The Centennial Hall named Hala Ludowa, is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland. It was constructed according to the plans of architect Max Berg in 1911–1913, when the city was part of the German Empire. Max Berg designed Centennial Hall to serve as a multifunctional structure to host "exhibitions, concerts and opera performances, sporting events."The building and surroundings is visited by tourists and the local populace. It lies close to other popular tourist attractions, such as the Wrocław Zoo, the Japanese Garden, the Pergola with its Multimedia Fountain; as an early landmark of reinforced concrete architecture, the building became one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated April 20, 2005, together with the Four Domes Pavilion, the Pergola, the Iglica. Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006. The hall continues to be in active use for sporting concerts, it was in the Silesian capital of Breslau on 10 March 1813 where King Frederick William III of Prussia called upon the Prussian and German people in his proclamation An Mein Volk to rise up against Napoleon's occupation.
Besides, in this proclamation king Frederick created the Iron Cross award, which became famous German military honour and symbol. In October of that year, at the Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon was defeated; the opening of the hall was part of the celebration commemorating the 100th anniversary of the battle, hence the name. Breslau's municipal authorities had vainly awaited state funding and had to defray the enormous costs out of their own pockets; the landscaping and buildings surrounding the hall were laid out by Hans Poelzig were opened on 20 May 1913 in the presence of Crown Prince William of Hohenzollern. The grounds include a huge pond with fountains enclosed by a huge concrete pergola in the form of half an ellipse. Beyond this, to the north, a Japanese garden was created; the Silesian author Gerhart Hauptmann had specially prepared a play Festspiel in deutschen Reimen, however the mise-en-scène by Max Reinhardt was suspended by national-conservative circles for its antimilitaristic tendencies.
After the memorial events, the building served as multi-purpose recreational building, situated in the Exhibition Grounds used for horse racing. It was spared from the devastation during the WW II. After the war, when the city had become part of the Republic of Poland according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, the hall was renamed Hala Ludowa by the communist authorities. In 1948, a 106 m high needle-like metal sculpture called; the hall was extensively renovated in 1997 and in 2010. The Polish translation of the original German name, Hala Stulecia, became official. Centennial Hall hosted EuroBasket 1963 and a preliminary round group of the EuroBasket 2009 tournament. Following the renovation in 2009–11, the arena can now hold 10,000 people; the cupola modeled on the Festhalle Frankfurt was made of reinforced concrete, with an inner diameter of 69 m and 42 m high it was the largest building of its kind at the time of construction. The symmetrical quatrefoil shape with a large circular central space seats 7,000 persons.
The dome itself is 23 m high, made of glass. The Jahrhunderthalle became a key reference for the development of reinforced concrete structures in the 20th century. At the centre of the structure a superior dome with lantern is situated. Looking from the inside, there is a visible pattern of the Iron Cross at the top of the dome; the hall was provided with a Sauer pipe organ built by Walcker Orgelbau, which with 15,133 pipes and 200 stops, ranked as the world's largest. On 24 September 1913, Karl Straube was the first to play it, performing Max Reger's Introduction and Fugue, Op. 127, specially composed to celebrate the occasion. Most parts of the organ were transferred to the rebuilt Wrocław Cathedral after World War II; the hall lies east of the city centre, but can be reached by tram or bus. The hall is open daily to visitors for a small entrance fee. There are several programs including the Hall, Discovery Center and videomapping and the Plastic Panorama of Old Lviv. Official site, Century Hall at Structurae archINFORM - Centennial Hall Videomapping
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term "powiat" is most translated into English as "county" or "district". A powiat is part of the voivodeship or province. A powiat is subdivided into gminas. Major towns and cities, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas, they are termed "city counties" and have the same status as former county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed "land counties"; as of 2018, there were 380 powiat-level entities: 314 land counties, 66 city counties. For a complete alphabetical listing, see "List of Polish counties". For tables of counties by voivodeship, see the articles on the individual voivodeships; the history of Polish powiats goes back to the second half of the 14th century. They remained the basic unit of territorial organization in Poland in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the latter's partitioning in 1795.
In the 19th century, the powiats continued to function in the part of Poland, incorporated into the Russian Empire —the equivalent of the Russian "uyezd" and the Ukrainian "povit"—and, in the German-governed Grand Duchy of Poznań, as the Polish equivalent of the German "Kreis". After Poland regained independence in 1918, the powiats were again the second-level territorial units. Powiats were abolished in 1975 in favor of a larger number of voivodeships, but were reintroduced on 1 January 1999; this reform created 16 larger voivodeships. Legislative power within a powiat is vested in an elected council, while local executive power is vested in an executive board headed by the starosta, elected by the council; the administrative offices headed by the starosta are called the starostwo. However, in city counties these institutions do not exist separately – their powers and functions are exercised by the city council, the directly elected mayor, the city offices. In some cases a powiat has its seat outside its own territory.
