1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division
The 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division was a volunteer unit of the Polish Army formed around December 1918 and January 1919 during the Polish–Soviet War. It was created out of several dozen smaller units of self-defence forces composed of local volunteers in what is now Lithuania and Belarus, amidst a growing series of territorial disputes between the Second Polish Republic, the Russian SFSR, several other local provisional governments; the Division took part in several key battles of the war. With the end of the World War I in the West, a growing series of territorial disputes between Poland, Soviet Russia and several other local provisional governments erupted in a series of wars in Central and Eastern Europe, the most prominent of these being the Polish–Soviet War. Starting in the last years of the First World War, many smaller units of self-defence forces were created out of local volunteers in those areas, among them the best known being the Lithuanian and Belarusian Self-Defence. Self-Defence units were organized in the areas of the Kresy region with Polish majorities or significant minorities – urbanized areas like the cities of Vilnius, Hrodna and Kaunas, or towns like Ašmiany, Nemenčinė, Świr and Panevėžys.
The first task of those units was curbing the crime wave by German deserters, defence from the pro-Bolshevik groups. Despite its name, most of the members of that organization were either Poles or polonized, therefore supported the cause of attaching those territories with the newly recreated Polish state; the initial core of the division was formed in December 1918 in Minsk, where a group of 1,500 Poles and Belarusians rose to arms to defend the city against the advancing forces of Soviet Russia. In June 1919, the Bolsheviks deployed the Jewish First Guard Battalion from Minsk against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions; the pro-communist Jews had won the first skirmish, forcing the Poles and Belorussians to retreat several kilometers. On August 8, 1919, Polish troops recaptured Minsk from the Bolsheviks; the main attack was in the direction of Maladzechna and Polatsk along the railroad lines. However, due to Russian numerical superiority and lack of support from the side of the short-lived Belarusian National Republic, the group withdrew towards central Poland.
Other such self-defence groups, resistance organizations, veterans of the Green Army of the Russian Civil War reached Poland, where they were reformed into a single unit under the command of general Władysław Wejtko from the Imperial Russian Army. Another large group of volunteers to join the division were the remnants of 2,500 men strong force created in Vilnius to defend it against the Reds in January 1919. In the effect of four-day-long fights for the city and the area of Nowa Wilejka, the Polish forces were pushed back and the city had to be abandoned; the newly formed division took part in the Battle of Brześć Litewski of January 8 of that year, one of the first battles of the Polish–Soviet War. The division, commanded by Gen. Jan Rządkowski, took part in many of the largest battles of that conflict. Among others, it played a major role in the Battle of Radzymin, a part of the Battle of Warsaw, the decisive struggle of the war, it took part in the Battle of the Niemen, where it suffered heavy losses.
Two days prior to the cease fire ending the war, the units of the division – commanded by Gen. Lucjan Żeligowski – took over Vilnius Region from the Lithuanian forces and formed the core of the armed forces of the Republic of Central Lithuania. Following the elections held in Wilno and the state merger with Poland in 1923, the division was demobilized, while its remnants were incorporated into the Polish 19th Infantry Division stationed in Wilno. Parts of the 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division were transferred, in July 1919, to form the parallel 2nd Lithuanian–Belarusian Division of the Polish Army; the division suffered heavy casualties during the Soviet invasion in summer 1920. The division was soon reinforced and renamed as the 20th Infantry Division, it temporarily returned to the old name of the 2nd Division after Żeligowski's Mutiny, when it became part of the Republic of Central Lithuania military
Culture of Poland
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution, connected to its intricate thousand-year history. It is theorized and speculated that Poles and the other Lechites are the combination of descendants of West Slavs and people indigenous to the region which were Slavicized, its unique character developed as a result of its geography at the confluence of various European regions. With origins in the culture of the West Slavs, over time Polish culture has been profoundly influenced by its interweaving ties with the Germanic, Latinate and to a lesser extent; the people of Poland have traditionally been seen as hospitable to artists from abroad and eager to follow cultural and artistic trends popular in other countries. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement took precedence over political and economic activity; these factors have contributed with all its complex nuances. Nowadays, Poland is a developed country that retains its traditions.
Cultural history of Poland can be traced back to the Middle Ages. In its entirety, it can be divided into the following historical and artistic periods: Culture of medieval Poland, Baroque, Romanticism, Young Poland, World War II, People's Republic of Poland, Modern. Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages composed of Polish, Kashubian and its archaic variant Slovincian, the extinct Polabian language. All these languages except Polish are sometimes classified as a Pomeranian subgroup; the West Slavic Languages are a subfamily of the Slavic Languages, a descendant of the Indo-European Languages. In the early Middle Ages, before their speakers had become Germanized, Pomeranian languages and dialects were spoken along the Baltic in an area extending from the lower Vistula River to the lower Oder River."</ref> Used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which corresponds to the Latin alphabet with several additions.
