vladarska titula gospodin, IG 1-2 29–36. Kosovska legenda kao istorijski izvor. Kliment Ohridski“ 86–5, Sofija 1995, 51–59. La corégence dans l’Etat des Nemanić, Σύμμεικτα 11 215–227. Prezimena izvedena od titula, Raskovnik 87–88, Tematski zbornik Marko Kraljević, mit, Beograd 1998, 9–34. Mara Hrebeljanović, Danica 2000, Beograd 1999, 127–147. Gospodar – vladarska titula Ivana Crnojevića, Zapisi 3–4 7–15. Dušanov zakonik u sudskoj praksi, Dušanov zakonik – 650 godina od njegovog donošenja, Banja Luka 2000, 35–50. Povelja kralja Stefana Tvrtka I Kotromanića knezu i vojvodi Hrvoju Vukčiću Hrvatiniću, Stari srpski arhiv 1 117–129.
Hrisovulja cara Uroša melničkom mitropolitu Kirilu, SSA 2 85–97. Mljetske povelje cara Uroša, SSA 3 71–87. Hrisovulja cara Uroša manastiru Hilandaru, SSA 4 151–160. Hrisovulja cara Uroša manastiru Hilandaru o daru kaluđera Romana, SSA 5 139–148. Slovo braće Brankovića manastiru Hilandaru, SSA 6 151–166. Povelja Stefana Ostoje Dubrovčanima, Građa o prošlosti Bosne 1 123–135. Povelja kralja Ostoje kojom potvrđuje ranije darovnice Dubrovniku, SSA 7 163–173) Biography on the website of ANURS
Stavilac was a court title of Serbia in the Middle Ages. It was similar to the Byzantine court offices of domestikos and cup-bearer, it had a role in the ceremony at the royal table, though the holder could be entrusted with jobs that had nothing to do with court ritual. According to studies of Rade Mihaljčić, the holder was in charge of acquiring and serving food at the royal table, it was a confidant duty, given to the highest and most notable nobility, in which the ruler relied on in all occasions. Its oldest mention is from the court of King Stefan Milutin; the title of stavilac ranked as the last in the hierarchy of the Serbian court, behind čelnik, tepčija and vojvoda, the supreme title. It was quite prestigious as it enabled its holder to be close to the ruler. In the Dečani chrysobulls, King Stefan Dečanski mentioned that the court dignitaries present at the Dečani assembly were the kaznac, tepčija, vojvoda and stavilac. There is not much information on the title-holders at the court of King Stefan Dečanski.
Đuraš Vrančić, served King Stefan Milutin. Miloš Vojinović, served King Stefan Dušan. Son of Vojvoda Vojin. Gradislav Sušenica, served King Stefan Dušan. Vojislav Vojinović, served Emperor Stefan Dušan. Son of Vojvoda Vojin. Lazar Hrebeljanović, served Emperor Stefan Dušan and Emperor Uroš V. Serbian noble titles Stolnik, title in Poland and Muscovy
Kingdom of Serbia (medieval)
The Kingdom of Serbia, or Serbian Kingdom, was a medieval Serbian state that existed from 1217 to 1346, ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty. The Grand Principality of Serbia was elevated with the coronation of Stefan Nemanjić as king by his brother, archbishop Sava, after inheriting all territories unified by their father, grand prince Stefan Nemanja; the kingdom was proclaimed an empire on 16 April 1346. The coronation of Stefan Nemanjić in 1217 was not unheard of in Serbian history, since there had been a long tradition of kingship among previous Serbian rulers centered in Duklja. During the Nemanjić era, the previous Serbian kingdom in Duklja was referred to as the "Old Kingdom of our forefathers" and such views were reflected in the royal titles of Stefan Nemanjić and his successors, who styled themselves as kings of all Serbian Lands, including Duklja. Realizing the importance of royal heritage, grand prince Stefan Nemanja, father of Stefan Nemanjić, granted his elder son Vukan Nemanjić rule in Duklja, with the title of king.
By that time, the "Old Kingdom" of Duklja and its former rulers from the Vojislavljević dynasty were regarded as royal predecessors to the Nemanjić dynasty, that branched from the previous Vukanović dynasty in Raška. Older relations between the two dynasties and the two regions were close. In 1083, king Constantine Bodin of Duklja appointed his nephews Vukan and Marko vassals in Raška, one of the inner provinces of his realm; each province had its own nobility and institutions, each acquired a member or relative of the Vojislavljević dynasty to govern as župan. Between 1089 and 1091, the Byzantine Empire launched a campaign on Duklja. An internal war broke out in the realm among Bodin's relatives weakening Duklja. Vukan of Raška took the opportunity to assert himself and broke away, claiming the title of Grand Prince of Serbia. Up to the end of 11th century, Duklja had been the center of the Serbian realm, as well as the main state resisting Byzantium. From that time, Raška became the most powerful of the Serbian states, under the rule of the Vukanović dynasty, it remained so throughout the entire 12th century.