For example, Poznań County has its offices in Poznań, although Poznań is itself a city county, is therefore not part of Poznań County. Powiats have limited powers, since many local and regional matters are dealt with either at gmina or voivodeship level; some of the main areas in which the powiat authorities have decision-making powers and competences include: education at high-school level healthcare public transport maintenance of certain designated roads land surveying issuing of work permits to foreigners vehicle registration. The Polish the name of a county, in the administrative sense, consists of the word powiat followed by a masculine-gender adjective. In most cases, this is the adjective formed from the name of the town or city where the county has its seat, thus the county with its seat at the town of Kutno is named powiat kutnowski. If the name of the seat comprises a noun followed by an adjective, as in Maków Mazowiecki, the adjective will be formed from the noun only. There are a few counties whose names are derived from the names of two towns, from the name of a city and a geographical adjective, or a mountain range.
There is more than one way to render such names into English. A common method is to translate the names as "", as in the examples above, thus in most cases the English name for a powiat consists of the name of the city or town, its seat, followed by the word County. Note that different counties sometimes have the same name in Polish, since the names of different towns may have the same derived adjective. For example, the counties with their seats at Grodzisk Wielkopolski and Grodzisk Mazowiecki are both called powiat grodziski, those with seats at Brzeg and Brzesko are both called powiat brzeski. In English this ambiguity either does not occur or can be avoided by using the complete name of the seat. Bankauskaite, V. et al. Patterns of decentralization across European health systems, in R. B. Saltman, V. Bankauskaite and K. Vrangbæk, "Decentralization in health care", London: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill. County. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Uyezd
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province, in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is divided. Lower Silesia was part of Medieval Poland during the Piast dynasty. After the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138, Poland entered a period of fragmentation. Silesia became a province of Poland as a duchy, which on became divided into many small duchies reigned by dukes and princes of the Piast dynasty. During this time and ethnic Germanic influence prospered due to immigrants from the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire; this impacted on the local architecture as well as traditions and cuisine. At the same time, Lower Silesia was a leading Polish cultural center; the Book of Henryków, which contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language, as well as Statuta synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensis, which contains the oldest printed text in Polish, were both created here. Both texts can be seen in Wrocław. Złotoryja, Poland's first town, was granted municipal privileges by Henry the Bearded.
Over the centuries, Lower Silesia has experienced epochal events such as the Protestant Reformation, the Silesian Wars, industrialisation, the two World Wars. Lower Silesia is one of the richest provinces in Poland as it has valuable natural resources such as copper, brown coal and rock materials, which are exploited by the biggest enterprises, its well developed and varied industries attract both foreign investors. Its capital and largest city is Wrocław, situated on the Odra River, it is one of Poland's largest and most dynamic cities with a growing international profile, is regarded as one of the most important commercial and tourist sites in the whole country. Burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts are located in Trzebnica. Furthermore, the voivodeship is famous for its many castles and palaces and is one of Poland's most visited regions by tourists; the voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Wrocław, Legnica, Wałbrzych and Jelenia Góra Voivodeships, following the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998.
It covers an area of 19,946 square kilometres, as of 2013 has a total population of 2 914 362. Although much of the region is low-lying it includes Sudeten Foreland and part of the Sudetes mountain range running along the Polish/Czech border. Popular ski resorts in Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains. Other important tourist destinations in the voivodeship include the chief city, Wrocław, as well as the towns of Jelenia Góra and Legnica; the town of Boleslawiec is famed for its pottery. The voivodeship has the largest number of spa towns in Poland: Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój, Długopole-Zdrój, Duszniki-Zdrój, Jedlina-Zdrój, Kudowa-Zdrój, Lądek-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój, Przerzeczyn-Zdrój, Szczawno-Zdrój, Świeradów-Zdrój. Lower Silesian Voivodeship is bordered by Lubusz Voivodeship to the north-west, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the north-east, Opole Voivodeship to the south-east, the Czech Republic to the south, Germany to the west; the Wrocław–Copernicus Airport serves as an international and domestic airport.
The main railway station is Wrocław Główny. The A4 motorway, A8 motorway and A18 motorway run through the Voivodeship. Lower Silesian Voivodeship is one of the most visited voivodeships in Poland, it is famous for a large number of castles and palaces, inter alia: Książ Castle, Czocha Castle, Chojnik Castle, Grodziec castle, Gorzanów Castle, Kliczków Castle. There is a lot in the Jelenia Góra valley; the voivodship's most visited city is Wrocław with many sights and attractions, inter alia open all year round Aquapark, Wrocław SPA Center and famous Wrocław's dwarfs. The annual international Chopin Festival is held in the Fryderyk Chopin Theatre in Duszniki-Zdrój, established at the site of the first concert played by the Polish virtuoso pianist outside of the Russian Partition of Poland. Other major attraction of the town is the Museum of Papermaking, established in a 17th-century paper mill; the Festival of Good Beer is held every year, on the second weekend of June. Śnieżka is one of the first European peaks visited by tourists, it is the highest peak of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the whole of the Sudetes.