Despite the pressure of non-Polish administrations in Poland, who have attempted to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has developed over the centuries. The language is the largest, in speakers, of the West Slavic group, it is the second most spoken Slavic language, after Russian and ahead of Ukrainian. Polish is spoken in Poland. Poland is one of the most linguistically homogeneous European countries. Polish philosophy drew upon the broader currents of European philosophy, in turn contributed to their growth. Among the most momentous Polish contributions were made, in the thirteenth century, by the Scholastic philosopher and scientist Witelo, by Paweł Włodkowic - in early fifteen and, by the Renaissance polymath Nicolaus Copernicus in the sixteenth century. Subsequently, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth partook in the intellectual ferment of the Enlightenment, which for the multi-ethnic Commonwealth ended not long after the partitions and political annihilation that would last for the next 123 years, until the collapse of the three partitioning empires in World War I.
The period of Messianism, between the November 1830 and January 1863 Uprisings, reflected European Romantic and Idealist trends, as well as a Polish yearning for political resurrection. It was a period of maximalist metaphysical systems; the collapse of the January 1863 Uprising prompted an agonizing reappraisal of Poland's situation. Poles gave up their earlier practice of "measuring their goals by their aspirations" and buckled down to hard work and study. " Positivist," wrote the novelist Bolesław Prus's friend, Julian Ochorowicz, was "anyone who bases assertions on verifiable evidence. There was growing interest in western philosophical currents. Rigorously trained Polish philosophers made substantial contributions to specialized fields—to psychology, the history of philosophy, the theory of knowledge, mathematical logic. Jan Łukasiewicz gained world fame with his concept of many-valued logic and his "Polish notation." Alfred Tarski's work in truth theory won him world renown. After World War II, for over four decades, world-class Polish philosophers and historians of philosophy such as Władysław Tatarkiewicz continued their work in the face of adversities occasioned by the dominance of a politically enforced official philosophy.
The phenomenologist Roman Ingarden did influential work in esthetics and in a Husserl-style metaphysics. Polish foods include kiełbasa, pyzy, kopytka, gołąbki, śledzie, schabowy and much more. Traditionally, food suc
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state. As a concept the Polish notion of Kresy corresponds with the Russian one of Okrainy.. The population in Kresy had a considerable proportion of national minorities, which in total were equal in their number to ethnic Poles and exceeded the numbers of Poles in some areas. Administratively, the territory of Kresy was composed of voivodeships of Lwów, Nowogródek, Stanisławów, Wilno, Wołyń, the Białystok. Today, these territories are divided between Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, south-eastern Lithuania, with such major cities as Lviv and Grodno no longer in Poland. In the Second Polish Republic the term Kresy equated with the lands beyond the so-called Curzon Line, suggested after World War I in December 1919 by the British Foreign Office as the eastern border of the re-emerging sovereign Republic following the century of partitions. In September 1939, after the Soviet Union joined Nazi Germany in their attack on Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the territories were incorporated into Soviet Ukraine and Lithuania in the atmosphere of terror.
The Soviet gains in the course of World War II were ratified by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference. When the Soviet Union broke up, the former Kresy remained a significant part of the former Soviet republics as they gained independence. Though the Eastern Borderlands are no longer in Poland, the area is still inhabited by Polish minorities, the memory of Kresy is still cultivated among them, though the attachment to the "myth of Kresy", including the prewar vision of the region as a peaceful, rural land, has been criticized in the Polish political discourse after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Economically the region was less developed than the western part of interwar Poland and had the lowest literacy level of the nation, as education was not compulsory in the Russian Empire; the Polish word kresy is the plural form of the word kres. According to Zbigniew Gołąb, it is "a medieval borrowing from German word Kreis", which in the Middle Ages meant Kreislinie, Landeskreis.
Samuel Linde in his Dictionary of the Polish Language gives a different etymology of the term. According to him, kresy meant the borderline between Poland and the Crimean Khanate, in the area of the lower Dnieper; the term kresy appeared for the first time in literature by Wincenty Pol in his poems "Mohort" and "Pieśń o ziemi naszej". Pol claimed that it was the line from the Dniester to the Dnieper River, the Tatar borderland. At the beginning of the 20th century, the meaning of the term expanded to include the lands of the former eastern provinces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, to the east of the Lwów–Wilno line. In the Second Polish Republic, Kresy were equated with the land to the east of Curzon line; the term describes all eastern lands of the Second Polish Republic that no longer belong to modern Poland, plus lands further east, which had belonged to the Commonwealth before 1772, in which existed Polish communities. Polish expansion eastwards dates back to the earliest days of Poland.
