Hradištko (Prague-West District)
Hradištko is a village and municipality in Prague-West District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. This article was translated from the Czech Wikipedia
Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized looting of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany. Plundering occurred from 1933 until the end of World War II by military units known as the Kunstschutz, although most plunder was acquired during the war. In addition to gold and currency, cultural items of great significance were stolen, including paintings, ceramics and religious treasures. Although most of these items were recovered by agents of the Monuments, Fine Arts, Archives program, on behalf of the Allies following the war, many are still missing. There is an international effort underway to identify Nazi plunder that still remains unaccounted for, with the aim of returning the items to the rightful owners, their families or their respective countries. Adolf Hitler was an unsuccessful artist, denied admission to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. Nonetheless, he thought of himself as a connoisseur of the arts, in Mein Kampf he ferociously attacked modern art as degenerate, including Cubism and Dadaism, all of which he considered the product of a decadent twentieth century society.
In 1933 when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, he enforced his aesthetic ideal on the nation. The types of art that were favored amongst the Nazi party were classical portraits and landscapes by Old Masters those of Germanic origin. Modern art that did not match this was dubbed degenerate art by the Third Reich, all, found in Germany's state museums was to be sold or destroyed. With the sums raised, the Führer's objective was to establish the European Art Museum in Linz. Other Nazi dignitaries, like Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and Foreign Affairs minister von Ribbentrop, were intent on taking advantage of German military conquests to increase their private art collections. Art dealers Hildebrand Gurlitt, Karl Buchholz, Ferdinand Moeller and Bernhard Boehmer set up shop in Schloss Niederschonhausen, just outside Berlin, to sell a cache of near-16,000 paintings and sculptures which Hitler and Göring removed from the walls of German museums in 1937-38, they were first put on display in the Haus der Kunst in Munich on 19 July 1937, with the Nazi leaders inviting public mockery by two million visitors who came to view the condemned modern art in the Degenerate Art Exhibition.
Propagandist Joseph Goebbels in a radio broadcast called Germany's degenerate artists "garbage". Hitler opened the Haus der Kunst exhibition with a speech. In it he described German art as suffering "a great and fatal illness". Hildebrand Gurlitt and his colleagues did not have much success with their sales because art labelled "rubbish" had small appeal. So on 20 March 1939 they set fire to 1,004 paintings and sculptures and 3,825 watercolours and prints in the courtyard of the Berlin Fire Department, an act of infamy similar to their earlier well-known book burnings; the propaganda act raised the attention. The Basel Museum in Switzerland arrived with 50,000 Swiss francs to spend. Shocked art lovers came to buy. What is unknown after these sales is how many paintings were kept by Gurlitt, Buchholz and Boehmer and sold by them to Switzerland and America - ships crossed the Atlantic from Lisbon - for personal gain; the most infamous auction of Nazi looted art was the "degenerate art' auction organized by Theodor Fischer in Lucerne, Switzerland, 30 June 1939 at the Grand Hotel National.
The artworks on offer had been "de-accessioned" from German museums by the Nazis, yet many well known art dealers participated as well as proxies for major collectors and museums. Public auctions were only the visible tip of the iceberg, as many sales operated by art dealers were private; the Commission for Art Recovery has characterized Switzerland as "a magnet" for assets from the rise of Hitler until the end of World War II. Researching and documenting Switzerland's role "as an art-dealing centre and conduit for cultural assets in the Nazi period and in the immediate post-war period" was one of the missions of the Bergier Commission, under the directorship of Professor Georg Kreis. While the Nazis were in power, they plundered cultural property from every territory; this was conducted in a systematic manner with organizations created to determine which public and private collections were most valuable to the Nazi Regime. Some of the objects were earmarked for Hitler's never realized Führermuseum, some objects went to other high-ranking officials such as Hermann Göring, while other objects were traded to fund Nazi activities.
