The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
Hurrem Sultan called Roxelana, was the chief consort and legal wife of the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. She had six children with Süleyman: Şehzade Mehmed, Mihrimah Sultan, Şehzade Abdullah, Sultan Selim II, Şehzade Bayezid, Şehzade Cihangir, she became one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and a prominent and controversial figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was the first "Haseki Sultan" when her husband, Süleyman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan, she achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in the state affairs of the Empire. Hurrem's birth name is unknown. Leslie P. Peirce has written that it may have been Aleksandra Lisowska. Among the Ottomans, she was known as Haseki Hurrem Sultan or Hurrem Haseki Sultan. Hurrem or Khorram means "the cheerful one" in Persian. Sources indicate that Hurrem Sultan was from Ruthenia now Ukraine, part of the Kingdom of Poland, she was born in the town of Rohatyn 68 km south-east of Lwów, a major city of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
According to late 16th-century and early 17th-century sources, such as the Polish poet Samuel Twardowski, who researched the subject in Turkey, Hurrem was born to a father, an Orthodox priest surnamed Lisowski. In the 1520s, Crimean Tatars kidnapped her during one of their Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands; the Tatars may have first taken her to the Crimean city of Kaffa, a major centre of the Ottoman slave trade, before she was taken to Istanbul. In Istanbul, Valide Sultan Hasfa Sultan selected Hurrem as a gift for Sultan Süleyman. Michalo Lituanus wrote in the 16th century that "the most beloved wife of the present Turkish emperor – mother of his primogenital who will govern after him, was kidnapped from our land". Shaykh Qutb al-Din al-Nahrawali, a Meccan religious figure, who visited Istanbul in late 1557, noted in his memoirs that Hurrem Sultan was of Russian nationality, she had been a servant in the household of Hançerli Fatma Sultan, daughter of Şehzade Mahmud, son of Sultan Bayezid II.
She was presented to Suleiman. Roxelana, called Hurrem Sultan entered the harem around fifteen years of age; the precise year that she entered the harem is unknown, but scholars believe that she became Suleiman's concubine around the time he became sultan in 1520. Hurrem's unprecedented rise from harem slave to Süleyman's legal wife and "queen of the Ottoman Empire" attracted jealousy and disfavor not only from her rivals in the harem, but from the general populace, she soon became Süleyman's most prominent consort beside Mahidevran Sultan. While the exact dates for the births of her children are disputed, there is academic consensus that the births of her five children —Şehzade Mehmed, Mihrimah Sultan, Şehzade Abdullah, Sultan Selim II and Şehzade Bayezid — occurred over the next four to five years. Süleyman and Hurrem's last child, Şehzade Cihangir was born with a hunchback, but by that time Hurrem had borne enough healthy sons to secure the future of the Ottoman dynasty, her joyful spirit and playful temperament earned her a new name, from Persian Khorram, "the cheerful one".
In the Istanbul harem, Hurrem became a rival to Mahidevran and her influence over the Sultan soon became legendary. Hurrem was allowed to give birth to more than one son, a stark violation of the old imperial harem principle, "one concubine mother — one son,", designed to prevent both the mother's influence over the sultan and the feuds of the blood brothers for the throne, she was to bear the majority of Süleyman's children. Hurrem gave birth to her first son Mehmed in 1521 and to four more sons, destroying Mahidevran's status as the mother of the sultan's only son. Süleyman's mother, Hafsa suppressed the rivalry between the two women; as a result of the bitter rivalry a fight between the two women broke out, with Mahidevran beating Hurrem, which angered Süleyman. In 1533 or 1534, Süleyman married Hurrem in a magnificent formal ceremony, making him the first Ottoman Sultan to wed since Orhan Ghazi, violating a 200-year-old custom of the Ottoman imperial house according to which sultans were not to marry their concubines.
Never before was a former slave elevated to the status of the sultan's lawful spouse, much to the astonishment of observers in the palace and in the city. Hurrem received the title Haseki Sultan and became the first consort to hold this title; this title, used for a century, reflected the great power of imperial consorts in the Ottoman court, elevating their status higher than Ottoman princesses, making them the equals of empresses consort in Europe. In this case, Süleyman not only broke the old custom, but created new tradition for the future Ottoman Sultans to marry with a formal ceremony and make their consorts have significant influence on the court in matter of succession. Hurrem's salary was 2,000 aspers a day, making her one of the highest paid hasekis, their marriage had subsequent consequences including creating a general belief that by this marriage the Sultan had limited his autonomy and was dominated and controlled by his wife. Furthermore, a mother's role in educating and guiding her sons throughout their life became more prominent.
