Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Żagań is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants. The town is the capital of Żagań County in the historic region of Silesia. In the Zielona Góra Voivodeship, Żagań has been in the Lubusz Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to 1945 it was first in the Province of Silesia and subsequently the various unified states of Germany; the town hosts the Polish 11th Armoured Cavalry Division. An American tank brigade rotates through the town under Operation Atlantic Resolve; the town's name means "place of the burnt forest": referring to the burning of primaeval forest by early settlers. If this is correct, it is consistent with the names of nearby places: Zgorzelec, Pożarów. Żagań is located halfway between Cottbus and Wrocław 100 meters above sea level and at the centre of the Żagań administrative district. It is about 100 km north of the Polish frontier with the former Czechoslovakia, since the most recent reconfiguration of the frontiers has been located 40 km to the east of the Polish frontier with Germany.
The rural district of Żagań surrounds the town on its northern and southern sides. Iłowa lies to the south-west and the rural district of Żary is to the north-west; the Rivers Bóbr and Kwisa meet up just outside the town on its south-eastern side. Żagań, first mentioned in a 1202 deed belonged the Duchy of Lower Silesia at Wrocław under the rule of the Piast duke Henry I the Bearded. In 1251, it was part of the newly created Duchy of Głogów under Henry's grandson Konrad I. After Konrad's death in 1274, his heirs again divided the duchy and the castle of Żagań became the residence of his youngest son Przemko of Ścinawa, Duke of Żagań from 1278, who established a monastery of the Augustinian Canons here, thus the Duchy of Żagań came into the existence. In 1284, he swapped his estates for the Duchy of Ścinawa and was succeeded by his elder brother Konrad II the Hunchback; when Konrad II died in 1304, all the former Głogów estates were reunified under his surviving brother Henry III. In 1309, Henry III of Głogów was succeeded by his eldest son Henry IV the Faithful, who in 1321 again had to divide the duchy with his younger brothers.
He ceded Głogów to Przemko II and retired to Żagań, which again became the capital of a duchy in its own right. In 1329, all the sons of Henry III of Głogów became vassals of John of Luxembourg, the King of Bohemia - with the exception of Przemko II who died two years later; when in 1393 Henry VI the Older, grandson of Henry IV, died without issue, the estates were again reunified with Głogów until in 1412 Jan I, the eldest son of Duke Henry VIII the Sparrow, became the sole ruler of the Żagań duchy. After a fierce battle for the inheritance, Jan II the Mad, son of Jan I sold it to Duke Albert III of Saxony from the House of Wettin, thus ending the centuries-long Piast rule. In 1549, Elector Maurice of Saxony ceded Sagan to the Bohemian king Ferdinand I of Habsburg. Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg allotted the fief to Albrecht von Wallenstein, his supreme commander in the Thirty Years' War in 1627, it passed to the illustrious Bohemian family of Lobkowicz, who had the Baroque Żagań Palace erected.
After the First Silesian War of 1742, Żagań became part of the Prussia. In 1786, the fief was purchased by Peter von Biron, Duke of Courland, in 1843, it passed to his daughter Dorothea, the wife of Edmond de Talleyrand, a nephew of the great French diplomat Talleyrand, who spent her retirement years at Sagan. A patent of King Frederick William IV of Prussia on 6 January 1845 invested her as Duchess of Sagan; the double title both Prussian and French, served to render the duc de Sagan a neutral party in World War II: his Château de Valençay provided a safe haven for treasures of the Louvre during the German occupation of France. Sagan was occupied by Soviet troops during the third week of February 1945, following several days of savage fighting. After World War II, the town was transferred from Germany to Poland along with the rest of Silesia under terms agreed between the winning wartime powers, became once again Żagań; the war formally ended in May 1945. During 1945 and 1946, the totality of the town's population either fled ahead of the Red Army or was expelled.
The town was repopulated with new Polish settlers, some of whom had themselves been expelled from territories, transferred from Poland to the Soviet Union. As part of the same deal between the allies. Clearing the rubble began in 1947, was followed by the establishment of small enterprises and schools. During the 1970s, a "new town" quarter was built, by 1983, the historic baronial château had been rebuilt; as early as 1939, soon after invading Poland, Nazi Germany established a system of Prisoner of War camps in Sagan. In total, the Mannschafts-Stammlager Stalag VIIIC and its subsidiaries held over 300,000 prisoners from some 30 different countries, it is estimated that around 120,000 of them died of hunger and maltreatment. In 1942, an additional camp was set up for Allied pilots, called Stalag Luft III. In March 1942, the town became the location of the Stalag Luft III camp for captured airmen, it was the site of the most courageous escape resulting in the killing of 50 prisoners including the following Polish flight officers: Major Antoni Kiewnarski.
Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak Stadium
Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Bydgoszcz, Poland. It was completed in 1960 with a capacity of about 35,944 on wooden benches; the stadium was rebuilt in 2007–2008, the current seating capacity is 20,247 people. It is used for football matches and track and field events; the stadium is named after Polish Olympic gold medal-winning runner Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak. Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak Stadium has hosted several national athletic competitions: 14 of 94 all Polish national senior athletics championships and at the international level: 1999 - World Youth Championships 2000 - European Cup First League 2001 - European Relay Festival 2003 - European Athletics U23 Championships 2004 - European Cup 2008, 2016 - World Junior Championships in Athletics 2017 - European Athletics U23 Championships 2019 - European Team Championships It has hosted 10 international matches of the Poland national football team. In 2017 the stadium was one of the venues of the 2017 UEFA European Under-21 Championship.
In 2019 its one of the venues of the 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Stadion Polonii Bydgoszcz zawisza.bydgoszcz.pl - official webpage of CWZS Zawisza Bydgoszcz multi-sport club
The 2013–14 Ekstraklasa or T-Mobile Ekstraklasa for sponsorship reasons, Is the 80th season of the highest level of football leagues in Poland since its establishment in 1927. It began on 19 July 2013. A total of 16 teams are participating, 14 of which competed in the league during the 2012–13 season, while the remaining two were promoted from the I Liga; each team plays a total of 30 matches, half away. After 30th round, league will be split into'champion' and'relegation' groups; each team will play seven more games, starting with half the points achieved during the first phase of 30 matches. The changes extend. Legia Warsaw are the defending champions. Promotion and relegation as usual was determined by the position in the table from prior season; the bottom two teams were directly relegated to the I Liga, while the top two teams are promoted to the Ekstraklasa. Polonia Warsaw dissolved after the previous season. GKS Bełchatów were relegated to the Polish First League as a result. Zawisza Bydgoszcz and Cracovia finished 1st and 2nd in the I Liga gained promotion.
Cracovia returned to the top level at the first attempt. Official website
Finland national football team
The Finland national football team represents Finland in international football competitions and is controlled by the Football Association of Finland. Although the Finnish national team has never qualified for a finals tournament of the World Cup or the European Championships in spite of its long history, the Nordic nation made remarkable progression in the 2000s, reaching a peak of 30th on the Elo Rankings. Under coach Roy Hodgson they achieved notable results against much more established European teams. After a few years of poor results, they dipped to a FIFA ranking of 110, the lowest in their history. However, in the autumn of 2017, Finland began to rise up the FIFA rankings and, as of September 2018, they sit at 58th. Finland has participated on two occasions in the European sub-regional Baltic Cup championship, which takes place every two years between the Baltic countries of Estonia and Lithuania. Finland's best result in the Baltic Cup tournament was in 2012. In 2014 Finland finished the tournament in third place.
The Football Association of Finland was founded in 1907 and became a member of FIFA in 1908. At the time, Finland was an autonomous grand duchy of the Russian Empire. Finland played its first international on 22 October 1911, as Sweden beat the Finns at the Eläintarha Stadium in Helsinki. Finland participated the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, beating Italy and the Russian Empire, but losing the bronze medal match against the Netherlands. After the 1918 Civil War, the Finnish sports movement was divided into the right-wing Finnish Gymnastics and Sports Federation and the leftist Finnish Workers' Sports Federation, Finnish Football Association was a member of the SVUL. Both sides had their own championship series, between 1919–1939 the Finland national team was selected of the Football Association players only; the Finnish Workers' Sports Federation football team in turn, participated the competitions of the international labour movement. However, since the late 1920s several top footballers defected from TUL and joined the Football Association to be eligible for the national team.
During the 1930s, these ″defectors″ formed the spine of the national team. For example, the Finland squad at the 1936 Summer Olympics was composed of eight former TUL players. In 1937, Finland participated the FIFA World Cup qualification for the first time, losing all three matches against Sweden and Estonia. Since 1939, TUL players were selected to the national team and in 1956, the TUL and Football Association series were merged; the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki saw. Finland did, win the unofficial Nordic championship in 1964 and 1966. Finland took part in European Championship qualifying since the 1968 event, but had to wait for its first win until 1978; the results of the team improved somewhat in the 1980s. Finland missed out on qualification for Euro 1980 by just a point and for the 1986 World Cup by two points. Finland was invited to take part in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow after many Western countries announced they would boycott the games, but failed to progress from its group.