In 1940, an organization known as the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die Besetzten Gebiete, or ERR, was formed, headed for Alfred Rosenberg by Gerhard Utikal. The first operating unit, the western branch for France and the Netherlands, called the Dienststelle Westen, was located in Paris; the chief of this Dienststelle was Kurt von Behr. Its original purpose was to collect Jewish and Freemasonic books and documents, either for destruction, or for removal to Germany for further "study". However, late in 1940, Hermann Göring, who in fact controlled the ERR, issued an order that changed the mission of the ERR, mandating it to seize "Jewish" art collections and other objects; the war loot had to be collected in a central place in the Museum Jeu de Paume. At this collection point worked art historians and other personnel who inventoried the loot before sending it to Germany. Göring commanded that the loot would first be divided between Hitler and himself. Hitler ord
The Amber Room is a reconstructed chamber decorated in amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors, located in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg. Constructed in the 18th century in Prussia, the original Amber Room was dismantled and disappeared during World War II. Before its loss, it was considered an "Eighth Wonder of the World". A reconstruction was installed in the Catherine Palace between 1979 and 2003; the Amber Room was intended in 1701 for the Charlottenburg Palace, in Berlin, but was installed at the Berlin City Palace. It was designed by German baroque sculptor Andreas Schlüter and Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram. Schlüter and Wolfram worked on the room until 1707, when work was continued by amber masters Gottfried Turau and Ernst Schacht from Danzig, it remained in Berlin until 1716, when it was given by the Prussian King Frederick William I to his ally, Tsar Peter the Great of the Russian Empire. In Russia, the room was expanded, after several renovations, it covered more than 55 square metres and contained over 6 tonnes of amber.
The Amber Room was looted during World War II by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany, brought to Königsberg for reconstruction and display. Its current whereabouts remain a mystery. In 1979, efforts were undertaken to rebuild the Amber Room at Tsarskoye Selo. In 2003, after decades of work by Russian craftsmen and donations from Germany, the reconstructed Amber Room was inaugurated at the Catherine Palace; the Amber Room was begun in 1701 with the purpose of being installed at Charlottenburg Palace, the residence of Frederick, the first King in Prussia, at the urging of his second wife, Sophie Charlotte. The concept and design of the room was drafted by Andreas Schlüter, it was fabricated by Gottfried Wolfram, master craftsman to the Danish court of King Frederick IV of Denmark, with help from the amber masters Ernst Schacht and Gottfried Turau from Danzig. Although intended for installation at Charlottenburg Palace, the complete panels were installed at Berlin City Palace; the Amber Room did not, remain at Berlin City Palace for long.
Peter the Great of Russia admired it during a visit and in 1716, King Frederick I's son Frederick William I presented the room to Peter as a gift, which forged a Russo-Prussian alliance against Sweden. The original Berlin design of the Amber Room was reworked in Russia in a joint effort by German and Russian craftsmen, it was Peter's daughter Empress Elisabeth who decided the amber treasure should be installed at Catherine Palace, where the Russian Imperial family spent their summers. After several other 18th-century renovations, the room covered more than 55 square metres and contained over 6 tonnes of amber; the room took over ten years to construct. Shortly after the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II, the curators responsible for removing the art treasures in Leningrad tried to disassemble and remove the Amber Room. However, over the years the amber had dried out and become brittle, making it impossible to move the room without crumbling the amber; the Amber Room was therefore hidden behind mundane wallpaper, in an attempt to keep German forces from seizing it, but the attempt to hide such a well-known piece of art failed.
German soldiers of Army Group North disassembled the Amber Room within 36 hours under the supervision of two experts. On 14 October 1941, the priceless room reached Königsberg in East Prussia, for storage and display in the town's castle. On 13 November 1941, a Königsberg newspaper announced an exhibition of the Amber Room at Königsberg Castle. Orders given by Hitler on 21 and 24 January 1945 ordered the movement of looted possessions from Königsberg; this allowed Albert Speer, Reichminister of Armaments, his administration team to transport cultural goods of priority. However, before the Amber Room could be moved, Erich Koch, in charge of civil administration in Königsberg during the final months of the war, abandoned his post and fled from the city, leaving General Otto Lasch in command. In August 1944, Königsberg was fire bombed by the Royal Air Force, it suffered further extensive damage from artillery from the advancing Red Army before the final occupation on 9 April 1945. In 1979, the Soviet government decided to construct a replica of the Amber Room at Tsarskoye Selo, a process, to last 24 years and require 40 Russian and German experts in amber craftsmanship.
Using original drawings and old black-and-white photographs, every attempt was made to duplicate the original Amber Room. This included the 350 shades of amber in the original fixtures that adorned the room. Another major problem was the lack of skilled workers, since amber carving was considered a nearly lost art form; the financial difficulties that plagued the reconstruction project from the start were solved with the donation of $3.5 million from the German company E. ON. By 2003, the work of the Russian craftsmen was completed; the new room was dedicated by Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder at the 300th anniversary of the city of Saint Petersburg. In Kleinmachnow, near Berlin, there is a miniature Amber Room, fabricated after the original; the Berlin miniature collector Ulla Klingbeil had this copy made of original East Prussian amber. The Amber Room is a priceless piece of art, with extraordinary architectural features such as gilding, carvings, 450 kg amber panels, gold leaf and mirrors, all highlighted with candle light.