Valide sultan was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The title was first used in the 16th century for Hafsa Sultan, consort of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent, superseding the previous title of mehd-i ulya; this title was held by the living mother of a reigning sultan. The mothers who died before their sons' accession to the throne were never bestowed with the title of Valide Sultan. In special cases, there were grandmothers and stepmothers of a reigning sultan who assumed the title Valide Sultan; the word valide means "mother" in Ottoman Turkish, from Arabic. The Turkish pronunciation of the word valide is. Sultan is an Arabic word meaning "authority" or "dominion". By the beginning of the 16th century, this title, carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty, was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known; the title valide hatun turned into valide sultan. This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.
Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but the Ottomans themselves used "padişah" or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor’s formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan". In formal address, the sultan’s children were entitled "sultan", with imperial princes carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, the living mother and main consort of reigning sultans carried the title after their given names, for example, Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman’s mother and first valide sultan, Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman’s chief consort and first haseki sultan; the evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women between Sultanate of Women, as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun".
Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan". Title valide carried after given name. According to a genealogical website, the formal way of addressing a valide is Devletlû İsmetlu Vâlide Sultân Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri. Many westerner translated their official title, sultan, to title which not exist in Ottoman royalti sultana for distinguished them from Ottoman ruler and other male member of Ottoman dynasty. Valide sultan was the most important position in the Ottoman Empire after the sultan himself; as the mother to the sultan, by Islamic tradition, the valide sultan would have a significant influence on the affairs of the empire. She had her own rooms and state staff. Valide sultan traditionally had access to considerable economic resources and funded major architectural projects. In particular during the 17th century, in a period known as the "Sultanate of Women", a series of incompetent or child sultans raised the role of the valide sultan to new heights.
The most powerful and well-known of all valide sultans in the history of the Ottoman Empire were Nurbanu Sultan, Safiye Sultan, Kösem Sultan and Turhan Hatice Sultan. Most harem women who were slaves were never formally married to the sultans, their children were considered legitimate under Islamic law if recognized by the father. However, only few harem women who became Valide Sultans upon their son's ascension to the throne were indeed freed from slavery and married to their spouses, the former Ottoman Sultans; these Sultanas were Kösem Sultan and Rabia Gülnuş Sultan. The list does not include the complete list of mothers of the Ottoman sultans. Most who held the title of valide sultan were the biological mothers of the reigning sultans; the mothers who died before their sons' accession to throne, never assumed the title of valide sultan, like Hürrem Sultan, Muazzez Sultan, Mihrişah Kadın, Şermi Kadın, Tirimüjgan Kadın, Gülcemal Kadın, Gülüstü Hanım. In special cases, there were grandmothers and stepmothers of the reigning sultans who assumed the title of valide sultan, like Kösem Sultan and Perestu Kadın.
Most of the information on the origins of Valide Sultans are disputed in the early stages of the title, like with Hafsa Sultan, Nurbanu Sultan and Safiye Sultan. A lot of information about the concubines of the Sultans wasn’t recorded because they were only thought of as mother of a Şehzade. Living mother of reigning sultan held title Valide Sultan, but in exceptional cases, there were women. Hanımefendi Harem Haseki Sultan Kadınefendi List of mothers of the Ottoman sultans List of Ottoman titles and appellations Ottoman family tree Seraglio Sultana Leslie P. Peirce; the Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508677-5. Guide2womenleaders.com
Mihrimah Sultan was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife, Hürrem Sultan. She was the most powerful imperial princess in Ottoman history and one of the prominent figures during the Sultanate of Women. Mihrimah Sultan's name means "Light of the Moon". To Westerners, she was known as Cameria, her portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo entitled as Cameria Solimani. Other Ottoman imperial princesses who named “Mihrimah” and Mihrimah Sultan's close relative were: Mihrimah's niece, daughter of Şehzade Bayezid Mihrimah's grandniece, daughter of Murad III Mihrimah was born in Istanbul in 1522 during the reign of her father, Suleiman the Magnificent, her mother was Hürrem Sultan, an Orthodox priest's daughter, the current Sultan's concubine at the time. In 1533 or 1534, her mother, Hürrem, became Suleiman's legal wife. On 26 November 1539 in Istanbul at the age of seventeen, Mihrimah was married to Rüstem, a devshirme from Croatia who rose to become Governor of Diyarbakır and Suleiman's Grand Vizier.
