Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Chiyonofuji Mitsugu, born Mitsugu Akimoto, was a Japanese champion sumo wrestler and the 58th yokozuna of the sport. Following his retirement as a wrestler, he was the stable master of Kokonoe stable until the time of his death. Chiyonofuji was considered one of the greatest yokozuna of recent times, winning 31 yūshō or tournament championships, second at the time only to Taihō, he was remarkable for his longevity in sumo's top rank, which he held for a period of ten years from 1981 to 1991. Promoted at the age of twenty-six after winning his second championship, his performance improved with age, winning more tournaments in his thirties than any other wrestler and dominating the sport in the second half of the 1980s, he retired in May 1991, just short of his thirty-sixth birthday. This is in contrast to most recent yokozuna who have tended to retire around 30. During his 21-year professional career Chiyonofuji set records for most career victories and most wins in the top makuuchi division, earning an entry in the Guinness World Records.
Both of these records were broken by Kaiō. He won the Kyushu tournament, one of the six annual honbasho, a record eight consecutive years from 1981 until 1988, set the record for the longest postwar run of consecutive wins; that record stood for 22 years until Hakuhō broke it with his 54th straight win in September 2010. In a sport where weight is regarded as vital, Chiyonofuji was quite light at around 120 kg, he relied on superior muscle to defeat opponents. He was the lightest yokozuna since Tochinoumi in the 1960s. Upon his retirement he became an elder of the Japan Sumo Association and became the Kokonoe-oyakata the following year, he was born in a town in the Matsumae District of Hokkaidō, northern Japan. He was a son of a fisherman. At school he excelled in athletics events running, he was scouted at the age of 15 by the Kokonoe stable's head Chiyonoyama, who had served as the 41st yokozuna and was from the same Fukushima town. Chiyonoyama promised him a trip to Tokyo in an airplane, which excited the young Akimoto as he had never flown before.
At the time of his debut he weighed just 71 kg. Chiyonoyama died in 1977, at which time Kitanofuji, the 52nd yokozuna and a Hokkaidō native, took over the stable, his shikona 千代の富士 was formed from those of the two previous yokozuna from his stable and Kitanofuji. 千代 is a word used to mean forever. 富士 is the same as that in 富士山. His nickname was "The Wolf" due to masculine facial features. Chiyonofuji began his career in September 1970, he reached the second highest jūryō division in November 1974, was promoted to the top makuuchi division in September 1975. However, he lasted for only one tournament before being demoted again, recurring shoulder dislocation injuries led to him falling back to the unsalaried ranks, he won promotion back to the top division in January 1978. After he got a fighting spirit prize in May, he reached komusubi for the first time. During his early top division career he was compared with another lightweight wrestler, popular with sumo fans, Takanohana I. Takanohana had first come across Chiyonofuji whilst on a regional tour and encouraged him to give sumo a try.
He advised Chiyonofuji to give up smoking, which helped him put on some extra weight. In 1979, due to his shoulder trouble, Chiyonofuji fell to the second division, but he soon came back to the top division. Encouraged by his stablemaster, he began to rely not only on throwing techniques, which increased the risk of reinjuring his shoulders, but on gaining ground and forcing out his opponents. Showing much more consistency, he earned three kinboshi in total in March and July 1980 tournaments, where he got technique prizes, he fought again as a komusubi in May and September tournaments, in the latter of which he won 10 matches in the top division for the first time. He reached sekiwake, stayed at this rank for only two tournament; as a sekiwake, he scored 11–4 in November, in January 1981 he scored 14–1, losing only one regular match to dominating yokozuna Kitanoumi, defeated him in the subsequent playoff to win a top makuuchi division title for the first time. This earned him promotion to ōzeki, the second-highest rank.