Other highlights include: Kłodzko Fortress, Fort Srebrna Góra, Legnickie Pole, Henryków, Lubiąż Abbey, Krzeszów Abbey, Oleśnica Mała, Vang stave church, Churches of Peace, Sokołowsko, Cave Bear, Museum of Gold Mining and Metallurgy in Złoty Stok, Coal Mine in Nowa Ruda, Museum of Industry and Railway in Jaworzyna Śląska, Skull Chapel in Czermna, Mount Ślęża, Table Mountains, Owl Mountains, The Main Trail Sudetes, Barycz Valley Landscape Park and connected with the history of World War II - complex tunnels Project Riese, a German Gross-Rosen concentration camp, German War Cemetery and Park Peace in the Nadolice Wielkie. Castles and palaces Burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts Protected areas in Lower Silesian Voivodeship: 2 National Parks Karkonosze National Park Table Mountains National Park 12 Landscape Parks Barycz Valley Landscape Park Bóbr Valley Landscape Park Bystrzyca Valley Landscape Park Chełmy Landscape Park Jezierzyca Valley Landscape Park Książ Landscape Park Owl Mountains Landscape Park Przemków Landscape Park Rudawy Landscape Park Ślęża Landscape Park Śnieżnik Landscape Park Sudety Wałbrzyskie Landscape Park 67 Nature reserves 20 protected landscape areas 3100 Natural monuments 1
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Voivodeships of Poland
A województwo is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, is translated in English as "province". Województwo is rendered in English by "voivodeship" or a variant spelling; the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, bear greater resemblance to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 took their names from the cities on which they were centered; the new units range in area from under 10,000 km2 to over 35,000 km2, in population from one million to over five million. Administrative authority at the voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed governor called a voivode, an elected assembly called a sejmik, an executive board chosen by that assembly, headed by a voivodeship marshal.
Voivodeships are further divided into powiats and gminas: see Administrative divisions of Poland. This is a list of Polish voivodeships by gross regional product per capita, based on purchasing power standards and shown in euros. Statistics shown are for 2017 levels; this is a list of Polish voivodeships by nominal gross regional product shown in billion euros. Statistics shown are for 2017 levels. Competences and powers at voivodeship level are shared between the voivode, the sejmik and the marshal. In most cases these institutions are all based in one city, but in Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lubusz Voivodeship the voivode's offices are in a different city from those of the executive and the sejmik. Voivodeship capitals are listed in the table below; the voivode is appointed by the Prime Minister and is the regional representative of the central government. The voivode acts as the head of central government institutions at regional level, manages central government property in the region, oversees the functioning of local government, coordinates actions in the field of public safety and environment protection, exercises special powers in emergencies.
The voivode's offices collectively are known as the urząd wojewódzki. The sejmik is elected every five years, at the same time as the local authorities at powiat and gmina level, it passes bylaws, including budget. It elects the marszałek and other members of the executive, holds them to account; the executive, headed by the marszałek drafts the budget and development strategies, implements the resolutions of the sejmik, manages the voivodeship's property, deals with many aspects of regional policy, including management of European Union funding. The marshal's offices are collectively known as the urząd marszałkowski. According to 2014 Eurostat data, the GDP per capita of Polish voivodeships varies notably and there is a large gap between the richest per capita voivodeship and the poorest per capita. Poznań Voivodeship Kalisz Voivodeship Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768 Sieradz Voivodeship Łęczyca Voivodeship Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship Inowrocław Voivodeship Chełmno Voivodeship Malbork Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Duchy of Warmia Duchy of Prussia Płock Voivodeship Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship Sandomierz Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Ruthenian Voivodeship Bełz Voivodeship Volhynian Voivodeship Podole Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Kijów Voivodeship Czernihów Voivodeship Wilno Voivodship Troki Voivodship Nowogrodek Voivodship Brest-Litovsk Voivodship Minsk Voivodship Mscislaw Voivodship Smolensk Voivodship Vitebsk Voivodship Polock Voivodship Duchy of Samogita Wenden Voivodship since 1598 till the 1620s Dorpat Voivodship since 1598 till the 1620
Psie Pole is one of the five administrative districts of Wrocław, Poland. It lies on the right shore of the Oder River. A part of Psie Pole is one of Wrocław's greenest neighborhoods, its suburban location makes it an important transport hub toward Warsaw, Łódź and other locations in central Poland. Psie Pole is considered to be the site of the 1109 Battle of Hundsfeld between the Poles and the Germans, although the existence of this battle is doubted by historians because it was not mentioned until a century later. Fabryczna, Wrocław Krzyki Stare Miasto, Wrocław Śródmieście, Wrocław