In 1018, King Bolesław I Chrobry invaded Kievan Rus, capturing Kiev, re-annexing Red Strongholds. In 1340, Red Ruthenia came under Polish control, which opened these lands for Polish colonization and polonization. After the Union of Lublin of 1569, more Polish settlers moved to the eastern borderlands of the vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Most of them came from the Polish provinces of Lesser Poland, they moved eastwards, inhabiting sparsely populated areas, dominated by local peoples. Furthermore, the upper classes of the Kresy accepted Polish culture and language, which resulted in their polonization; the year 1772 marked the first partition of the Commonwealth. By 1795, the whole eastern half of the country was annexed by the Russian Empire, these lands came to be called the Stolen Lands. Though Poles were in the minority in those areas, the "Stolen Lands" were important part of Polish culture, with such colleges as Wilno University and Liceum Krzemienieckie. Since a number of inhabitants participated in national rebellions, Russian authorities exercised persecutions, forced resettlement, penal deportations to Siberia, denationalization of Poles.
The years 1918–1921 were turbulent for the Kresy, as it was the time of the rebirth of the Polish state and the formation of new borders. At that time, Poland was fighting three wars to establish its eastern borders: with Ukraine, the Soviet Union, Lithuania. All these conflicts were won by Poland, as a result, it annexed territories, under Russian administration situated to the east of the Curzon line, plus Austrian Eastern Galicia; this area formed the eastern provinces of the Second Polish Republic. Territories that were included in the Kresy in the interbellum period comprised the eastern part of Lwów Voivodeship, Nowogródek Voivodeship, Polesie Voivodeship, Stanisławów Voivodeship, Tarnopol Voivodeship, Wilno Voivodeship, Wołyń Voivodeship, the eastern part of Białystok Voivideship; the Polish government carried out an active policy of Polonization in these territories, and
Naczelnik Państwa was the title of Poland's head of state in the early years of the Second Polish Republic. This office was held only by Józef Piłsudski, from 1918 to 1922; until 1919 it was called tymczasowy naczelnik państwa. After 1922 the Polish head of state was called prezydent; the office of Chief of State was created by a Regency Council decree of November 22, 1918, which established a system of governance for Poland pending its revision by a democratically elected Sejm. The Naczelnik exercised the highest military power in the country, he was Commander-in-Chief of the Polish armed forces, with powerful prerogatives in the field of foreign relations. He appointed government ministers, who answered including the prime minister. Any laws promulgated by the Chief of State required the signatures of the Chief of State, the prime minister, the pertinent minister, though any such laws were to be reviewed by the first subsequent Sejm. Józef Piłsudski, chosen Chief of State, relinquished his powers to the first Sejm on February 20, 1919.
The Chief of State remained Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army, named the government and held the highest executive power. He was a member of the Council of National Defense, created during the Polish-Soviet War, which had threatened the survival of the newly recreated Polish state. Piłsudski relinquished his powers to the newly elected President of Poland, Gabriel Narutowicz, on 14 December 1922. Naczelnik Państwa, WIEM Encyklopedia Naczelnik Państwa, Encyklopedia PWN
Józef Klemens Piłsudski, was a Polish statesman who served as the Chief of State and First Marshal of Poland. He was considered the de facto leader of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs. From World War I he had great power in Polish politics and was a distinguished figure on the international scene, he is viewed as a father of the Second Polish Republic re-established in 1918, 123 years after the 1795 Partitions of Poland by Austria and Russia. Deeming himself a descendant of the culture and traditions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Piłsudski believed in a multi-ethnic Poland—"a home of nations" including indigenous ethnic and religious minorities that he hoped would establish a robust union with the independent states of Lithuania and Ukraine, his principal political antagonist, Roman Dmowski, leader of the National Democrat party, by contrast, called for a Poland limited to the pre-Partitions Polish Crown and based on a homogeneous ethnically Polish population and Roman Catholic identity.
Early in his political career, Piłsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party. Concluding that Poland's independence would have to be won militarily, he formed the Polish Legions. In 1914 he predicted that a new major war would defeat the Russian Empire and the Central Powers; when World War I began in 1914, Piłsudski's Legions fought alongside Austria-Hungary against Russia. In 1917, with Imperalist Russia faring poorly in the war, he withdrew his support for the Central Powers and was imprisoned in Magdeburg by the Germans. From November 1918, when Poland regained its independence, until 1922, Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State. In 1919 -- 21 he commanded Polish forces in six border wars. On the verge of defeat in the Polish–Soviet War his forces, in the August 1920 Battle of Warsaw, threw back the invading Soviet Russians. In 1923, with the government dominated by his opponents, in particular the National Democrats, Piłsudski retired from active politics. Three years he returned to power in the May 1926 coup d'état and became Poland's strongman.
