Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
The Tiled Kiosk is a pavilion set within the outer walls of Topkapı Palace and dates from 1472 as shown on the tile inscript above the main entrance. It was built by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II as kiosk, it is located in the most outer parts of the palace, next to Gülhane Park. It was called Glazed Kiosk, it was used as the Imperial Museum between 1875 and 1891. In 1953, it was opened to the public as a museum of Turkish and Islamic art, was incorporated into the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, housing the Museum of Islamic Art; the pavilion contains many examples of Seljuk pottery. The building has a Greek cross shaped groundplan and two storeys high, although since the building straddles a declivity, only one floor is visible from the main entrance; the exterior glazed bricks show a Central Asian influence from the Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Samarkand. The square, axial plan represents the four corners of the world and symbolizes, in architectural terms, the universal authority and sovereignty of the Sultan.
As there is no Byzantine influence, the building is ascribed to an unknown Persian architect. The stone-framed brick and the polygonal pillars of the façade are typical of Persia. A grilled gate leads to the basement. Two flights of stairs above this gate lead to a roofed colonnaded terrace; this portico was rebuilt in the 18th century. The great door in the middle, surrounded by a tiled green arch, leads to the vestibule and to a loftily domed court; the three royal apartments are situated behind, with the middle apartment in apsidal form. These apartments look out over the park to the Bosphorus; the network of ribbed vaulting suggests Gothic revival architecture, but it adds weight to the structure instead of sustaining it. The blue-and-white tiles on the wall are arranged in triangles in the Bursa manner; some show delicate patterns of flowers, clouds or other abstract forms. The white plasterwork is in the Persian manner. On both wings of the domed court are eyvans, vaulted recesses open on one side.
The museum is closed on Mondays. Opening hours are 9:00 to 17:00. Sir Banister Fletcher. A History of Architecture. Boston: Butterworths, 1987. ISBN 0-408-01587-X. NA200. F63 1987. Discussion p611 John Julius Norwich, ed. Great Architecture of the World. New York: Random House, 1975. ISBN 0-394-49887-9. NA200. G76. Discussion, facade photo, p140. John D. Hoag. Islamic Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977. ISBN 0-8109-1010-1. LC 76-41805. NA380. H58. Plan drawing, fig427, p324. Goodwin, 1971. Over 150 pictures GreatBuildings.com | Tiled Kiosk
Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul in Turkey a quarter of Fatih, the province's capital district. This is the heart of the walled city of the focus of a history of incredible richness. Eminönü covers the area on which the ancient Byzantium was built; the Galata Bridge crosses the Golden Horn into Eminönü and the mouth of the Bosphorus opens into the Marmara Sea. And up on the hill stands the Blue Mosque and Hagia Sophia, thus Eminönü is the main tourist destination in Istanbul. It was a part of the Fatih district until 1928, which covered the whole peninsular area within the Roman city walls - that area, the Byzantine capital Constantinople. Since the resident population of Eminönü is low today, it rejoined the capital district Fatih in 2009; the Golden Horn was a natural port the Eminönü/Sirkeci shore, which being on a peninsula was eminently defensible. It was this location that led to the foundation of Byzantium, from here that the city grew, with the oldest neighborhoods being the port districts along the Golden Horn.
In the 12th century, the Byzantine port was occupied by merchants from Venice, Amalfi and Pisa, who acquired their own wharfs and waterfront districts. In the Byzantine period, the modern area of Eminönü included the districts of Neórion, Akrópolis, Kynégion, Arcadianae/Arkadianaí, ta Hormísdou, Amantíou, Caenopolis/Kainópolis, ta Kanikleíou, ta Narsoú, ta Kaisaríou, Artopoleía, Argyroprateía, Chalkoprateía, ta Olybríou, Constantinianae/Konstantinianaí, ta Amastrianón, Eugeníou, Pérama, Zeúgma, Stauríon, Vlánga, Heptáskalon; the Golden Horn was still a thriving port in Ottoman times, occupied by importers, warehousemen and traders of every description, the centre of trade in the city, a labyrinth of narrow streets and markets leading uphill to Topkapı Palace, the Ottoman capital. The name of the quarter, Eminönü, reflects its place in history. Translated from Turkish to English it means'in front of justice'. Emin meaning'justice', önü meaning'in front of'; the name most came from the Ottoman courts and customs houses on the docks.