While making these speedy rises, he got technique prizes in three consecutive tournaments to that in January, where he received an outstanding performance prize. As an ōzeki he scored well in the following three tournaments to July 1981, where he again defeated Kitanoumi and won his second title. After this victory, he was promoted to the 58th in sumo history. Chiyonofuji had to pull out of his first tournament as a Yokozuna with an injury, but he returned to win the championship in November, defeating Asashio in a playoff, he said that this victory was the foundation upon which he built his subsequent success as a yokozuna. He was to win the Kyushu tournament eight consecutive years from 1981 to 1988, a record dominance of any of the six honbasho; as his rival Kitanoumi went into a long slump, Chiyonofuji dominated sumo in 1982, winning four of the six tournaments. However, over the next two years, another yokozuna Takanosato, emerged to challenge him, he suffered a number of injury problems.
He was restricted to just one championship in the nine tournaments held from May 1983 to September 1984. But Kitanoumi retired in January 1985, with the aging Takanos
Sumo is a form of competitive full-contact wrestling where a rikishi attempts to force his opponent out of a circular ring or into touching the ground with any body part other than the soles of his feet. The sport originated in the only country where it is practiced professionally, it is considered a gendai budō, which refers to modern Japanese martial art, but the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from Shinto. Life as a wrestler is regimented, with rules regulated by the Japan Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal sumo training stables, known in Japanese as heya, where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition. From 2008 to 2017, a number of high-profile controversies and scandals have rocked the sumo world, with an associated effect on its reputation and ticket sales.
These have affected the sport's ability to attract recruits. Despite this setback, sumo's popularity and general attendance has rebounded due to having multiple yokozuna for the first time in a number of years and other high-profile wrestlers such as Endō and Ichinojō grabbing the public's attention. In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, sumo has been associated with Shinto ritual; some shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami, a Shinto divine spirit. It was an important ritual at the imperial court, where representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight; the contestants were required to pay for their travel themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie, or "sumai party". Over the rest of recorded Japanese history, sumo's popularity changed according to the whims of rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife; the form of wrestling combat changed into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent.
The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later. A ring, defined as something other than the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, is believed to have come into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point, wrestlers would wear loose loincloths rather than the much stiffer mawashi wrestling belts of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed decorative apron called a keshō-mawashi during the match, whereas today these are worn only during pretournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period. Professional sumo roots trace back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment; the original wrestlers were samurai rōnin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, were held in the Ekō-in in the Edo period.
Western Japan had its own sumo venues and tournaments in this period, with the most prominent center being in Osaka. Osaka sumo continued to the end of the Taishō period in 1926, when it merged with Tokyo sumo to form one organization. For a short period after this, four tournaments were held a year, two tournaments in locations in western Japan such as Nagoya and Fukuoka, two in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan in Tokyo. From 1933 onward, tournaments were held exclusively in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan, until the American occupation forces appropriated it and the tournaments moved to Meiji Shrine until the 1950s. An alternate location, the Kuramae Kokugikan near Ryōgoku, was built for sumo. In this period, the Sumo Association began expanding to venues in western Japan again, reaching a total of six tournaments a year by 1958, with half of them in Kuramae. In 1984, the Ryōgoku Kokugikan was rebuilt and sumo tournaments in Tokyo have been held there since; the winner of a sumo bout is either the first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring, or the first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.
A number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi comes undone. A wrestler failing to show up for his bout automatically loses. Bouts consist of a single round and last only a few seconds, as one wrestler is ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can last for several minutes; each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, a winning factor in sumo. No weight divisions are used in professional sumo. However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can defeat much larger opponents; the average weight of top division wrestlers has continued to increase, from 125 kilograms in 1969 to over 150 kilograms by 1991, was a record 166 kilograms as of January 2019. In some situations a review of the gyōji's decision may be needed; the judges outside the ring, who sit at eye level may convene a conference in the middle of the ring, called a "mono-ii".
This is done if the judges decide that the decision over who won the bout needs to be rev
Kitakyushu is one of two designated cities in Fukuoka Prefecture, together with Fukuoka, with a population of just under 1 million people. Kokura Prefecture was founded separately from Fukuoka Prefecture in 1871 when the clan system was abolished; the old wooden-built Kokura Prefectural Office is being restored. It is opposite Riverwalk Kitakyūshū. In 1876, Kokura Prefecture was absorbed by Fukuoka Prefecture; the city of Kokura was founded in 1900. Yahata in Kitakyushu was the target for the beginning of the US bombing raids on the home islands on June 16, 1944, when 75 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses flew out from mainland China. Kokura was the primary target of the nuclear weapon "Fat Man" on August 9, 1945. Major Charles Sweeney had orders to drop the bomb visually. All three attempts failed due to clouds and smoke from Yahata, only 7 km west of Kokura and had air raids on the previous day, preventing him from identifying the target clearly. Additionally, a smoke screen was created by industrial workers burning barrels of coal tar and/or electric plant workers releasing steam.
The bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, the secondary target, at 11:02 JST. The city of Kitakyushu was founded on February 10, 1963 and was designated on April 1, 1963 by government ordinance; the city was born from the merger of five municipalities centered around the ancient feudal city of Kokura. The city's symbol mark is a flower with the character "north" in the middle and five petals representing the towns that merged. Kitakyushu has seven wards: The city of Nakama, Fukuoka was to become the eighth ward of Kitakyushu in 2005. However, the merger was rejected on December 24, 2004 by Nakama's city council, despite having been initiated by Nakama City; as of 1 October 2018, the city had an estimated population of 945,595 and a total area of 491.95 km2. The average population density is 1,922 persons /km2, it is now the country's 15th most populated city. It has a much larger total area than that of Fukuoka, only 343.39 km2. The 1986 family movie Koneko Monogatari was filmed here; the English version of the film, the story of the friendship of a kitten and a pug dog, was released in America in 1989 as The Adventures of Milo and Otis.
The 1958 comedy Rickshaw Man is based on a local folk hero of Kokura called Muhomatsu or "Wild Pine" and has been called the Japanese "Desperado." He is celebrated in the Kokura Gion Yamagasa festival. Toshiro Mifune plays the taiko drum in this movie. Kitakyushu is featured in the late 2012 Call of Duty: Black Ops II game developed by Treyarch and published by Activision as a DLC map called Magma. In the map the city has been abandoned due to a volcanic eruption, parts of the city are covered in lava. There are festivals held in the summer in the city, including the Tobata Gion Yamagasa festival in Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū. Kurosaki Gion It has been designated as an intangible cultural asset of Fukuoka Prefecture. People spin decorated “battle floats” as they pull them through the streets. Tobata Gion People carry yamagasa on their shoulders. Kokura Gion People pull. All the Gion festivals date back about 400 years, they were instituted to celebrate surviving an epidemic. Moji Minato Festival This port-city festival involves colorfully costumed people pulling floats through the streets.
Wakamatsu Minato Festival This port-city festival celebrates fire and kappa. Wasshoi Hyakuman Festival The Wasshoi Hyakuman Natsumatsuri brings all the festivals together for a grand parade and finale near City Hall in Kokura Kita ward. Kitakyushu was formed by the merging of Kokura, Wakamatsu and Tobata; as a result, the city began, on its tenth anniversary. On the 25th anniversary, it was renamed Wasshoi Hyakuman because the city population had reached one million. Green Park Flea Market There are over 200 shops; the Center for Contemporary Art opened in May 1997 and has shown works of internationally renowned artists, e.g. Maurizio Cattelan and Anri Sala. Kokura Castle was built by Hosokawa Tadaoki in 1602, it was the property of the Ogasawara clan between 1632 and 1860. The castle was burnt down in 1865 in the war between the Choshu clans. Hiraodai karst plateau and Mount Adachi in Kokura Minami ward and Mount Sarakura and Kawachi Dam in Yahata Higashi ward are noted walking areas with fine scenery.
