A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland. It has an area of 15,108 square kilometres, a population of 3,267,731, it was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz and parts of Bielsko-Biała, Katowice and Krosno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of a historic Polish region, Lesser Poland, or in Polish: Małopolska. Current Lesser Poland Voivodeship, covers only a small part of the broader ancient Małopolska region which, together with Greater Poland and Silesia, formed the early medieval Polish state. Historic Lesser Poland is much larger than the current province, it stretches far north, to Radom, Siedlce including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Kielce, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska, on the south by the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains.
Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, Slovakia to the south. All of Lesser Poland lies in the Vistula River catchment area; the city of Kraków was one of the European Cities of Culture in 2000. Kraków has railway and road connections with Katowice, Wrocław and Rzeszów, it lies at the crossroads of major international routes linking Dresden with Kiev, Gdańsk with Budapest. Located here is the second largest international airport in Poland, the John Paul II International Airport; the region's economy includes high technology, banking and metallurgical industries, ore, food processing, spirit and tobacco industries. The most industrialized city of the voivodeship is Kraków; the largest regional enterprise operates here, the Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Nowa Huta, employing 17,500 people. Another major industrial center is located in the west, in the neighborhood of Chrzanów and Oświęcim. Kraków Park Technologiczny, a Special Economic Zone, has been established within the voivodeship.
There are 210,000 registered economic entities operating in the voivodeship small and medium-sized, of which 234 belong to the state-owned sector. Foreign investment, growing in the region, reached US$18.3 billion by the end of 2006. 130,000 students attend fifteen Kraków institutions of higher learning. The Jagiellonian University, the largest university in the city, was founded in 1364 as Cracow Academy. Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyła graduated from it; the AGH University of Science and Technology is considered to be the best technical university in Poland. The Academy of Economics, the Pedagogical University, the Kraków University of Technology and the Agricultural Academy are very regarded. There are the Fine Arts Academy, the State Theatre University and the Musical Academy. Nowy Sącz has become a major educational center in the region thanks to its Higher School of Business and Administration, with an American curriculum, founded in 1992; the school has 4,500 students. There are two private higher schools in Tarnów.
Located in Southern Poland, Lesser Poland is the warmest place in Poland with average summer temperatures between 23 °C and 30 °C during the day reaching 32 °C to 38 °C in July and August, the two warmest months of the year. The city of Tarnów, located in Lesser Poland, is the hottest place in Poland all year round, average temperatures being around 25 °C during the day in the three summer months and 3 °C during the day in the three winter months. In the winter the weather patterns alter each year. Błędów Desert, the only desert in Poland, is located in Lesser Poland, where temperatures can reach up to 38 °C in the summer. Four national parks and numerous reserves have been established in the voivodeship to protect the environment of Lesser Poland; the region has areas for tourism and recreation, including Zakopane and the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains. The natural landscape features many historic sites; the salt mine at Wieliczka, the pilgrimage town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Kraków's Old Town are ranked by UNESCO among the most precious sites of world heritage.
At Wadowice, birthplace of John Paul II is a museum dedicated to the late Pope's childhood. The area of Oświęcim, with the former Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz-I and Auschwitz-II-Birkenau, is visited annually by a million people. Another tourist destination is the town of Bochnia with Europe's oldest; the voivodeship contains 61 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: Smaller Poland Voivodeship is divided into 22 counties: 3 city counties and 19 land counties; these are further divided into 182 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Wolbrom is a town in Olkusz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, with 9,568 inhabitants. Wolbrom lies in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, called the Polish Jura. South of the town there is Kamienna Mountain, with a steel cross on top, a great view of Wolbrom; the town lies 375 – 380 meters above sea level, its area, as for Jan. 1 2011, was 10,12 sq. kilometers. In 1885, Wolbrom received a rail station, along a newly built route from Dęblin to Dąbrowa Górnicza; the town is located along the Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line. The history of the town dates back to the year 1311, when King Władysław Łokietek gave permission to found a settlement called Wolwrami, located in a large forest on the border between Lesser Poland and Silesia; the founders of the settlement were brothers named Wolframi and Hilary from Kraków, the village was named after one of them. Wolbrom received its Magdeburg rights town charter in 1327, lost it in 1869, got back in 1930. In the Kingdom of Poland, Wolbrom was locatedin Kraków Voivodeship, along a busy merchant route from Lesser Poland to Silesia and Greater Poland.
In 1400, King Władysław Jagiełło issued a bill, which ordered all merchants travelling from Kraków to Greater Poland to go through Wolbrom. The town had a parish church with a hospital for the poor; every Thursday it had a fair. In 1485 most of the wooden buildings burned in a fire, after which King Kazimierz Jagiellończyk granted Wolbrom additional privileges. Wolbrom prospered, like whole Lesser Poland, until the mid-17th century; the town was completely destroyed by the Swedes in the deluge, the ancient merchant route became obsolete and was not used any longer. In 1660, the town had only 85 buildings, with 500 inhabitants. After the Partitions of Poland, Wolbrom belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland; as a punishment for the January Uprising, the Russians stripped it of the town charter, Wolbrom remained a village from 1869 to 1930. At the beginning of World War I it was captured by the Austrians, together with the Germans, ruled Wolbrom until November 1918. In the Second Polish Republic, Wolbrom belonged to Kielce Voivodeship, though it remained a village until 1930, it was bigger than Miechów or Olkusz.
