Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Čierny Balog is a municipality in Brezno District, in the Banská Bystrica Region of central Slovakia. The village arose after 1882 by a merge of 13 villages, it played an important role during World War II, as one of the centers of the anti-Nazi Slovak National Uprising. Čierny Hron Railway List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1656-1896 http://www.ciernybalog.sk http://www.e-obce.sk/obec/ciernybalog/cierny-balog.html http://www.muranskaplanina.com/ciernybalog.htm Surnames of living people in Cierny Balog
Hronec is a village and municipality in Brezno District, in the Banská Bystrica Region of central Slovakia. In historical records, the village was first mentioned as Hronecz in 1357, when it was the dominion of Lypche Solienses. In 1390, it was mentioned as Horonecz; as Louis I of Hungary in 1357 gave to the Royal forester's son - called Pál - the right of scultetus, in 1405 it was referred as Plantatio Pauli. In 1424 Kysgaran, in 1547 Ranitz and in the 19th century Rhonic was used. After, the official name was until 1886 Rónicz; as part of Czehoslovakia, Hronec became the official name. Alajos Szokolyi – Hungarian sportsperson, bronze medalist at the first modern Olympics The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1679-1909 Greek Catholic church records: 1775-1928 Lutheran church records: 1784-1927 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia https://web.archive.org/web/20070513023228/http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html http://www.e-obce.sk/obec/hronec/hronec.html http://www.hronec.sk/ Surnames of living people in Hronec
Historical Logging Switchback Railway
The Historical Logging Switchback Railway in Vychylovka is preserved section technically most interesting part of the former narrow-gauge zig zag logging railway located in Kysuce and Orava region. The railway was disassembled, except an 8 km section from Chmúra to Tanečník. A 3.6 km section is used as a heritage railway for tourists. Steam locomotive MÁV 2282/1909 – in service Steam locomotive MÁV 4281/1916 – in service until 1999 Steam locomotive Kraus Maffei 15791/1940 – out of service Steam locomotive ČKD 2612/1948 – out of service Steam locomotive ČKD 1441/1928 – out of service. Čierny Hron Railway List of transport museums in Slovakia List of museums in Slovakia The club of romantics of the narrow-gauge railway of Orava and Kysuce
Podbrezová is a large village and municipality in Brezno District, in the Banská Bystrica Region of central Slovakia, around 10 km west of the district seat town, Brezno. The village is made of six former independent settlements, which were grouped in the 19th century around a new mill - the Hron iron works. Podbrezová has a football club FO ŽP Šport Podbrezová which plays in the Fortuna Liga. In the 2013-2014 season, Podbrezová finished first in this league and will therefore promote to the highest Slovak league, the Slovak Super Liga for the 2014-2015 season; this is the first time in the club's existence. Home games are played in the ZELPO Arena, located in Podbrezová. Municipal website
Deutz AG is an internal combustion engine manufacturer, based in Porz, Germany. The company was founded by Nicolaus Otto on 31 March 1864, as N. A. Otto & Cie. Otto was the inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine. In the early years, he and his partner, Eugen Langen, were only interested in production of stationary engines, not automobiles; the technical director, Gottlieb Daimler, was eager to produce automobiles. In the middle of the 1870s, it was suggested that he transfer to the company's St. Petersburg factory to reduce his influence, he resigned. Deutz produced agricultural machines such as combine harvesters and tractors, as well as commercial vehicles such as trucks and buses. Famous people who have worked for Deutz include Eugen Langen, Nikolaus Otto, Gottlieb Daimler (from 1872 until 1880], Wilhelm Maybach, Prosper L'Orange, Ettore Bugatti, Robert Bosch. During World War II, the company was ordered to produce artillery and operated under the name Klöckner Humboldt Deutz AG.
The factory was destroyed by an air raid on the night of the 3rd and 4th of July 1943. Commercial vehicles powered by Deutz engines were popular from 1960 to 1980, sold under the brand name Magirus Deutz. Deutz's head office is in the Porz district of Cologne and, as of 2004, was manufacturing liquid and air-cooled diesel engines; the larger engines in the Deutz range were manufactured in Mannheim, at a production facility that once belonged to Süddeutsche Bremsen-AG as MWM-Diesel. Deutz has production facilities in other countries, including Spain, a joint venture production facility in China. After Deutz took over, the plant specialised in marine engines; this facility now produces engines for marine and power generation which can run on either fuel oils or fuel gases. In 1995 Deutz sold its agricultural machinery division – Deutz-Fahr – to the Italian company SAME, forming SAME Deutz-Fahr. Deutz engines are available in the power range 4 to 500 kW, with air, oil or water cooling and with life expectancy of 20,000 and 30,000 running hours TBO on rebuilt and brand-new units.
Parts and service are available worldwide. In the United States and Canada, a network of distributors was established a few years ago, providing parts and service in North America. Deutz-powered air-cooled machines are well-suited for many applications since they cannot freeze or boil-over during normal operation. Deutz manufactures oil-cooled engines; these can provide the same power as other engine designs, but in a smaller package, since they don't require the additional space to house a radiator. Deutz makes engines with a tandem oil cooler/radiator configuration. Deutz has line of economical liquid-cooled engines. In 2007, the "Deutz Power Systems" division was sold to 3i, Deutz AG now concentrates on producing and selling compact engines under the Deutz brand only, they are focusing on manufacturing engines only for the customer, without competing for the entire piece of finished machinery. On October 1, 2008, the former Deutz Power Systems division received a new, name MWM; the company traces its roots to Karl Benz, who set up the foundations of the company in 1871.
After splitting the engine business off from Benz AG, it became Motoren-Werke Mannheim AG. Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz AG took over in 1985 becoming Deutz AG. After spinning off Deutz Power Systems, the company has made a full circle back to MWM. In 2012, SAME Deutz-Fahr sold a majority of its holding in Deutz AG to Volvo, selling more than 22 Million shares; this puts Volvo's ownership at just over 25%, makes them the largest share-holder. SAME Deutz-Fahr retained 8.4% equity in the company. In 2017, Deutz acquired Torqeedo GmbH, specialist for integrated electric and hybrid drives for boats. Official website Deutz logo in the mirror of time Overhauling of a Deutz BF4M1013EC Engine Clippings about Deutz AG in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics