Ugarit was an ancient port city in northern Syria, in the outskirts of modern Latakia, discovered by accident in 1928 together with the Ugaritic texts. Its ruins are called Ras Shamra after the headland where they lie. Ugarit had close connections to the Hittite Empire, sent tribute to Egypt at times, maintained trade and diplomatic connections with Cyprus, documented in the archives recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery found there; the polity was at its height from c. 1450 BCE until its destruction in c. 1200 BCE. The kingdom would be one of the many destroyed during the Bronze Age Collapse. Ras Shamra lies on the Mediterranean coast, some 11 kilometres north of Latakia, near modern Burj al-Qasab. Neolithic Ugarit was important enough to be fortified with a wall early on by 6000 BCE, though the site is thought to have been inhabited earlier. Ugarit was important because it was both a port and at the entrance of the inland trade route to the Euphrates and Tigris lands.
The city reached its heyday between 1800 and 1200 BCE, when it ruled a trade-based coastal kingdom, trading with Egypt, the Aegean, the Hittites, much of the eastern Mediterranean. The first written evidence mentioning the city comes from the nearby city of Ebla, c. 1800 BCE. Ugarit passed into the sphere of influence of Egypt, which influenced its art. Evidence of the earliest Ugaritic contact with Egypt comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, 1971–1926 BCE. A stela and a statuette from the Egyptian pharaohs Senusret III and Amenemhet III have been found. However, it is unclear. Amarna letters from Ugarit c. 1350 BCE record one letter each from Ammittamru I, Niqmaddu II, his queen. From the 16th to the 13th century BCE, Ugarit remained in regular contact with Alashiya. In the second millennium BCE, Ugarit's population was Amorite, the Ugaritic language has a direct Amoritic origin; the kingdom of Ugarit may have controlled about 2,000 km2 on average. During some of its history it would have been in close proximity to, if not directly within the Hittite Empire.
The last Bronze Age king of Ugarit, was a contemporary of the last known Hittite king, Suppiluliuma II. The exact dates of his reign are unknown. However, a letter by the king is preserved, in which Ammurapi stresses the seriousness of the crisis faced by many Near Eastern states due to attacks. Ammurapi pleads for assistance from the king of Alashiya, highlighting the desperate situation Ugarit faced: My father, the enemy's ships came. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots are in the Land of Hatti, all my ships are in the Land of Lukka?... Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my father know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us. Eshuwara, the senior governor of Cyprus, responded: As for the matter concerning those enemies: the people from your country your own ships did this! And the people from your country committed these transgression... I am writing to protect you. Be aware! The ruler of Carchemish sent troops to assist Ugarit.
A letter sent after Ugarit was destroyed said: When your messenger arrived, the army was humiliated and the city was sacked. Our food in the threshing floors was burnt and the vineyards were destroyed. Our city is sacked. May you know it! May you know it! By excavating the highest levels of the city's ruins, archaeologists can study various attributes of Ugaritic civilization just before their destruction, compare artifacts with those of nearby cultures to help establish dates. Ugarit contained many caches of cuneiform tablets, actual libraries that contained a wealth of information; the destruction levels of the ruin contained Late Helladic IIIB pottery ware, but no LH IIIC. Therefore, the date of the destruction of Ugarit is important for the dating of the LH IIIC phase in mainland Greece. Since an Egyptian sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah was found in the destruction levels, 1190 BCE was taken as the date for the beginning of the LH IIIC. A cuneiform tablet found in 1986 shows, it is agreed that Ugarit had been destroyed by the eighth year of Ramesses III.
