Atatürk Olympic Stadium
The Ataturk Olympic Stadium located in İkitelli, a district in the western outskirts of Istanbul, is the largest-capacity stadium of Turkey. The stadium is named after Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey, its construction began in 1999 and was completed in 2002. It was built for Turkey's failed bid for the 2008 Olympic Games that were awarded to Beijing, it cost about US$140 million. With its 76,761 capacity and Olympic size, it was granted the "5-star sports complex" title by the UEFA in 2004, enabling it to host the finals of UEFA events; the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final between Milan and Liverpool was played at the Atatürk Olympic Stadium on 25 May 2005. The stadium is certified by the IAAF and IOC as a first-class venue for track and field, has hosted several European athletic competitions. On 30 May 2020, the stadium is scheduled to stage its second Champions League final. Süper Lig football team Istanbul BB used the venue as their home ground until they moved to the Başakşehir Fatih Terim Stadium in 2014.
Galatasaray played its home games at the Atatürk Olympic Stadium during the 2003–2004 football season, due to the renovation of their own venue, the Ali Sami Yen Stadium. Galatasaray returned to Ali Sami Yen for the 2004–2005 season, but played 2006–2007 UEFA Champions League group stage matches at the Atatürk Olympic Stadium. Sivasspor played some of its Süper Lig home games at the Atatürk Olympic Stadium due to the bad weather conditions in their original hometown stadium. Beşiktaş used the arena in the 2013-14 season to play most of their home games, with the reasoning being the same as Galatasaray's, with their own ground, the Vodafone Arena, scheduled to undergo renovation. Istanbul Atatürk Olympic Stadium was conceived for the city's 2008 Olympic Games bid; the stadium's two steel roofs were produced by Tekfen's Steel Structure Fabrication Plant in Ceyhan, Adana. The west roof, designed in the form of a crescent and principally composed of a 1,000 t main beam called mega-truss, is supported by two reinforced concrete shafts with 196 m span.
With its 134 entrances and 148 exit gates, the Olympic Stadium allows 80,000 spectators to evacuate within 7.5 minutes, in case of an emergency. Two annex fields are connected directly to the Olympic Stadium with an underground tunnel; the Olympic Stadium's technical infrastructure and design ensure optimal visibility from all stands. A 42,200 m2 commercial center is situated under the west roof, with a front facade length of 450 m and a total of 6 floors Excavation & Backfilling: 3,700,000 m3 Micropiles: 2,240 units Concrete: 60,000 m3 Concrete: 11,000 m3 Reinforcement: 7,400 t Prestressing & Cable Stays: 40 t Steel Structures: 5,400 t Roofing & Cladding: 52,000 m2 Pavement: 90,000 m2 42,200 m2 commercial / facility building, Amphi-theatre with 300 seats capacity, Two elevated car parks with total capacity of 400 vehicles, 36 private-view lodges each equipped with a TV set, meeting table, comfortable arm chair and a bar with high bar stools, Each zone has its own access points, first-aid and toilet facilities, All zone separators comply with the latest international safety standards.
From 2002 to 2005 the stadium had a capacity of 80,597. This was reduced to 76,092 by removing the seats from where it was not possible to see the entire pitch, prior to the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final game between AC Milan and Liverpool F. C., played on 25 May 2005. The stadium was part of the Turkish UEFA Euro 2016 bid. To meet all requirements of the UEFA for being able to organize the Euro 2016 football championship, the authorities planned to take major reconstruction works on this stadium, it was planned to increase the stadium's capacity to over 90,000 spectators and making it to the world's largest stadium with every seat under cover. To increase the net and gross capacity to 81,106 and 94,555 the pitch would have been lowered by 2.15 metres. In order to provide better convenience for the VIP guests and the media, all existing hospitality areas at levels 3 and 4 would have been extended. Furthermore, 12 new boxes were planned to be added to the west stand and 32 to the east stand in order to add to the current number of 36 skyboxes.
For the UEFA Euro 2024 bid the Turkish Football Federation plans to rebuilt the stadium. The stands will be closer to the pitch; the stadium will have a capacity of 191 suites. This will end Turkey's olympic prospects to bid olympics in 2030 -century centering it to Istanbul if athletics track were removed; the rebuild was made by Manchester based British architecture company AFL Architects. On 6 September 2010, the renowned Irish rock band U2 gave a concert at the stadium which attracted 54,278 fans, as a part of their U2 360° Tour, the opening act of, performed by the group Snow Patrol. List of football stadiums in Turkey Istanbul bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics Official website Stadium Guide Article World Stadiums Article
Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.
Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.
In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks". Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." It is believed by Robert Fisk. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.
After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests; the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia; when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.
Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a pr
Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü known as Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey. The club's football team is one of the most successful teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to a lower division; the team last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2016–17 season. The home ground of Beşiktaş is Vodafone Park, a 41,903 capacity all-seater stadium located next to Dolmabahçe Palace; the club competes in other branches including basketball, handball, boxing, chess, gymnastics, table tennis, paralympic sports and beach football. Bereket Gymnastics Club was founded on 4 March 1903 under special permission from the authorities, their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of 31 March 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the restoration of political order, Fuat Balkan, a proven fencing coach, Mazhar Kazancı, a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and persuaded them to train together.
Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were good fencers. Fuat Balkan made the first floor of his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club, where gymnastics, boxing and athletics were emphasized, was formed. Founding member Mehmet Şamil Şhaplı was elected the first president of the club. In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on 13 January 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey; the interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports grew to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler; when this building became too small, Building 84 in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch; some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey.
