Śródmieście, Warsaw

Śródmieście is the central borough of the city of Warsaw. The best known neighborhoods in the borough are the Old New Town; the area is home to the most important national and municipal institutions, many businesses, higher education establishments and theatres. It is home to most of the tourist attractions in Warsaw, including the tallest building in Warsaw,the narrowest street, the oldest university, the oldest public park, the oldest secular monument and the oldest historical building; the name is colloquially used for Warszawa Śródmieście railway station. Stare Miasto Nowe Miasto Muranów Śródmieście Północne Śródmieście Południowe Powiśle Mariensztat Solec Ujazdów Srodmiescie travel guide from Wikivoyage

Borders (UK)

Borders Ltd. aka Borders & Books etc. was established as a Borders Group subsidiary in 1998 and in 2007 became independent of the US company. At its peak after separation from the US parent, it traded from its 41 Borders and 28 BOOKS etc. shops, with over one million square feet of retail space taking around 8% of the retail bookselling market. In 2008 and 2009 the store numbers were reduced before the collapse of the chain, they operated one single branch in Ireland, but closed this early in 2009. On 26 November 2009 it was announced. All stores closed on 24 December 2009. A typical Borders shop in the UK contained both a Paperchase stationery and Starbucks cafe concession. In addition, some branches contained a RED5 gadget concession and GAME video games concession; the logo contained both the Books etc. logo and the Borders logo to reflect the fact that Borders UK operated two different brands. In September 2007, Borders Ltd. was acquired by Luke Johnson's London-based private equity investor Risk Capital Partners in a deal purportedly worth £20 million.

Bookshop Acquisitions Ltd. - a subsidiary of Risk Capital Partners - was set up for the purchase and the deal included the right to use the Borders and Books etc. brand names consistent with the brand. Under the deal, Borders would receive an equity interest of about 17% in Bookshop Acquisitions. In January 2008, David Roche stepped down as C. E. O. of Borders and was replaced by Philip Downer. Upon his appointment, Downer called for a category review of the entire company although he made it clear there were no immediate plans to further change the structure of the business. Subsequently, it was announced in March 2008 that Borders UK planned to close its distribution centre on 29 August, in favour of having publishers and wholesalers deliver directly to its shops, this being opposite to the decision of Waterstone's who planned to test and open their own distribution centre, colloquially referred to as'The Hub', from the end of May. In July 2008, Borders launched an e-commerce website. In a bid to try to take back a share of internet sales of books, the beta testing of their new transactional website commenced, due for full completion before the end of the month.

Borders sold eight London Books Etc shops to competitor Waterstones in August 2008 for an undisclosed sum. Five Borders shops in Oxford Street, Blanchardstown and London Colney were closed in July 2009 and replaced by New Look. After July 2009, Borders was owned by Valco Capital Partners, part of Hilco, who specialise in distressed retailers. At the end of September 2009, it was announced that the majority of the remaining Books Etc. and the two Borders Express shops, would be sold, closing down sales began shortly after. The company announced in November 2009 that it was looking for a buyer for the business following concerns that it would run out of money; the following day the Borders website stopped taking orders for books, while orders for CDs and DVDs through the Borders Entertainment website continued as this was run by The Hut Group. On 26 November 2009, Reuters announced that Borders UK had entered administration, after having difficulties raising enough cash to trade through the key Christmas period.

This article was soon withdrawn, replaced with a corrected item reporting that the company was'mulling' administration. This news came on top of a difficult few weeks for the company, with the company reported to be on credit stop with all the major publishers, still searching for a buyer following the breakdown of negotiations with WHSmith; that day, Borders Ltd went into administration. The intention was to appoint BDO as administrators, but it developed that a conflict of interest existed. Instead, MCR were appointed by Borders' owners—Valco Capital Partners, part of Hilco—as administrators; the BBC adds that MCR'hired specialist liquidators Hilco to advise'. A'parallel strategy' was applied of seeking a buyer for the chain as a going interest, running closing down sales. On the evening of 27 November 2009, it was announced that a closing down sale would commence in all stores on the following day. During the sales, sale stock included Denby China, a separate concern bought out by Valco Capital Partners earlier in 2009.

The publisher Hachette took MCR to court for continuing to sell Hachette titles without first obtaining permission, obtaining a High Court judgement on 18 December 2009 that MCR were'incorrect' to do so. MCR, the administrators for the chain, stated the intention of seeking a buyer. However, it is reported that a'serious attempt' by Richard Joseph, co-founder of the Books Etc. chain, to buy a number of stores was rejected by MCR. A spokesman for MCR confirmed that unsuccessful bids had been made which had failed to meet expectations. MCR announced that the 45 stores would cease trading and close their doors permanently on 22 December, claiming that it had not been possible to sell the chain as a going concern. All staff members were made redundant on 24 December 2009; the company Borders Limited was dissolved in August 2011. The BOOKS etc. name and its website and the Borders database were bought by Capital Books Ltd in January 2010. The BOOKS etc. website was launched in March 2010. Bookselling Chain of the Year 2005 & 2006 Chain Bookselling Company of the Year 2006 & 2007 Hachette Children's Retailer of the Year 2007 Magazine Destination Retailer of the Year 2007 Usborne Children's Bookseller of the Year 2008 Books in the United Kingdom BOOKSetc


Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases, is an opaque, impure variety of silica red, brown or green in color. The common red color is due to iron inclusions; the mineral aggregate is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be polished and is used for items such as vases and snuff boxes; the specific gravity of jasper is 2.5 to 2.9. A green variety with red spots, known as heliotrope, is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that has distinctive bands of jasper; the name means "spotted or speckled stone", is derived via Old French jaspre and Latin iaspidem from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, from an Afroasiatic language. This Semitic etymology is believed to be unrelated to that of the English given name Jasper. Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC. Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world. On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite. The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Nibelungenlied as being green; the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word may have designated a green jasper. Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper. Jasper is an opaque rock of any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is thought to be required in the formation of jasper.

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e. dendritic. The original materials are fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into diverse patterns, which are filled in with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds; the classification and naming of jasper varieties presents a challenge. Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" and "Lahontan", rivers and individual mountains. A few are designated by the place of origin such as a brown Egyptian or red African. Jasper is the main component in the silica-rich parts of banded iron formations which indicate low, but present, amounts of dissolved oxygen in the water such as during the Great Oxidation Event or snowball earths; the red bands more competent than the hematite layers surrounding it, are made of microcrystalline red chert called jasper.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns resulting in what appear to be images. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e. leopard skin jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in leisegang jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated jasper. While these "picture jaspers" can be found all over the world, specific colors or patterns are unique to the geographic region from which they originate; the primary source of the stone is Indonesia in Purbalingga district. Oregon's Biggs jasper, Idaho's Bruneau jasper from the Bruneau River canyon are fine examples. Other examples can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales. Basanite, lydian stone, or lydite are a variety of jasper from New England, black flinty or cherty, they have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys. "Jasper". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920