Recent radiocarbon work indicates a destruction date between 1192 and 1190 BCE. Whether Ugarit was destroyed before or after Hattusa, the Hittite capital, is debated; the destruction was followed by a settlement hiatus. Many other Mediterranean cultures were disordered just at the same time; some of the disorder was caused by invasions of the mysterious Sea Peoples. Scribes in Ugarit appear to have originated the "Ugaritic alphabet" around 1400 BCE: 30 letters, corresponding to sounds, were inscribed on clay tablets. Although they are cuneiform in appearance, the letters bear no relation to Mesopotamian cuneiform signs. While the letters show little or no formal similarity to the Phoenician, the standard letter order shows strong similarities between the two, suggesting that the Phoenician and Ugaritic systems were not wholly independent inventions; the existence of the Ugaritic la
Suleiman is the main transliteration of the Arabic سليمان Sulāymān / Silīmān. The name corresponds to the English name Solomon; the word may be transliterated as Sulaiman, Soliman, Sulaymaan, Suleyman, Sulaman, Süleyman, Sleiman, Sliman, Soleman, Souleymane Seleman. This disambiguation page focuses on individuals and entities with Suleiman as a predominant transliteration. Featuring those named Suleiman. For other transliterations, refer to See section Hadım Suleiman Pasha, military commander under the reign of Mehmed II Suleiman the Magnificent known as Suleiman I Suleiman I of Persia Suleiman II of Persia Sulayman ibn al-Hakam Suleiman II Suleiman II, Ottoman Sultan 1687–1691 Suleiman al-Abbas, Syrian politician Suleiman Arabiyat, Jordanian academic and politician Suleiman Hafez, Jordanian economist and politician Suleiman Frangieh, President of Lebanon 1970 to 1976 Suleiman Frangieh Jr. Lebanese politician and MP, leader of the Marada Movement Suleiman Khan, Ilkhan of Persia Suleiman Mousa, Jordanian author and historian Suleiman Pasha, multiple people Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, Seljuq Sultan of Rum Sulieman Benn, West Indian cricketer Elia Suleiman and actor Michel Suleiman, president of Lebanon and former commander in chief of that country's armed forces Omar Suleiman, vice-president of Egypt Yasir Suleiman, Palestinian academic Sulaiman Mountains and Pakistan Suleyman, Azerbaijan Sleman, Indonesia Sulaymaniyah Suleiman, an elephant named after Suleiman the Magnificent Süleyman, a fictional character in the anime series Trinity Blood Sleiman Slimane Soliman Solomon Sulaiman Suleman Sulejman Sulayman Suleyman Süleymanoğlu Sulliman Islamic view of Solomon Suleimani
Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Babylonian dynasty in the 19th century BC. After the Amorite king Hammurabi created a short-lived empire in the 18th century BC, he built Babylon up into a major city and declared himself its king, southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia and Babylon eclipsed Nippur as its holy city; the empire waned under Hammurabi's son Samsu-iluna and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination. After being destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians, Babylon became the capital of the short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire from 609 to 539 BC; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, although a number of scholars believe these were in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh.
After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid empires. It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world c. 1770 – c. 1670 BC, again c. 612 – c. 320 BC. It was the first city to reach a population above 200,000. Estimates for the maximum extent of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares; the remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometres south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris. The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bible, descriptions in classical writing, second-hand descriptions —present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city at its peak in the sixth century BC; the English Babylon comes from a transliteration of the Akkadian Bābilim. Archibald Sayce, writing in the 1870s, considered Bab-ilu or Bab-ili to be the translation of an earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra, meaning "gate of god", based on the characters KAN4 DIĜIR.
RAKI or based on other characters. According to Professor Dietz-Otto Edzard, the city was called Babilla, but by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur, through a process of etymological speculation, had become Bāb-ili meaning "gate of god" or "god's gate"; the "gate of god" translation is viewed as a folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. Linguist I. J. Gelb suggested in 1955 that Babil/Babilla is the basis of the city name, of unknown meaning and origin, as there were other similarly-named places in Sumer, there are no other examples of Sumerian place-names being replaced with Akkadian translations, he deduced that it transformed into Akkadian Bāb-ili, that the Sumerian Ka-dig̃irra was a translation of that, rather than vice versa. In the Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean "confusion", from the verb bilbél; the modern English verb, to babble, is popularly thought to derive from this name, but there is no direct connection.
Ancient records in some situations use "Babylon" as a name for other cities, including cities like Borsippa within Babylon's sphere of influence, Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of Babylon. The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris; the site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer, oriented north to south, along the Euphrates to the west. The river bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former western part of the city are now inundated; some portions of the city wall to the west of the river remain. Only a small portion of the ancient city has been excavated. Known remains include: Kasr – called Palace or Castle, it is the location of the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat Etemenanki and lies in the center of the site. Amran Ibn Ali – the highest of the mounds at 25 meters, to the south.