The limestone outcroppings on Hiraodai are said to resemble grazing sheep, so the plateau, the highest in Kyushu at 400–600 meters, is known as the Yogun Plain. Some of the limestone caverns are open to the public; the area contains the Nanae Waterfalls. Sugao is about 20 meters. Nanae means "seven stages." Nippon Steel Corporation is a major employer, but the Yahata and Tobata plants are much reduced from their heyday of the 1960s. The Zenrin company known for its mapping and navigation software is based here and so is Toto Ltd. and Yaskawa Electric Corporation. StarFlyer, an airline, is headquartered on the grounds of Kitakyushu Airport in Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyūshū; the airline's headquarters were in the Shin Kokura Building in Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyūshū. A smaller scale shopping center known as Cha Cha Town, next to the Sunatsu
In sumo, a mawashi is the belt that the rikishi wears during training or in competition. Upper ranked professional wrestlers wear a keshō-mawashi as part of the ring entry ceremony or dohyō-iri. For top ranked professional rikishi, it comes in a variety of colours, it is 30 feet in length when unwrapped, about two feet wide and weighs about 8 to 11 lb. It is fastened in the back by a large knot. A series of matching colour, stiffened silk fronds, called sagari are inserted into the front of the mawashi, their number varies from 13 to 25, is always an odd number. They mark out the only part of the mawashi that it is illegal to grab on to: the vertical part covering the sumotori's privates, if they fall out during competition the gyōji will throw them from the ring at the first opportunity. Sometimes a rikishi may wear his mawashi in such a way as to give him some advantage over his opponent, he may wear it loosely to make it more difficult to be thrown, or he may wrap it and splash a little water on it to help prevent his opponent from getting a good grip on it.
His choice will depend on the type of techniques he prefers to employ in his bouts. Thus a wrestler preferring belt sumo will wear it more loosely, while those preferring pushing techniques will tend to wear the mawashi more tightly. Many rikishi are superstitious and they will change the color of their mawashi to change their luck. Sometimes a poor performance will cause them to change colors for the next tournament, or during a tournament, in an attempt to change their luck for the better. Rikishi only wear the silk mawashi during competitive bouts either during ranking tournaments or touring displays. During training, a heavy cotton mawashi is worn. For senior rikishi in the top two divisions, this belt is coloured white, it is worn with one end distinctively looped at the front. Sagari are not worn during training. Rikishi ranked in the lower divisions wear a black cotton mawashi both for training in and in competition. In competition cotton sagari are inserted into the belt. Amateur sumo wrestlers are expected to wear a white cotton mawashi without the looping accorded to the senior professional's training garb.
If a wrestler's mawashi comes off during a tournament bout, he is automatically disqualified. This is rare, but it did occur in May 2000 when sandanme wrestler Asanokiri was embarrassed during a match with Chiyohakuhō. However, for most of sumo's history, whether or not a wrestler's mawashi came off during a bout was considered irrelevant, the policy of disqualification only came into place when Japan began adopting European attitudes towards nudity. Wrestlers in the two upper divisions, makuuchi and jūryō, are allowed to wear a second ceremonial keshō-mawashi during their ring entering ceremony; the silk'belt' opens out at one end into a large apron, heavily embroidered and with thick tassels at the bottom. The keshō-mawashi may advertise the produce of a sponsor of the rikishi or be a gift from one of the rikishi's support groups. Alternatively, some foreign-born rikishi bear their national flag on their keshō-mawashi. Popular rikishi may be given many of these keshō-mawashi. Yokozuna have matching sets of three keshō-mawashi, with two being worn by his wrestler assistants during his ring entrance ceremony.