By the mid-1990s Finland started to have more players in high-profile European leagues, led by the Ajax superstar Jari Litmanen. In 1996 Danish Euro 1992 winning coach Richard Møller Nielsen was hired to take Finland to the 1998 World Cup; the team enjoyed mixed fortunes in the campaign, high points of which were a draw and a win away to Norway and Switzerland respectively. Going into the last match, Finland would have needed a win at home to Hungary to earn a place in the play-offs, they led the game 1–0 going into injury time, but scored an own goal, once again the dreams of qualification were over. Møller Nielsen tried to lead Finland to Euro 2000. In this campaign the Finns recorded a sensational win away to Turkey, but couldn't compete with Germany and Turkey in the long run. Antti Muurinen succeeded Møller Nielsen as coach in 2000, he had arguably the most talented group of Finnish players at his disposal, including players such as Antti Niemi, Sami Hyypiä, Teemu Tainio and Mikael Forssell in addition to the legendary Litmanen.
The team performed quite well under him in qualification for the 2002 World Cup despite a difficult draw, earning two draws against Germany and a home draw with England as well as beating Greece 5–1 in Helsinki. In the end, however and Germany proved too strong, the Finns finished third in the group, but were the only team in that group not to lose at home. Hopes were high going into qualification for Euro 2004 after the promising last campaign and friendly wins over the likes of Norway and Portugal. However, Finland started the campaign by losing to Yugoslavia; these losses were followed by two defeats by Italy, a 3–0 home win over Serbia and Montenegro was little consolation, as the Finns finished fourth in the group. In qualification for the 2006 World Cup Finland failed to score a single point in six matches against the top three teams in their group, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Romania. Muurinen was sacked in June 2005, he was replaced by caretaker Jyrki Heliskoski, but results didn't improve.
In August 2005, it was announced that Roy Hodgson would become the new Finland coach in 2006, he started in the job in January of that year. Hodgson stepped down as manager after they failed to qualify for Euro 2008, his replacement was a Scotsman, Stuart Baxter, who signed a contract until the end of the 2012 European Championship qualification
Górnik Zabrze is a Polish football club from Zabrze. Górnik is one of the most successful Polish football clubs in history, winning the most Polish Championship titles; the club was a dominant force in the 1980s. Górnik holds the record for winning the most consecutive Polish Championship titles and Polish Cup titles. In addition, the club was 1969–70 Cup Winners' Cup runners-up; the club plays in a white or dark blue-red kit, is based at the Ernest Pohl Stadium. Their main local rival is Ruch Chorzów; the club was founded in 1948, three years after Polish borders had moved westward and the city of Zabrze became part of the Polish Republic. Górnik was patterned after several smaller sports associations that had existed in Zabrze between 1945 and 1948 – KS Zjednoczenie, KS Pogoń, KS Skra, KS Concordia; the clubs merged into a single organization, which took the name "Górnik", the Polish word for "Miner", reflecting the fact that Zabrze was an important coal-mining centre. In 1950 Górnik joined the Opole Silesia regional league.
In 1952 the club was promoted to the Polish Second Division. Their first game in the second tier was against Skra Częstochowa, was witnessed by 20,000 fans, with Górnik winning 5–1; the whole season was successful and Górnik finished second overall, behind Górnik Wałbrzych. The club was promoted to the top division in 1955. In their first game in the top flight Górnik beat local rivals Ruch Chorzów 3–1, with 25,000 in attendance. In 1957, just a year after promotion, Górnik won its first championship of Poland; the team, with star, Ernest Pohl, was third in 1958, to regain the crown in 1959 and 1961, together with such players as Stanislaw Oslizlo and Hubert Kostka. In 1961 Górnik for the first time appeared in European Cups, losing in the first round to Tottenham Hotspur; the next championship, won in 1963, marked the beginning of an unusual streak of five consecutive titles, a Polish record. Górnik's biggest success in European football took place in 1970. In the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, Gornik beat all their opponents – Olympiacos, Levski Sofia and AS Roma, reaching the final, which took place in Vienna.
There, Manchester City turned out to be the better team, winning 2–1. The following season Górnik would once again play Manchester City, with the 1970 final being repeated this time in the quarter-final. During the mid-1970s Górnik form deteriorated and in late spring of 1978, the team was relegated to the Second Division. However, it in games of 1979 -- 80, Zabrze's side finished sixth. In 1984, after purchasing of a group of talented players, Gornik finished fourth, a sign of better times. Between 1985 and 1988 Górnik again marked a magnificent streak, with four consecutive championships. Zabrze's side played versus renowned European powerhouses, such as Bayern Munich, Hamburger SV, Juventus and Real Madrid. In 1994 Górnik competed again for the title and with players as Jerzy Brzęczek, Grzegorz Mielcarski, Tomasz Wałdoch, hopes were high. Before the last round of the league the standings at the top were: Legia 47 points and Górnik 45 points. Since the two teams were to face each other in Warsaw, Górnik still had a chance to win the title.