It is the site of Esagila, a temple of Marduk which contained shrines to Ea and Nabu. Homera – a reddish-colored mound on the west side. Most of the Hellenistic remains are here. Babil – a mound about 22 meters high at the northern end of the site, its bricks have been subject to looting since ancient times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar. Archaeologists have recovered few artifacts predating the Neo-Babylonian period; the water table in the region has risen over the centuries, artifacts from the time before the Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard archaeological methods. Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or obscured much of the earlier record. Babylon was pillaged numerous times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by t
Mitanni called Hanigalbat in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At the beginning of its history, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite Empire and Egypt struck an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, Mitanni had outposts centred on its capital, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River; the Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1475 and c. 1275 BC. Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. While the Mitanni kings were Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type. The Mitanni controlled trade routes down the Khabur to Mari and up the Euphrates from there to Carchemish. For a time they controlled the Assyrian territories of the upper Tigris and its headwaters at Nineveh, Erbil and Nuzi, their allies included Kizuwatna in southeastern Anatolia. To the east, they had good relations with the Kassites; the land of Mitanni in northern Syria extended from the Taurus mountains to its west and as far east as Nuzi and the river Tigris in the east. In the south, it extended from Aleppo across to Mari on the Euphrates in the east, its centre was in the Khabur River valley, with two capitals: Taite and Washshukanni, called Taidu and Ushshukana in Assyrian sources. The whole area supported agriculture without artificial irrigation and cattle and goats were raised, it is similar to Assyria in climate, was settled by both indigenous Hurrian and Amoritic-speaking populations.
The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians. The different names seem to have referred to the same kingdom and were used interchangeably, according to Michael C. Astour. Hittite annals mention. A Hittite fragment from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Hurri"; the Assyro-Akkadian version of the text renders "Hurri" as Hanigalbat. Tushratta, who styles himself "king of Mitanni" in his Akkadian Amarna letters, refers to his kingdom as Hanigalbat. Egyptian sources call Mitanni "nhrn", pronounced as Naharin/Naharina from the Assyro-Akkadian word for "river", cf. Aram-Naharaim; the name Mitanni is first found in the "memoirs" of the Syrian wars of the official astronomer and clockmaker Amenemhet, who returned from the "foreign country called Me-ta-ni" at the time of Thutmose I. The expedition to the Naharina announced by Thutmosis I at the beginning of his reign may have taken place during the long previous reign of Amenhotep I.
Helck believes that this was the expedition mentioned by Amenhotep II. The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. A treatise on the training of chariot horses by Kikkuli, a Mitanni writer, contains a number of Indo-Aryan glosses. Kammenhuber suggested that this vocabulary was derived from the still undivided Indo-Iranian language, but Mayrhofer has shown that Indo-Aryan features are present; the names of the Mitanni aristocracy are of Indo-Aryan origin, their deities show Indo-Aryan roots, though some think that they are more related to the Kassites. The common people's language, the Hurrian language, is neither Semitic. Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family, it had been held. A Hurrian passage in the Amarna letters – composed in Akkadian, the lingua franca of the day – indicates that the royal family of Mitanni was by speaking Hurrian as well. Bearers of names in the Hurrian language are attested in wide areas of Syria and the northern Levant that are outside the area of the political entity known to Assyria as Hanilgalbat.