Additional architectural and design features include statues of children. Because of its
Treasure trove is an amount of money or coin, silver, plate, or bullion found hidden underground or in places such as cellars or attics, where the treasure seems old enough for it to be presumed that the true owner is dead and the heirs undiscoverable. The legal definition of what constitutes treasure trove and its treatment under law vary from country to country, from era to era; the term is often used metaphorically. Collections of articles published as a book are titled Treasure Trove, as in A Treasure Trove of Science; this was fashionable for titles of children's books in the early- and mid-20th century. Treasure trove, sometimes rendered treasure-trove means "treasure, found"; the English term treasure trove was derived from tresor trové, the Anglo-French equivalent of the Latin legal term thesaurus inventus. In 15th-century English the Anglo-French term was translated as "treasure found", but from the 16th century it began appearing in its modern form with the French word trové anglicized as trovey, trouve or trove.
The term wealth deposit has been proposed as a more accurate alternative. The term treasure trove is used metaphorically to mean a "valuable find", hence a source of treasure, or a reserve or repository of valuable things. Trove is used alone to refer to the concept, the word having been reanalysed as a noun via folk etymology from an original Anglo-French adjective trové. Treasure trove is therefore akin to similar Anglo-French or Anglo-French-derived legal terms whereby a post-positive adjective in a noun phrase has been reanalysed as a compound noun phrase, as in court martial, force majeure, Princess Royal. Phrases of this form are used either with the etymologically correct plural form or as rederived plural forms. In the case of treasure trove, the typical plural form is always treasure troves, with treasures trove found in historical or literary works. In Roman law, treasure trove was called thesaurus, defined by the Roman jurist Paulus as "vetus quædam depositio pecuniæ, cujus non extat memoria, ut jam dominum non habeat".
R. W. Lee, in his book The Elements of Roman Law, commented that this definition was "not quite satisfactory" as treasure was not confined to money, nor was there any abandonment of ownership. Under the emperors, if treasure was found on a person's own land or on sacred or religious land, the finder was entitled to keep it. However, if the treasure was found fortuitously, not by deliberate search, on another person's land, half went to the finder and half to the owner of the land, who might be the emperor, the fiscus, the city, or some other proprietor. According to Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius, as the feudal system spread over Europe and the prince was looked on as the ultimate owner of all lands, his right to the treasure trove became jus commune et quasi gentium in England, France and Denmark. An interpretation of Roman law regarding treasure troves makes an appearance in the 13th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew; the Parable of the Hidden Treasure is told by Jesus of Nazareth to the crowds surrounding him and his disciples.
In the parable, the treasure trove is hidden in a field, open country and anyone could conceivably discover something hidden in that location. It's assumed that the present owner has no knowledge or memory of the treasure; the finder of the treasure kept the trove secret until he could raise capital to purchase the land holding the trove. Selling all he had, the finder purchased the land and unearthed the trove and, as the finder and owner, he was entitled to the entire trove. Jesus compared the kingdom of Heaven to the trove, being of greater value than all a person's earthly wealth and a wise investment that not everyone understands at first, it has been said that the concept of treasure trove in English law dates back to the time of Edward the Confessor. Under the common law, treasure trove was defined as gold or silver in any form, whether coin, plate or bullion, hidden and rediscovered, which no person could prove he or she owned. If the person who had hidden the treasure was known or discovered it belonged to him or her or persons claiming through him or her such as descendants.