The nature of the place was changed by the industrial age. The sea walls still surrounded the city, the sea gates of the port of Eminönü were the point of entry for goods, for people. Eminönü was part of the Fatih district until 1928, it became independent until 2009, when it was incorporated again within Fatih. In the wake of the huge railway station, other grand stone buildings were built in the late Ottoman period. Among these were the Main Post Office and some commercial buildings like Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han. In the early days of the Republic of Turkey, Eminönü was renovated extensively. By the 1950s, the area was continuously clogged up with traffic, eased somewhat by the construction of the large coastal road around the point and all the way out to Istanbul airport. Although the government has moved to Ankara and Istanbul has expanded to become an enormous city with the centre of business in huge shiny buildings elsewhere, Eminönü is still buzzing with activity, it has the busiest ferry crossings for the Bosphorus and for the Marmara Sea, the only car ferry across the Bosphorus and the only mainline railway terminus.
People keep streaming into the area on boats, buses and the light metro from Aksaray. During the daytime the area is packed with merchants and their customers, hordes of shoppers and many tourists. Add to this a number of key government buildings including the governor's office and the main campus of Istanbul University in Beyazıt. At night it is a quiet place. There is some housing in Eminönü but most of the buildings are offices and workshops, if one does happen to be there in the evening the contrast with the daytime is eerie and somewhat menacing; every day two million people work in or pass through Eminönü, but the district has only 30,000 residents. The people that do live in Eminönü are working class and conservative. Eminönü has many of Istanbul's best-known landmarks. Recent development has improved Eminönü and many of its winding streets which can at first seem imposing, have been developed and improved, while Eminönü has started to repair the many mosques. Sultanahmet - which contains Topkapı Palace, Aya Sofia, the Blue Mosque and Aya Irini among about a thousand other incredible pieces of architecture.
The Grand Bazaar - as much to look at as to shop in. The Spice Bazaar - another Ottoman caravanserai, not as huge as the Grand Bazaar but right on the water, next to the Yeni Mosque. Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han, a former office building redeveloped to the five-star L
Gülhane Park is a historical urban park in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey. The south entrance of the park sports one of the larger gates of the palace, it is one of the most expansive public parks in Istanbul. The namesake of the park, the Gülhane present on the grounds, was the place where the 1839 Edict of Gülhane was proclaimed; the edict launched the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which modernized the empire and included changes such as the equalization of all Ottoman citizens, regardless of religion, before the law. The proclamation was made by Grand Vizier Mustafa Reşid Pasha, a leading statesman and reformer in the Empire. Gülhane Park was once part of the outer garden of Topkapı Palace and consisted of a grove. A section of the outer garden was planned as a park by the municipality and opened to the public in 1912; the park contained recreation areas, coffee houses, playgrounds etc. A small zoo was opened within the park; the first statue of Atatürk in Turkey was erected in the park in 1926, sculpted by Heinrich Krippel.
The park underwent a major renovation in recent years. The excursion routes were re-arranged and the big pool was renovated in a modern style. With concrete structures removed the park regained the natural landscape of the 1950s, revealing trees dating from the 1800s; the Museum of The History of Science and Technology in Islam is located in the former stables of Topkapı Palace, on the western edge of the park. It was opened in May 2008 by the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan; the museum features 140 replicas of inventions of the 8th to 16th centuries, from astronomy, chemistry, optics, architecture and warfare. The old barracks within the area of Gülhane is expected to be converted to a cultural center in due course. Ottoman architecture Procession Kiosk Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism - Gülhane Park Necipoğlu, Gülru. Architecture and power: The Topkapi Palace in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Pp. 336 pages. ISBN 0-262-14050-0. Fanny Davis.
Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. 1970. ASIN B000NP64Z2 Media related to Gülhane Park at Wikimedia Commons Images of Gülhane Park
The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. The work has been celebrated for its high aesthetic achievement, it is considered the outstanding holding of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. The Alexander Sarcophagus is one of four massive carved sarcophagi, forming two pairs, that were discovered during the excavations conducted by Osman Hamdi Bey, an Ottoman of Greek descent and Yervant Voskan, an Ottoman of Armenian descent, at the necropolis near Sidon, Lebanon in 1887. Thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus, the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander following the Battle of Issus it was demonstrated convincingly by Karl Schefold to have been made before Abdalonymus's death, its still-classical manner uninfluenced by the style of Lysippos. Waldemar Heckel argues that the sarcophagus was made for Mazaeus, a Persian noble and governor of Babylon. According to Schefold, six Ionian sculptors' hands have been distinguished, working in an Attic idiom, but according to Miller the sarcophagus was produced by a Rhodian workshop, in this case working at Sidon.
The sarcophagus is constructed of Pentelic marble retaining traces of its polychromy, in the form of a Greek temple. The carvings on one long side of the piece depict Alexander fighting the Persians at the Battle of Issus. Volkmar von Graeve has compared the motif to the famous Alexander Mosaic at Naples, concluding that the iconography of both derives from a common original, a lost painting by Philoxenos of Eretria. Alexander is shown mounted, wearing a lionskin on his head, preparing to throw a spear at the Persian cavalry; the "historicity" of the figures accepted by von Graeve seems to Karl Schefold to be less stressed than the mythic content of battle and royal hunt, but some scholars believe that a second mounted Macedonian figure near the center represents Hephaestion, Alexander's older close friend. A third mounted Macedonian figure is identified as Perdiccas; the opposite long side shows Alexander and the Macedonians hunting lions together with Abdalonymus and the Persians. The short ends lead the eye towards the mythic lion hunt: one short end portrays a scene in which Abdalonymus is hunting a panther.
The pediment on the lid above shows Abdalonymus in battle. Tabnit sarcophagus Lycian sarcophagus of Osman.
Sidon, known locally as Sayda, is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the north are both about 40 kilometres away. Sidon has a population of about 80,000 within city limits, while its metropolitan area has more than a quarter-million inhabitants; the Phoenician name Ṣīdūn meant "fishery" or "fishing town". It appears in Syriac as Ṣidon; this was hellenized as Sidṓn, Latinized as Sidon. The name appears in Classical Arabic as Ṣaydūn and in Modern Arabic as Ṣaydā; as a Roman colony, it was notionally refounded and given the formal name Colonia Aurelia Pia Sidon to honor its imperial sponsor. In the Book of Genesis, Sidon was the first-born son of Canaan, a son of Ham, thereby making Sidon a great-grandson of Noah. Sidon has been inhabited since early in prehistory; the archaeological site of Sidon II shows a lithic assemblage dating to the Acheulean, whilst finds at Sidon III include a Heavy Neolithic assemblage suggested to date just prior to the invention of pottery.
It was one of the most important Phoenician cities, it may have been the oldest. From there and other ports a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. Homer praised the skill of its craftsmen in producing glass, purple dyes, its women's skill at the art of embroidery, it was from here that a colonizing party went to found the city of Tyre. Tyre grew into a great city, in subsequent years there was competition between the two, each claiming to be the metropolis of Phoenicia. Glass manufacturing, Sidon's most important enterprise in the Phoenician era, was conducted on a vast scale, the production of purple dye was as important; the small shell of the Murex trunculus was broken in order to extract the pigment, so rare it became the mark of royalty. In AD 1855, the sarcophagus of King Eshmun’azar II was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians," in the 5th century BC, that his mother was a priestess of ‘Ashtart, "the goddess of the Sidonians."
In this inscription the gods Eshmun and Ba‘al Sidon'Lord of Sidon' are mentioned as chief gods of the Sidonians. ‘Ashtart is entitled ‘Ashtart-Shem-Ba‘al'‘Ashtart the name of the Lord', a title found in an Ugaritic text. In the years before Christianity, Sidon had many conquerors: Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians and Romans. Herod the Great visited Sidon. Both Jesus and Saint Paul are said to have visited it, too; the city was conquered by the Arabs and by the Ottoman Turks. Like other Phoenician city-states, Sidon suffered from a succession of conquerors. At the end of the Persian era in 351 BC, it was invaded by the emperor Artaxerxes III and by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, when the Hellenistic era of Sidon began. Under the successors of Alexander, it enjoyed relative autonomy and organized games and competitions in which the greatest athletes of the region participated. In the Necropolis of Sidon, important finds such as the Alexander Sarcophagus, the Lycian tomb and the Sarcophagus of the Crying Women were discovered, which are now on display at the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.
When Sidon fell under Roman domination, it continued to mint its own silver coins. The Romans built a theater and other major monuments in the city. In the reign of Elagabalus, a Roman colony was established there. During the Byzantine period, when the great earthquake of AD 551 destroyed most of the cities of Phoenice, Beirut's School of Law took refuge in Sidon; the town continued for the next century, until it was conquered by the Arabs in AD 636. On 4 December 1110 Sidon was captured, a decade after the First Crusade, by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and King Sigurd I of Norway, it became the centre of the Lordship of Sidon, an important lordship in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Saladin captured it from the Crusaders in 1187, but German Crusaders restored it to Christian control in the Crusade of 1197, it would remain an important Crusader stronghold until it was destroyed by the Saracens in 1249. In 1260 it was again destroyed by the Mongols; the remains of the original walls are still visible. After Sidon came under Ottoman Turkish rule in the early 16th century, it became the capital of the Sidon Eyalet and regained a great deal of its earlier commercial importance.