Her wedding ceremony and the celebration for her younger brother Bayezid's circumcision occurred on the same day. Five years her husband was selected by Suleiman to become Grand Vizier. Though the union was unhappy, Mihrimah flourished as a patroness of the arts and continued her travels with her father until her husband's death. Mihrimah Sultan and Rüstem Pasha had two children: Hümaşah. Mihrimah traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire with her father as he surveyed the lands and conquered new ones. In international politics, Hürrem Sultan sent letters to Sigismund II, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the contents of her letters were mirrored in letters written by Mihrimah, sent by the same courier, who carried letters from the sultan and her husband Rüstem Pasha the Grand Vizier. Therefore, it is most probable that Hürrem and Mihrimah were well known among ordinary Ruthenians. Although there is no proof of Hürrem or Mihrimah's direct involvement in her half-brother Şehzade Mustafa's downfall, Ottoman sources and foreign accounts indicate that it was believed that Hürrem, Rüstem and Mihrimah worked first to eliminate Mustafa so as ensure the throne to Hürrem's son and Mihrimah's full-brother, Bayezid.
The rivalry ended in a loss for Mustafa when he was executed by his own father's command in 1553 during the campaign against Safavid Persia because of fear of rebellion. Although this stories were not based on first-hand sources, this fear of Mustafa was not unreasonable. Had Mustafa ascended to the throne, all Mihrimah's full-brothers would have been executed, according to the fratricide custom of the Ottoman dynasty, which required all brothers of the new sultan be executed to avoid feuds among imperial siblings. Mihrimah became Suleiman's advisor, his confidant and his closest relative after Suleiman's other relatives and companions died or were exiled one by one, like Mustafa, Cihangir, Hürrem, Rüstem, Gülfem. After Hürrem's death, Mihrimah took her mother's place as her father's counselor, urging him to undertake the conquest of Malta and sending him news and forwarding letters for him when he was absent from capital. Beside her great political intelligence, Mihrimah had access to considerable economic resources and funded major architectural projects.
She promised to build 400 galleys at her own expense to encourage Suleiman in his campaign against Malta. When her brother ascended to the throne as Selim II, she lent him some 50,000 gold sovereigns to sate his immediate needs. Mihrimah sponsored a number of major architectural projects, her most famous foundations are the two Istanbul-area mosque complexes that bear her name, both designed by her father's chief architect, Mimar Sinan. Mihrimah Sultan Mosque known as İskele Mosque, one of Üsküdar's most prominent landmarks and was built between 1546 and 1548; the second mosque is named as Mihrimah Sultan Mosque at the Edirne Gate, at the western wall of the old city of Istanbul, was one of Sinan's most imaginative designs, using new support systems and lateral spaces to increase the area available for windows. Its building took place from 1562 to 1565. Mihrimah's life was uncertain after Selim's death in 1574; some say she retired at the Old Palace. However it is most that Mihrimah kept her position at Topkapı Palace and continued to share her power with Nurbanu, the new Valide Sultan, until her own death, was the only Imperial Princess to be ranked with Nurbanu Sultan and above Safiye Sultan in the royal court.
Mihrimah died in Istanbul on 25 January 1578 during the reign of her nephew Murad III, outliving all of her siblings. She is the only one of Suleiman's children to be buried in the Süleyman Mosque complex. In the 2011–2014 TV series Muhteşem Yüzyıl, she is portrayed by Pelin Karahan. In The Architect's Apprentice, a 2014 novel by Elif Şafak, she is a central character. Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire 1993 by Leslie Peirce, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508677-5. Photos of Mihrimah Sultan Mosque in Edirnekapi Photos of Iskele Mosque in Uskudar Mihrimah Sultan Mosque in Edirnekapi Mihrimah
Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings and lords of Iran. It was adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs, it was used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used. Other words for King in other Iranian languages, like Sogdian xšyδ, Kurdish and Gilaki šāh, Bactrian šao, Luri and Mazandrani ša and Pashto pača are from the same root; the word descends from Old Persian xšāyaθiya "king", which must be a borrowing from Median, is derived from the same root as Avestan xšaϑra-, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit kṣatra-, from which kṣatriya-, "warrior", is derived. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān, "King of Kings" or "Emperor". Šāh, or Šāhanšāh to use the full-length term, was the title of the Persian emperors.
It includes rulers of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid dynasty, who unified Persia in the sixth century BC, created a vast intercontinental empire, as well as rulers of succeeding dynasties throughout history until the twentieth century and the Imperial House of Pahlavi. While in Western sources the Ottoman monarch is most referred to as a Sultan, in Ottoman territory he was most referred to as Padishah and several used the title Shah in their tughras, their male offspring received prince. The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām "King of Kings" in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, Modern Persian شاهنشاه. In Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, "King of Kings", equivalent to "Emperor". Both terms were shortened to their roots shah and basileus. In Western languages, Shah is used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh; the term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia and with the spelling Shaw.