To be treasure trove, an object had to be – that is, more than 50% – gold or silver. Treasure trove had to be hidden with animus revocandi. If an object was lost or abandoned, it belonged either to the first person who found it or to the landowner according to the law of finders, that is, legal principles concerning the finding of objects. For this reason, the objects found in 1939 at Sutton Hoo were determined not to be treasure trove; the Crown had a prerogative right to treasure trove, if the circumstances under which an object was found raised a prima facie presumption that it had been hidden, it belonged to the Crown unless someone else could show a better title to it. The Crown could grant its right to treasure trove to any person in the form of a franchise, it was the duty of the finder, indeed of anyone who had acquired
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Central Bohemian Region
The Central Bohemian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia. Its administrative centre is in the Czech capital Prague. However, the city is a region of its own; the Central Bohemian Region is in the centre of Bohemia. In terms of area, it is the largest region in the Czech Republic, with 11,014 km² 14% of the total area of the country, it surrounds the country’s capital and borders Liberec Region, Hradec Králové Region, Pardubice Region, Vysočina Region, South Bohemian Region, Plzeň Region and Ústí nad Labem Region. The Central Bohemian Region is divided into 12 districts: Příbram District is the region’s largest district in terms of area, while Prague-West District is the smallest one. In 2011, the region counted in total 1,145 municipalities where of 26 were municipalities with a delegated municipal office. 1,044 municipalities had less than 2,000 inhabitants and they accounted for 42% of the total population of the region.
82 municipalities had a status of town. With an area of 11,014 km², the Central Bohemian Region is the largest region of the Czech Republic, occupying 14% of its total area; the region has diversified terrain. The highest point of the region is located on Tok hill in Brdy Highlands in the south-eastern part of the region; the lowest point of the region is situated on the water surface of the Elbe River near Dolní Beřkovice. The region is divided into two landscape types; the north-eastern part is formed by the Polabí lowlands with a high share of land being used for agricultural purposes and deciduous forests. The south-western part of the region is hilly with mixed forests. Important rivers in the region are Elbe, Berounka, Jizera and Sázava. On the Vltava river, a series of nine dams was constructed throughout the 20th century; the agricultural land accounts for 83.5% of all land in the region, which 11p.p. More than the national average; the highest share of the agricultural land can be found in Polabí in Kolín and Nymburk districts.
There are a number of landscape parks located in the region. Křivoklátsko is the largest and most important landscape park in the region, being at the same time a UNESCO Biosphere Reservation. Another remarkable area is the Bohemian Karst, the largest karst area in the Czech republic, where the Koněprusy Caves are located. A large part of Kokořínsko Landscape Park is situated in the Central Bohemian Region; as of December 31, 2012 the Central Bohemian Region had 1,291,816 inhabitants and was the most populous region in the country. About 53 % of the inhabitants lived in cities; this is the lowest proportion among the regions of the Czech Republic. Since the second half of the 1990s the areas surrounding Prague have been influenced by suburbanization. High numbers of young people have moved to the region and since 2006 the region has been experiencing a natural population growth. In 2011, the average age in the region was 40.3 years, the lowest number among the regions in the Czech Republic. The table shows cities and towns in the region that had more than 8,000 inhabitants: In 2010, the regional GDP per capita was 89.9% of the national average, the third highest among the regions of the Czech Republic.
Six out of ten employees in the region work in the tertiary sector and the share of this sector on the total employment has been increasing over time. On the other hand, the share of primary and secondary sector has been decreasing; the unemployment rate in the region is in the long-term lower than the national average. As of December 31, 2012 the registered unemployment rate was 7.07%. However, there were considerable differences in the unemployment rate within the region; the lowest unemployment rate was in Prague-East District while the highest in Příbram District. The average wage in the region in 2012 was CZK 24,749; the most important branches of industry in the region are mechanical engineering, chemical industry and food industry. Other significant industries are glass production and printing. On the other hand, some traditional industries such as steel industry, leather manufacturing and coal mining have been declining in the recent period. In 2006, 237 industrial companies with 100 or more employees were active in the region.
A car manufacturer ŠKODA AUTO a.s. Mladá Boleslav became a company of nationwide importance. Another car manufacturer, active in the region is TPCA Czech, s.r.o. in Kolín. The north-eastern part of the region has favourable conditions for agriculture; the agriculture in the region is oriented in crop farming, namely the production of wheat, sugar beet and in suburban areas fruit farming, vegetable growing and floriculture. Since the beginning of 1990’s the employment in agriculture and fishing has been decreasing; the region has an advantageous position thanks to its proximity to the capital. A significant proportion of region's population commutes daily to schools. Compared to other regions, the Central Bohemian region has the densest transport network; the roads and railways connecting the capital with other regions all cross the Central Bohemian region. Central Bohemia official tourist board is based in Husova street 156/21 Prague 1 Old Town; the official website of Central bohemia is www.centralbohemia.eu.
There are s
Štěchovice is a market town and municipality in Prague-West District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. This article was translated from the Czech Wikipedia