During the Egyptian–Ottoman War, Sidon - like much of Ottoman Syria - was occupied by the forces of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. His ambitions were opposed by the British Empire; the British Admiral Charles Napier, commanding a mixed squadron of British and Austrian ships, bombarded Sidon on September 26, 1840, landed with the storming column. Sidon capitulated in two days, the British went on to Acre; this action was recalled in two Royal Navy vessels being named "HMS Sidon". After World War I it became part of the French Mandate of Lebanon. During World War II the city, together with the rest of Lebanon, was captured by British forces fighting against the Vichy French, following the war it became a major city of independent Lebanon. Following the Palestinian exodus in 1948, a considerable number of Palestinian refugees arrived in Sidon, as in other Lebanese cities, were settled at the large refugee camps of Ein el-Hilweh and Mieh Mieh. At first these consisted of enormous rows of tents, but houses were constructed.
The refugee camps constituted de facto neighborhoods of Sidon, but had a separate legal
The European Council is a collective body that defines the European Union's overall political direction and priorities. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission; the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy takes part in its meetings. Established as an informal summit in 1975, the European Council was formalised as an institution in 2009 upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, its current president is Donald Tusk, former Prime Minister of Poland. While the European Council has no formal legislative power, it is a strategic body that provides the union with general political directions and priorities, acts as a collective presidency; the European Commission remains the sole initiator of legislation, but the European Council is able to provide an impetus to guide legislative policy. The meetings of the European Council, still referred to as EU summits, are chaired by its president and take place at least twice every six months.
Decisions of the European Council are taken by consensus, except where the Treaties provide otherwise. The European Council gained the status of an EU institution after the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, distinct from the Council of the European Union. Before that, the first summits of EU heads of state or government were held in February and July 1961, they were informal summits of the leaders of the European Community, were started due to then-French President Charles de Gaulle's resentment at the domination of supranational institutions over the integration process, but petered out. The first influential summit held, after the departure of de Gaulle, was the Hague summit of 1969, which reached an agreement on the admittance of the United Kingdom into the Community and initiated foreign policy cooperation taking integration beyond economics; the summits were only formalised in the period between 1974 and 1988. At the December summit in Paris in 1974, following a proposal from then-French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it was agreed that more high level, political input was needed following the "empty chair crisis" and economic problems.
The inaugural European Council, as it became known, was held in Dublin on 10 and 11 March 1975 during Ireland's first Presidency of the Council of Ministers. In 1987, it was included in the treaties for the first time and had a defined role for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty. At first only a minimum of two meetings per year were required, which resulted in an average of three meetings per year being held for the 1975-1995 period. Since 1996, the number of meetings were required to be minimum four per year. For the latest 2008-2014 period, this minimum was well exceeded, by an average of seven meetings being held per year; the seat of the Council was formalised in 2002. Three types of European Councils exist: Informal and Extraordinary. While the informal meetings are scheduled 1½ years in advance, they differ from the scheduled ordinary meetings by not ending with official Council conclusions, as they instead end by more broad political Statements on some cherry picked policy matters.
The extraordinary meetings always end with official Council conclusions - but differs from the scheduled meetings by not being scheduled more than a year in advance, as for example in 2001 when the European Council gathered to lead the European Union's response to the 11 September attacks. Some meetings of the European Council—and, before the Council was formalised, meetings of the heads of government—are seen by some as turning points in the history of the European Union. For example: 1969, The Hague: Foreign policy and enlargement. 1974, Paris: Creation of the Council. 1985, Milan: Initiate IGC leading to the Single European Act. 1991, Maastricht: Agreement on the Maastricht Treaty. 1992, Edinburgh: Agreement to retain at Strasbourg the plenary seat of the European Parliament. 1993, Copenhagen: Leading to the definition of the Copenhagen Criteria. 1997, Amsterdam: Agreement on the Amsterdam Treaty. 1998, Brussels: Selected member states to adopt the euro. 1999. 1999, Tampere: Institutional reform 2000, Lisbon: Lisbon Strategy 2002, Copenhagen: Agreement for May 2004 enlargement.
2007, Lisbon: Agreement on the Lisbon Treaty. 2009, Brussels: Appointment of first president and merged High Representative. 2010, European Financial Stability FacilityAs such, the European Council had existed before it gained the status as an institution of the European Union with the entering into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, but after it had been mentioned in the treaties it could only take political decisions, not formal legal acts. However, when necessary, the Heads of State or Government could meet as the Council of Ministers and take formal decisions in that role. Sometimes, this was compulsory, e.g. Article 214 of the Treaty establishing the European Community provided that ‘the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government and acting by a qualified majority, shall nominate the person it intends to appoint as President of the Commission’. In that case, what was politically part of a European Council meeting was a meeting of the Council of Ministers; when the European Council, alre