There is no indication. In the 14th century BC numerous city-states in northern Syria and Canaan were ruled by persons with Hurrian and some Indo-Aryan names. If this can be taken to mean that the population of these states was Hurrian as well it is possible that these entities were a part of a larger polity with a shared Hurrian identity; this is assumed, but without a critical examination of the sources. Differences in dialect and regionally different pantheons point to the existence of several groups of Hurrian speakers. No native sources for the history of Mitanni have been found so far; the account is based on Assyrian, Hittite
Karduniaš transcribed Karduniash, Karaduniyaš or Karaduniše), is a Kassite term used for the kingdom centered on Babylonia and founded by the Kassite dynasty. It is used in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence, is used in Middle-Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian texts to refer to the kingdom of Babylon; the name Karaduniyaš is used in the letters written between Kadashman-Enlil I, or Burna-Buriash, the Kings of Babylon, the Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt-, letters EA 1-EA 11, a subcorpus of letters. Much a version of the name was used in the Babylonian Talmud as Kardunya referring to similar locations. There are two additional letters in the 382–letter Amarna corpus that reference Karaduniyaš; the first is a damaged, partial letter, EA 200, regarding "Ahlameans",. The second letter is complete and undamaged, a letter from one of the sons of Labaya, namely Mutbaal-, letter EA 255. Letter 255 by Mutbaal, about caravans, seems to imply that his location in western Jordan, was an important trade route to the east to Babylonia, or north to Mittani.
"Say o the king, lord and my Sun: Thus Mut-Bahl, your servant, the dirt at your feet, the mire you tread on. I fall at the feet of my lord, 7 times and 7 times; the king, my lord, sent Haaya to me to say, "A caravan to Hanagalbat-, is this to send on, send it on!" Who am I that I would not send on a caravan of the king, my lord, seeing that b'ayu, my father, ve the king, his lord, he used to send on ans the king nd to Hanagalbat. Let the king, my lord, send a caravan to Karaduniyaš. I will conduct it under heavy guard." -EA 255, lines 1-25 "Say- to Nibhurrereya, the king of Egy: "-Thus"-, the king of Karadiyaš, your brother. For me all goes well. For you, your household, your wives, your sons, your country, your manates, your horses, your chariots, may all go well. From the time my ancestors and your ancestors made a mutual declaration of friendship, they sen beautiful greeting-gifts to each other, refused no request for anything beautiful. My brother has now sent me 2–minas of gold as my greeting-gift.
Now, f gold is plentiful, send me as much as your ancestors, but if it is scarce, send me half of what your ancestors. Why have you sent me 2–minas of gold? At the moment my work on a temple is extensive, I am quite busy with carrying it out. Send me much gold, and you for your part, whatever you want from my country, write me. In the time of Kurigalzu, my ancestor, all the Canaanites wrote here to him, saying, "Ce to the border of the country so we can revolt and be allied th you!" My ancestor sent them this. If you become enemies of the king of Egypt, are allied with anyone else—will I not come and plunder you? How can there be an alliance with me?" – For the sake of your ancestor, my ancestor did not listen to them. Now, as for my Assyrian vassals -, I was not the one. Why on their own authority have they come to your country? If you love me, they will conduct no business whatsoever. Send them off to me empty–handed. I send to you as your greeting-gift 3–minas of genuine lapis lazuli, 5–teams of horses for 5–wooden chariots."
-EA 9, lines 1-38 Burna-Buriash II Kadashman-Enlil I Ashur-uballit I, -King of Assyria Greeting-gift Amarna letters Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. Picture of EA 9, British Museum, discussion. Article about Amarna letters, EA 9 EA 9, at Archive.today
The Holy Rosary known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers. When used for the prayer, the word is capitalized, as is customary for other names of prayers, such as "the Lord's Prayer", "the Hail Mary"; the prayers that comprise the Rosary are arranged in sets of ten Hail Marys, called decades. Each decade is followed by one Glory Be. During recitation of each set, thought is given to one of the Mysteries of the Rosary, which recall events in the lives of Jesus and Mary. Five decades are recited per rosary. Other prayers are sometimes added after each decade. Rosary beads are an aid towards saying these prayers in the proper sequence. A standard 15 Mysteries of the Rosary, based on the long-standing custom, was established by Pope Pius V during the 16th century, grouping the mysteries in three sets: the Joyful Mysteries, the Sorrowful Mysteries, the Glorious Mysteries. During 2002 Pope John Paul II said that it is fitting that a new set of five be added, termed the Luminous Mysteries, bringing the total number of mysteries to 20.