During World War II all Jewish inhabitants of the town were murdered by the Germans in the Holocaust. German authorities opened a ghetto with 8,000 crowded in it. In September 1942, Germans and Ukrainians murdered 600 elderly Jews, the remaining people were transported by train to Belzec death camp. Like in other medieval towns in Europe, the center of Wolbrom is marked by a market square, with several 19th-century tenement houses, an early 17th-century parish church. Paulina Tomaszewska - first female F-16 pilot Przebój Wolbrom - football club On One Clear Day: The Story of Jewish Wolbrom an online exhibition by Yad Vashem Jewish Community in Wolbrom on Virtual Shtetl
Gołaczewy is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wolbrom, within Olkusz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies 6 kilometres south-west of Wolbrom, 15 km north-east of Olkusz, 38 km north-west of the regional capital Kraków; the village has a population of 1,400
Krowodrza is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the western part of the city. The name Krowodrza comes from a village of same name, now a part of the district. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 5.62 square kilometres and 31 870 people inhabit Krowodrza. Krowodrza is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Cichy Kącik Czarna Wieś Krowodrza Łobzów Miasteczko Studenckie AGH Nowa Wieś Official website of Krowodrza Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej
The gmina is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality. As of 2010 there were 2,478 gminy throughout the country; the word gmina derives from the German word Gemeinde, meaning "community". The gmina has been the basic unit of territorial division in Poland since 1974, when it replaced the smaller gromada. There are three types of gminy: urban gmina consisting of just one city or town, mixed urban-rural gmina consisting of a town and surrounding villages and countryside; some rural gminy have their seat in a town, outside the gmina's division. For example, the rural Gmina Augustów is administered from the town of Augustów, but does not include the town, as Augustów is an urban type gmina in its own right; the legislative and controlling body of each gmina is the elected municipal council, or in a town: rada miasta. Executive power is held by the directly elected mayor of the municipality, called wójt in rural gminy, burmistrz in most urban and urban-rural gminy, or prezydent in towns with more than 400,000 inhabitants and some others which traditionally use the title.
A gmina may create auxiliary units. In rural areas these are called sołectwa, in towns they may be dzielnice or osiedla and in an urban-rural gmina, the town itself may be designated as an auxiliary unit. For a complete listing of all the gminy in Poland, see List of Polish gminas; each gmina carries out two types of tasks: commissioned ones. Own tasks are public tasks exercised by self-government, which serve to satisfy the needs of the community; the tasks can be twofold: compulsory – where the municipality cannot decline to carry out the tasks, must set up a budget to carry them out in order to provide the inhabitants with the basic public benefits optional – where the municipality can carry them out in accordance with available budgetary means, set out only to specific local needs. Own high objectives include matters such as spatial harmony, real estate management, environmental protection and nature conservation, water management, country roads, public streets, bridges and traffic systems, water supply systems and source, the sewage system, removal of urban waste, water treatment, maintenance of cleanliness and order, sanitary facilities and council waste, supply of electric and thermal energy and gas, public transport, health care, care homes, subsidised housing, public education, cultural facilities including public libraries and other cultural institutions, historic monuments conservation and protection, the sports facilities and tourism including recreational grounds and devices and covered markets, green spaces and public parks, communal graveyards, public order and safety and flood protection with equipment maintenance and storage, maintaining objects and devices of the public utility and administrative buildings, pro-family policy including social support for pregnant women and legal care and popularising the self-government initiatives and cooperation within the commune including with non-governmental organizations, interaction with regional communities from other countries, etc.
Commissioned tasks cover the remaining public tasks resulting from legitimate needs of the state, commissioned by central government for the units of local government to implement. The tasks are handed over on the basis of statutory by-laws and regulations, or by way of agreements between the self-government units and central-government administration. Abbreviations used for voivodeships:LS: Lower Silesian Voivodeship, KP: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, LBL: Lublin Voivodeship, LBS: Lubusz Voivodeship, ŁD: Łódź Voivodeship, LP: Lesser Poland Voivodeship, MS: Masovian Voivodeship, OP: Opole Voivodeship, SK: Subcarpathian Voivodeship, PD: Podlaskie Voivodeship, PM: Pomeranian Voivodeship, SL: Silesian Voivodeship, ŚWK: Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, WM: Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, GP: Greater Poland Voivodeship, WP: West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Official report from the Central Statistical Office of Poland dated January 1, 2006