Raška replaced Duklja as the main opponent of the Byzantine Empire. Bodin's heirs were forced to recognize Byzantine overlordship, now held only the small territories of Duklja and Travunia. During the reign of Vukan's successors, the Byzantines sought to conquer Raška on several occasions, but through resistance, diplomatic ties with Hungary, that Serbian principality kept its independence. By the time when Stefan Nemanja became the grand župan of Raška, old Duklja was half conquered by the Byzantines reduced to a small principality. Soon after 1180, Stefan Nemanja liberated Duklja thus reuniting Serbian lands, invested his son Vukan with rule over Duklja with the traditional title of the king. Since Nemanja's second son Stefan became grand župan in 1196, rivalry occurred among brothers, culminating in 1202 when Stefan was overthrown. In 1204, Stefan Nemanjić regained his rule in Raška and made peace with his brother Vukan of Duklja, who died in 1208; the actual peacemaker was their youngest brother Rastko, former prince of Zahumlje who renounced his rule to became a monk, took the name Sava, turning all his efforts to spreading Eastern Orthodoxy among his people.
Since the Roman Catholic Church had ambitions to spread its influence to the Southeaster Europe as well, Stefan used these circumstances to obtain the recognition of kingship from the Pope, thereby becoming Serbian king in 1217. In Byzantium, Sava managed to secure autocephaly for the Serbian Church and became the first Serbian archbishop in 1219. In the same year Sava published the first constitution in Serbia — St. Sava's Nomocanon; the Nomocanon was a compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law, Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils. Its basic purpose was to organize the functions of the Serbian church, thus the Serbs acquired both religious independence. In 1220, grand assembly of the realm was held in Žiča, were Stefan was crowned by the Orthodox ritual and coronation was performed by archbishop Sava; that act served as a precedent for all their successors: all Serbian kings of the Nemanjić dynasty were crowned in Žiča, by Serbian archbishops. The next generation of Serbian rulers — the sons of Stefan Prvovenčani, Radoslav and Uroš I — marked a period of stagnation of the state structure.
All three kings were more or less dependent on some of the neighbouring states — Byzantium, Bulgaria, or Hungary. The ties with the Hungarians played a decisive role as Uroš I was succeeded by his son Dragutin, whose wife was a Hungarian princess; when Dragutin abdicated in favour of his younger brother Milutin, in 1282, the Hungarian king Ladislaus IV gave him lands in northeastern Bosnia, the region of Mačva, the city of Belgrade, whilst he managed to conquer and annex lands in northeastern Serbia. Thus, some of these territories became part of the Serbian state for the first time, his new state was named Kingdom of Srem. In that time the name Srem was a designation for two territories: Lower Srem; the Kingdom of Srem under the rule of Stefan Dragutin was Lower Srem, but some historical sources mention that Stefan Dragutin ruled over Upper Srem and Slavonia. After Dragutin died in 1316, his son, king Vladislav II, became king and ruled until 1325. Under Dragutin's younger brother, King Milutin, Serbia grew stronger despite having to fight
Tepčija was a court title of Croatia and Bosnia in the Middle Ages. The functions and position in the court is unclear, it was first mentioned in Croatia in the second half of the 11th century, in Serbia in the first half of the 13th century, in Bosnia during 13th and 14th century. The title-holder took care of the country's feudal estates. There were three levels in title, the veliki tepčija, "tepčija" and mali tepčija. "Veliki tepčija" took care of the royal estates. Tepčija had a similar office to that of the kaznac, cared of all major feudal estates bar that which belonged to the Court. "Tepčija" had executive authorities. His servants were called otroci; the Serbian court hierarchy at the time of king Stefan Milutin was as follows: stavilac, čelnik, tepčija and vojvoda, the supreme title. In the Dečani chrysobulls of king Stefan Dečanski, the court dignitaries present at the Dečani assembly were the kaznac, tepčija, vojvoda and stavilac. SerbiaObrad, veliki tepčija, served Stefan Vladislav. Dobravac, served the countess of Hum.