The Glorious mysteries are said on Sunday and Wednesday, the Joyful on Monday and Saturday, the Sorrowful on Tuesday and Friday, the Luminous Mysteries are said on Thursday. Five decades are recited in a session. For more than four centuries, the rosary has been promoted by several popes as part of the veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism, consisting in meditation on the life of Christ; the rosary represents the Roman Catholic emphasis on "participation in the life of Mary, whose focus was Christ", the Mariological theme "to Christ through Mary." During the 16th century, Pope Pius V associated the rosary with the General Roman Calendar by instituting the Feast of Our Lady of Victory, celebrated on 7 October. Pope Leo XIII, known as "The Rosary Pope," issued twelve encyclicals and five apostolic letters concerning the rosary and added the invocation Queen of the most Holy Rosary to the Litany of Loreto. Pope Pius XII and his successors promoted veneration of the Virgin in Lourdes and Fatima, credited with a new resurgence of the rosary within the Catholic Church.
Pope John XXIII deemed the rosary of such importance that on April 28, 1962, in an apostolic letter he appealed for the recitation of the Rosary in preparation for the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. Pope John Paul II issued the Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae which emphasized the Christocentric nature of the Rosary as a meditation on the life of Christ, he said: “Through the Rosary the faithful receive abundant grace, as by the hands of the Mother of the Redeemer." On 3 May 2008, Pope Benedict XVI stated that the Rosary was experiencing a new springtime: "It is one of the most eloquent signs of love that the young generation nourish for Jesus and his Mother." To Benedict XVI, the rosary is a meditation on all the important moments of salvation history. The Congregation for Divine Worship's directory of popular piety and the liturgy emphasizes the Christian meditation/meditative aspects of the rosary, states that the Rosary is a contemplative prayer which requires "tranquility of rhythm or a mental lingering which encourages the faithful to meditate on the mysteries of the Lord's life."
The Congregation for Divine Worship points out the role the Rosary can have as a formative component of spiritual life. The theologian Romano Guardini described the Roman Catholic emphasis on the rosary as "participation in the life of Mary, whose focus was Christ." This opinion was expressed earlier by Leo XIII who considered the rosary as way to accompany Mary in her contemplation of Christ. Devotion to the rosary is one of the most notable features of popular Catholic spirituality. Pope John Paul II placed the rosary at the center of Christian spirituality and called it "among the finest and most praiseworthy traditions of Christian contemplation."Catholics believe the Rosary is a remedy against severe trials and the hardships of life, that the Rosary is one of the great weapons given to believers in their battle against every evil. Saints and popes have emphasized the meditative and contemplative elements of the rosary and provided specific teachings for how the rosary should be prayed, for instance the need for "focus, respect and purity of intention" during rosary recitations and contemplations.
From the sixteenth century onwards, rosary recitations involved "picture texts" that assisted meditation. Such imagery continues to be used to depict the mysteries of the rosary. Catholic saints have stressed the importance of contemplation. Scriptural meditations concerning the rosary are based on the Christian tradition of Lectio Divina, as a way of using the Gospel to start a conversation between the person and Christ. Padre Pio, a rosary devotee, said: "Through the study of books one seeks God; the reported messages from these apparitions have influenced the spread of rosary devotion worldwide. In Quamquam pluries Pope Leo XIII related rosary devotions to Saint Joseph and granted indulgences for adding a prayer to St. Joseph to the Rosary during the month of October. Praying the Rosary may be prescribed by priests as a type of penance after confession. (Penance is not intended as a "punishment".
Names of God in Islam
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā. The names are called 99 Attributes of Allah. According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e. one hundred minus one, whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise. There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith:Allah's Messenger said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one. To count something means to know it by heart; the Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names in several Surahs. Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries". There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what counts as a name of God, what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both.
Different sources give different lists of the 99 names. The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi. Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This hadith is gharib. Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.ٱ = The waṣla denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure: e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu r-Raḥmān. Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form with the square bracketed "" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam. This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called by it, He will answer."According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind. More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir invocations; the Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies. Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd to the name in the case of male names; this distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity.
The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God. Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk: "Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately or combined as one in the transliterated form. Examples of Muslim theophoric names include: Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA Salām, such as Salam Fayyad - Palestinian politician Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - American basketball player Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson - American Islamic Studies scholar Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas - classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan - Indian-American