For a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire. The European opinion changed in the Napoleonic era, when Persia was an ally of the Western powers eager to make the Ottoman Sultan release his hold on various European parts of the Ottoman Empire, western emperors had obtained the Ottoman acknowledgement that their western imperial styles were to be rendered in Turkish as padishah. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages, the rendering Emperor, he styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the last Shah, as the Iranian monarchy was abolished after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. From the reign of Ashot III, the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning "king of kings"; the title Padishah was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by various other monarchs claiming imperial rank, such as the Mughals that established their dynasty in the Indian subcontinent.
Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning "King, refuge of the world". The Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman; some monarchs were known by a contraction of the kingdom's name with shah, such as Khwarezmshah, ruler of the short-lived Muslim realm of Khwarezmia, or the Shirvanshah of the historical Iranian region of Shirvan The kings of Georgia called themselves shahanshah alongside their other titles. Georgian title mepetmepe was inspired by the shahanshah title. Shahzadeh. In the realm of a shah, a prince or princess of the blood was logically called shahzada as the term is derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -zādeh or -zāda, "born from" or "descendant of"; however the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shah's kingdom. This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire and was used by the princes of Islamic India such as in the Mughal Empire, it is to be noted, that the Mughals and the Sultans of Delhi were not of Indian origin but of Mongol-Turkic origin and were influenced by Persian culture, a continuation of traditions and habits since Persian language was first introduced into the region by Persianised Turkic and Afghan dynasties centuries earlier.
Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur were by birth-right styled "Shahzada Mirza Bahadur", though this style could be extended to individual grandsons and further relatives. Other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were styled "Mirza " or " Mir
Selim II known as Sarı Selim or Sarhoş Selim, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574. He was a son of his wife Hürrem Sultan. Selim had been an unlikely candidate for the throne until his brother Mehmed died of smallpox, his half-brother Mustafa was strangled to death by the order of his father, his brother Bayezid was killed in a coordinated effort between him and his father. Selim was born in Constantinople, on 28 May 1524, during the reign of his father Suleiman the Magnificent, his mother was Hürrem Sultan, a slave and concubine, born an Orthodox priest's daughter, was freed and became Suleiman's legal wife. In 1545, at Konya, Selim married Nurbanu Sultan, it is said that she was named Cecelia Venier Baffo, or Rachel, or Kale Katenou. She was the mother of Selim's successor. Hubbi Hatun, a famous poet of the sixteenth century, was a lady-in-waiting to him. Selim II gained the throne after palace intrigue and fraternal dispute, succeeding as sultan on 7 September 1566.
The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica article on him remarks that he was "the first sultan devoid of military virtues and willing to abandon all power to his ministers, provided he were left free to pursue his orgies and debauches." Selim's Grand Vizier, Mehmed Sokollu, a native of what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina, controlled much of state affairs, two years after Selim's accession succeeded in concluding at Constantinople a treaty with the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, whereby the Emperor agreed to pay an annual "present" of 30,000 ducats and granted the Ottomans authority in Moldavia and Walachia. Against Russia Selim was less fortunate. A plan had been prepared in Constantinople for uniting the Volga and Don by a canal in order to counter Russian expansion toward the Ottomans' northern frontier. In the summer of 1569 a large force of Janissaries and cavalry were sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov. However, a sortie from the Astrakhan garrison drove back the besiegers.
A Russian relief army of 15,000 attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection. The Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm. Early in 1570 the ambassadors of Ivan IV of Russia concluded at Constantinople a treaty that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar. Expeditions in the Hejaz and Yemen were more successful, but the conquest of Cyprus in 1571, led to the naval defeat against Spain and Italian states in the Battle of Lepanto in the same year; the Empire's shattered fleets were soon restored, the Ottomans maintained control of the eastern Mediterranean. In August 1574, months before Selim's death, the Ottomans regained control of Tunis from Spain, which had captured it in 1572. Selim is known for giving back to Mahidevran Sultan her status and her wealth, contrasted with his father's decision, he built the tomb of his eldest brother, Şehzade Mustafa, executed in 1553. Selim's first and only wife, Nurbanu Sultan, was a Venetian, the mother of his successor Murad III and three of his daughters.
As a Haseki Sultan she received 1,000 aspers a day, while lower-ranking concubines who were the mothers of princes received 40 aspers a day. Selim bestowed upon Nurbanu 110,000 ducats as a dowry, surpassing the 100,000 ducats that his father bestowed upon Hürrem Sultan. According to a privy purse register cited by Leslie Pierce, Selim had four other women, each of them was mother of a prince. Augusta Hamilton records. ConsortsNurbanu Sultan, mother of Murad III. SonsSelim had eight sons: son of Nurbanu Sultan. DaughtersSelim had at five daughters: Ismihan Sultan, daughter with Nurbanu, married firstly in 1562 to Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, married secondly in 1584 to Kalaylıkoz Ali Pasha.