The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the roof of Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a short time, football became the foremost branch in the club. For years, the original colours of Beşiktaş were believed to be White. Although most written sources endorse this claim, a detailed study carried out for Beşiktaş’s 100th anniversary documentary had shown that red was never used in club’s first colors. With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmed Şerafettin started the football team. With the outbreak of World War I following the Balkan Wars, sporting activities at the club came to a halt as many athletes left to serve on the front lines. While the end of the war allowed surviving athletes to return, the team faced a difficult period during the Occupation of Istanbul, but was able to recover with the hard work of Şeref Bey. Beşiktaş didn't enter the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League.
In 1921, that particular league's final season, they won it again. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the league's first champion in 1924, but was not able to have more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the two dominant teams through the middle of the 1930s. Beşiktaş won their second Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937, the Turkish National League was formed. In the Istanbul League season prior to the National League's inaugural season, Beşiktaş finished in fourth place, which earned them a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished third place behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938, Beşiktaş finished in third place in the Istanbul League and second place in the National League, behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record five consecutive Istanbul League championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National League, Beşiktaş finished fourth in 1939, fifth in 1940, first in 1941 and third in 1943.
The club won the Istanbul League in 1945 and 1946, as well as the national league in 1944 and 1947. In 1959, the Turkish First League was formed, the nation's first professional football league. In the inaugural year, Beşiktaş came in third place. In 1960, the club participated in the European Cup, becoming the first Turkish team to participate in the tournament. In subsequent years, Beşiktaş finished third in both 1961 and 1962, as well as second in 1963, 1964 and 1965. In 1966 and 1967, the club won back-to-back championship titles, in the year, they won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968, Beşiktaş finished second. After 1967, Beşiktaş's performance declined finishing in 8th, 12th, 5th, 4th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success. Beşiktaş only finished in second place once in the decade, in 1975. Beşiktaş put an end to their p
FC Avenir Beggen
Football Club Avenir Beggen is a football club, based in Beggen, a quarter of Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. The club were founded in 1915 as FC Daring Beggen but changed their name to FC Avenir Beggen a year later. In 1940, they were renamed SV 1915 Beggen. Avenir Beggen had played in the National Division in consecutive seasons since 1965–66, but were relegated in the 2005–06 season. Finishing second in their first season in the second-tier Division of Honour, Avenir returned to the National Division at the first time of asking. In 2008/09 the club were relegated back to the Luxembourg Division of Honour. National DivisionWinners: 1968–69, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1992–93, 1993–94 Runners-up: 1974–75, 1982–83, 1986–87, 1989–90, 1991–92Luxembourg CupWinners: 1982–83, 1983–84, 1986–87, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 2001–02 Runners-up: 1973–74, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1997–98 Avenir have qualified for UEFA European competition sixteen times. UEFA Champions LeagueQualifying round: 1993–94, 1994–95 First round: 1969–70, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1986–87UEFA CupQualifying round: 2002–03 First round: 1975–76, 1985–86, 1990–91, 1995–96UEFA Cup Winners' CupFirst round: 1983–84, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93 Second round: 1974–75They have won three ties in European competition: In 1974–75, their Cup Winners' Cup first round opponents, Enosis Paralimni of Cyprus, withdrew due to ongoing crisis in that country.
In the same competition in 1992–93, Avenir beat the Faroe Islands' B36 Tórshavn 2–1 on aggregate in the qualifying round, before losing 5–1 on aggregate to Spartak Moscow in the first round proper. In the 1995–96 UEFA Cup, Avenir lost on away goals to Örebro SK, but Avenir were awarded a 3–0 victory when it transpired that the Swedes had fielded an ineligible player. Throughout its history the team has won three rounds in Europe, including Champions League, UEFA Cup and Cup Winners' Cup. In 1969, Avenir Beggen won their first league title in Luxembourg, with a historic victory followed by 10,000 spectators, of 3-1 against Jeunesse d'Esch. Moreover, thanks to this victory, the club qualified for the Champions League for the first time where they played against AC Milan. Another success for Avenir Beggen came on the 60th anniversary of the club, 1 September 1975, when Avenir Beggen played their first UEFA Cup tie against FC Porto. In addition to those three ties, Avenir has won one game in a tie that they lost.
Overall, Avenir's record in European competition reads: 2008–09 seasonNote: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. FC Avenir Beggen official website
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation. The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"; the Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games. The most recent games were in 2017: the Winter Universiade was in Almaty, while the Summer Universiade was held in Taipei, Taiwan; the 2019 Winter Universiade took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, between 2 and 12 March 2019, the 2019 Summer Universiade will be held in Naples, Italy between 3 and 14 July. The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation, which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport.
This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event. At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name. Petitjean, the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants, was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships; this was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games; the CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.
A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany. The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged; the Union Internationale des Étudiants incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries. After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week; the Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were Western-led sports competitions. Division between the Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games.
This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France, but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade, it was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had been a European competition became a global one, with the inclusion of Brazil and the United States among the competing nations; the increased participation led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship. 1 The Republic of China is recognised as Chinese Taipei by FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China. World University Championships International University Sports Federation International Children's Games Official website of the International University Sports Federation Official website of the German University Sports Federation Official report of the Winter Universiade Innsbruck / Seefeld 2005 Yahoo News: 2017 Taipei Universiade, 87% box-office success as the highest ever
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a