However the game ended in a 1 -- 1 tie. Before Legia scored the goal which gave her the title, the referee of the match – Mr Redzinski – sent off one by one 3 players from Gornik's squad, Górnik had to finished match with only 8 players against 11 players of Legia, it was the last match in Mr Redzinski's career. In the same year, Górnik played its last so far game in European Cups, losing to Admira Wacker Vienna. In the spring of 2007 Górnik got a new sponsor – German insurance company Allianz. However, after finishing 16th in the Ekstraklasa in 2008–09, the club was relegated to the Polish First League, the 2nd level of Polish football, during the 2009–10 season. In June 2010, the club earned promotion back to the Ekstraklasa for the 2010–11 season. Ekstraklasa 1st Place: 1957, 1959, 1961, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1984–85, 1985–86, 1986–87, 1987–88 2nd Place: 1962, 1968–69, 1973–74, 1990–91 Polish Cup Winner: 1964–65, 1967–68, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1971–72 Runner-up: 1955–56, 1956–57, 1961–62, 1965–66, 1985–86, 1991–92, 2000–01 Polish SuperCup: Winners: 1988 European Cup: Quarter-Final: 1967–68 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: Runner-up: 1969–70Youth Teams: Polish U-19 Champion: 1967, 1989 Polish U-19 Runner Up: 1985, 2001, 2011 Polish U-19 Bronze Medal: 2015 Polish U-17 Champion: 1992, 1996 Polish U-17 Runner Up: 2014 As of 28 February, 2019.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Górnik Zabrze is believed to have one of the largest and most loyal fanbases in Poland in the Upper Silesian metropolitan area. In the 2016–17 season, Górnik Zabrze drew the highest average home attendance of all second level Polish football clubs, they drew the highest attendance in their league. After their comeback to the top flight in 2017, Górnik drew the highest average home attendance in Polish football, surpassing current top teams Lech Poznań and Legia Warsaw, with most league games being sold-out. Górnik holds a long-standing rivalry with Upper Silesian side Ruch Chorz
Bydgoszcz is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 358,614, an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the eighth-largest city in Poland, it has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947; the city is part of the Bydgoszcz -- Toruń metropolitan area. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory, as well as the Medical College of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, it hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, Bydgoszcz Airport. Due to its location between the Vistula and Oder rivers, the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.
Bydgoszcz is an architecturally rich city, with neo-gothic, neo-baroque, neoclassicist and Art Nouveau styles present, for which it earned a nickname Little Berlin. The notable granaries on Mill Island and along the riverside belong to one of the most recognized timber-framed landmarks in Poland. Bydgoszcz Bydgoszcza, is a pronoun name the second part of which –'goszcz' comes from'gost-jь' or'gost-ja' an old Slavic root which refers to an urban or suburban trading settlement. There are a number of other Polish place-names which make use of the'goszcz' suffix: i.e. Małogoszcz and Skorogoszcz. Bydgoszcz, has a long, rich history of etymological change: in 1239 known as Bidgosciam, in 1242 as castrum quod Budegosta vulgariter nuncupatur, in 1279 as Bidgoscha, since 1558 as Bydgoszcz, that is, until the 16th century, as Bydgoszcza "fishing village or campsite belonging to Bydgosta"; the name'Byd-gost' contains archaic elements of the Proto-Slavonic root'byd' which existed as a variant of the verb'to raise', the common Slavic root'Goszcz'.
Some people identify the name of the town as'Budorgis', a name from the 2nd century, listed as being next to the village Calisia on the amber route. The etymology of the German name of the town developed and derives from the river Brahe, on whose banks the city is located, berg, mount, combined to'Brahenberg', with'a' pronounced in East Pomeranian Low German rather like'å' contracted to Bromberg, dropping the weak'h', with the'n' assimilated as'm' to the following labial sound'b'. During the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya, became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes. In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, mentioned in 1238; the city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, incorporated into the monastic state of Teutonic Prussia as Bromberg. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń and the remainder of Kuyavia. King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights on 19 April 1346.
The city saw an influx of Jews after that date. In 1555, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading. During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions; the town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed and has since remained a ruin. After the war only 94 houses were inhabited, 103 stood 35 were burned down; the suburbs had been damaged considerably. The Treaty of Bromberg, agreed in 1657 by King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland and Elector Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, created a military alliance between Poland and Prussia while marking the withdrawal of Prussia from its alliance with Sweden.
In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, incorporated into the Netze District in West Prussia. At the time, the town was depressed and semi-derelict. Under Frederick the Great the town revived, notably with construction of a canal from Bromberg to Nakel which connected the north-flowing Vistula River via the Brda to the west-flowing Netze, which in turn flowed to the Oder via the Warta. In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of his short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. With Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Nations, the town was returned to Prussia in 1815 as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen, becoming the capital of the Bromberg Region. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, became part of the newly formed German Empire. In the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway contributed to the development of Bromberg.
The first stretch, from Schneidemühl to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851. The city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were ethnic Germans and 16 percent ethnic Poles (Polish minority in