In the Edo period the keshō-mawashi served as the wrestler's fighting mawashi. However, as the aprons become more ornate the two functions were split apart. In this period wrestlers were sponsored by feudal daimyō or overlords, whose clan crest would therefore appear on the keshō-mawashi. Fundoshi Kaupinam Langot
Kimarite are winning techniques in a sumo bout. For each bout in a Grand Sumo tournament, a sumo referee, or gyōji, will decide and announce the type of kimarite used by the winner, it is possible for the judges to modify this decision later. Records of the kimarite are kept and statistical information on the preferred techniques of different wrestlers can be deduced easily. For example, a pie chart of the kimarite used by each sekitori in the past year can be found on the Japan Sumo Association webpage; the Japan Sumo Association recognises eighty-two types of kimarite, but only about a dozen are used regularly. For example, yorikiri and hatakikomi are frequent methods used to win bouts. In addition to kimarite, a bout can end in a disqualification if either wrestler makes a foul, such as striking with a closed fist; the following is a full list of kimarite. Literal translations of the Japanese are given. Basic techniques. These, with the exception of the seen Abisetaoshi, are some of the most common kimarite in sumo.
Forcing down the opponent on their back by leaning forward while in a grappling position. Pushing the opponent out of the ring without holding their mawashi or belt, nor extending his arms. Hand contact must be maintained through the push. Pushing the opponent down out of the ring without holding their mawashi. Hand contact is maintained throughout the push. Thrusting the opponent backwards out of the ring with one or a series of hand thrusts; the attacker does not have to maintain hand contact. Thrusting the opponent down out of the ring onto their back with a hard thrust or shove. Maintaining a grip on the opponent's mawashi, the opponent is forced backwards out of the ring. Maintaining a grip on the opponent's mawashi, the opponent is forced backwards out of the ring and collapses on their back from the force of the attack. Throwing techniques. While moving backwards to the side, the opponent is pulled past the attacker and out of the ring by grabbing and pulling their arm with both hands. Lifting the opponent's thigh with one's leg, while grasping the opponent with both arms, throwing the off-balance opponent to the ground.
Bending over and pulling the opponent over the attacker's hip throwing the opponent to the ground on their back. The attacker wraps their arm around the opponent's extended arm throws the opponent to the ground without touching their mawashi. A common move; the attacker wraps the opponent's head in his arms. Extending the right leg around the outside of the opponent's right knee thereby sweeping both of his legs off the surface and throwing him down; the attacker extends their arm under the opponent's arm to grab the opponent's mawashi while dragging the opponent forwards and/or to the side, throwing them to the ground. The attacker extends their arm under the opponent's arm to grab the opponent's mawashi and turns sideways, pulling the opponent down and throwing them to the ground; the attacker extends their arm under the opponent's armpit and across their back while turning sideways, forcing the opponent forward and throwing him to the ground without touching the mawashi. The attacker grabs the opponent's mawashi and lifts his body off the surface, pulling them into the air past the attacker and throwing them down.
The attacker extends their arm over the opponent's arm/back to grab the opponent's mawashi while pulling them forwards to the ground. The attacker extends their arm over the opponent's arm to grab the opponent's mawashi and throws the opponent to the ground while turning sideways. With both wrestlers grasping each other's mawashi, pushing one's leg up under the opponent's groin, lifting them off the surface and throwing them down on their side. Leg tripping techniques. Grabbing the opponent's leg and pulling upward with both hands, causing the opponent to fall over. Hooking a heel under the opponent's opposite heel and forcing them to fall over backwards by pushing or twisting their arm. Wrapping one's leg around the opponent's leg of the opposite side, tripping him backwards while grasping onto his upper body. Kicking the inside of the opponent's foot; this is accompanied by a quick pull that causes the opponent to lose balance and fall. Directly after tachi-ai, kicking the opponent's legs to the outside and thrusting or twisting him down to the dohyō.
The attacker places his leg behind the knee of the opponent, while twisting the opponent sideways and backwards, sweeps him over the attacker's leg and throws him down. When an opponent responds to being thrown and puts his leg out forward to balance himself, grabbing the underside of the thigh and lifting it up, throwing the opponent down. Lifting the opponent's ankle from the front, causing them to fall. A triple attack. Wrapping one leg around the opponent's, grabbing the other leg behind the thigh, thrusting the head into the opponent's chest, the attacker pushes him up and off the surface throwing him down on his back; this is a rare technique, first used in