Kuzma, served Stefan Milutin. Hardomil, served Stefan Milutin. Vladoje, served Stefan Dečanski. Mišljen, veliki tepčija, served Stefan Dečanski. Gradislav, served Stefan Dušan. Stepko Čihorić, served Stefan Dušan. BosniaRadonja, served Matej Ninoslav Vučin Radosav, served Dabiša. Milat, served Tvrtko in Hum. Batalo, lord of the župa of Lašva Sladoje
Vukdrag was a Serbian nobleman who served King Stefan Dečanski as čelnik. He was a magnate in the Rudnik mountain area, who founded the Raška style church in Dići, below the Rudnik, before 1327, most as a family temple, he must have had one of the important gubernatorial functions in the Rudnik oblast during the reigns of kings Stefan Milutin and Stefan Dečanski. Unknown in historical sources, he was buried in his church, where his gravestone inscription tells that he died on 8 May 1327, on the Feast of the Ascension, that he had taken monastic vows as Nikola and held the title of čelnik, it is unclear if there was several individuals with that title at the court at that time. He was buried in a special tomb inside the church, his gravestone was set by his wife Vladislava; the unearthing of the gravestone gave new facts in the understanding of the territorial contours of the Serbian state north of Rudnik at the end of the 13th- and beginning of 14th century. The largest medieval necropolis in Serbia was unearthed around the church, with flat gravestones belonging to the oldest phase of the Stećak culture
Michael Angelović was a Serbian magnate serving the Serbian Despotate with the titles of veliki čelnik and veliki vojvoda, part of the Serbian three-member regency in 1458. He plotted with the Ottomans but was apprehended and after brief captivity joined his brother, Ottoman official Mahmud Pasha, as a Timariot. After the Ottoman conquest of Thessaly in 1394, the ruling Angeloi Philanthropenoi family took refuge in Serbia. Michael and his brother were grandchildren of either Manuel, he may have been related to the noblemen Alessio and Peter Spani through Alexios III Angelos, their ancestor. According to Laonikos Chalkokondyles, his brother was captured by the horsemen of Sultan Murad II, while traveling with his Serbian mother from Novo Brdo to Smederevo, his brother was abducted as part of the devşirme practice, became Mahmud rising to the highest ranks of the Ottoman Empire, becoming beylerbey of Rumelia in 1451 and Grand Vizier in 1455. Michael served as an official at the court of Serbian despots Đurađ and Lazar Branković.
In the negotiations between Despot Lazar and Mehmed II in January 1457, the two sides were represented by the brothers Michael and Mahmud. Owing to his personal talents, as well as his unique ability to positively steer negotiations with the Ottomans due to his brother's position, Michael rose in rank in the Serbian Despotate, from veliki čelnik in the 1440s to veliki vojvoda in 1456/7. Mentioned with the latter title in the beginning of 1457, he may have received it earlier. In 1453, Đurađ Golemović is mentioned with the title of čelnik; the advancement is reminiscent of that of a magnate in the Serbian Empire. Because Despot Lazar had no sons, after his death a three-member regency was formed, on February 3, 1458, of Michael, Lazar's widow Helena Palaiologina, Lazar's blind brother Stefan. Michael was the leader, with the Serbian chronicle claiming that the other two ruled only through him. There was a secret struggle for the throne within the regency. Michael was supported by the Ottomans, tried to become the new Despot of Serbia with their help.
He began plotting behind the regency's back. After having secretly let a company of Ottoman soldiers into Smederevo, the population turned against him; the Ottoman company was captured or killed, Michael was ousted from rule and imprisoned on 31 March 1458 transferred to Hungary. Unlike him, čelnik Đurađ and his brother Oliver stayed loyal to the Branković. Stefan Branković became Despot of Serbia in his own right and ruled alongside Helena Palaiologina for the next twelve months. Michael was soon entrusted as a captive to a Ragusan servant of the Despotate. At some point after November 1458, he managed to free himself from Đurđević, he soon was granted a timar in the Ottoman Empire. By 1464, he had returned to Serbia, evident in the ktetor inscription of the monastery of Nova Pavlica, the endowment of the 14th-century Musić noble family, he financed the restoration of the monastery. Michael and Mahmud's Byzantine-Serbian descent and blood relations were important for the future establishment of Islamic rule in the Balkans and Anatolia.
The use of kuls of Christian origin in high positions of the Ottoman court minimized the risks that they had to face in conquering and assimilating large Christian territories and populations
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church