From on until his death in 1935, he concerned himself with military and foreign affairs. It was during this period that he developed a cult of personality that has survived into the 21st century. In international affairs, Piłsudski pursued two complementary strategies meant to secure Poland's independence and to enhance national security: "Prometheism", aimed at achieving the disintegration of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union into their constituent nations. Historian Piotr Wandycz characterizes Piłsudski as "an ardent Polish patriot who on occasion would castigate the Poles for their stupidity, cowardice, or servility, he described himself as a Polish-Lithuanian, was stubborn and reserved, loath to show his emotions." Some aspects of Piłsudski's administration, such as establishing Bereza Kartuska prison, described by many as a concentration camp, remain controversial. Yet he is esteemed in Polish memory and is regarded, together with his chief antagonist Roman Dmowski, as a founder of the modern independent Poland.
He was born 5 December 1867 to the noble family Piłsudski, at their manor named Zułów, near the village of Zułowo, in the Russian Empire since 1795 on the territory of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The estate was part of the dowry brought by his mother, Maria, a member of the wealthy Billewicz family; the Piłsudski family, although pauperized, cherished Polish patriotic traditions and has been characterized either as Polish or as Polonized-Lithuanian. Józef was the second son born to the family. Józef, when he attended the Russian gymnasium in Wilno, was not an diligent student. One of the younger Polish students at this gymnasium was the future Russian communist leader Feliks Dzierżyński, who would become Piłsudski's arch-enemy. Along with his brothers Bronisław, Adam and Jan, Józef was introduced by his mother Maria, née Billewicz, to Polish history and literature, which were suppressed by the Russian authorities, his father named Józef, had fought in the January 1863 Uprising against Russian rule of Poland.
The family resented the Russian government's Russification policies. Young Józef profoundly disliked having to attend Russian Orthodox Church service and left school with an aversion not only for the Russian Tsar and the Russian Empire, but for the culture, which he knew well. In 1885 Piłsudski started medical studies at Kharkov University, where he became involved with Narodnaya Volya, part of the Russian Narodniki revolutionary movement. In 1886, he was suspended for participating in student demonstrations, he was rejected by the University of Dorpat, whose authorities had been informed of his political affiliation. On 22 March 1887, he was arrested by Tsarist authorities on a charge of plotting with Vilnius socialists to assassinate Tsar Alexander III. In fact, Piłsudski's main connection to the plot was the involvement of his elder brother Bronisław, sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor in eastern Siberia. Józef received a milder sentence: five years' exile in Siberia, first at Kirensk on the Lena River at Tunka.
While being transported in a prisoners' convoy to Siberia, Piłsudski was held for several weeks at a prison in Irkutsk. There, he took part in what the authorities viewed as a
Polish Land Forces
The Land Forces are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. They contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century, but Poland's modern army was formed after 1918; when Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, in the two smaller conflicts. Right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts: Poznań Military District, HQ in Poznań Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków Łódź Military District, HQ in Łódź Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin; the Polish land forces as readied for the Polish–Soviet War was made up of soldiers who had served in the various partitioning empires, supported by some international volunteers. There appear to have been a total of around 30 Polish divisions involved.
Boris Savinkov was at the head of an army of 20,000 to 30,000 Russian POWs, was accompanied by Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius. The Polish forces grew from 100,000 in 1918 to over 500,000 in early 1920. In August 1920, the Polish army had reached a total strength of 737,767 people. Given Soviet losses, there was rough numerical parity between the two armies. Among the major formations involved on the Polish side were a number of Fronts, including the Lithuanian-Belarusian Front, about seven armies, including the First Polish Army; the German invasion of Poland began on 1 September 1939, the Wehrmacht seized half the country despite heavy Polish resistance. Among the erroneous myths generated by this campaign were accounts of Polish cavalry charging German tanks, which did not, in fact, take place. In the east, the Red Army took the other half of the country in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Following the country's fall, Polish soldiers began regrouping in what was to become the Polish Army in France.
Both the Polish Armed Forces in the West and the Polish Armed Forces in the East, as well as interior forces represented by the Home Army had land forces during the Second World War. While the forces fighting under the Allied banner were supported by the Polish air force and navy, the partisan forces were an exclusive land formation; however the army operational today has its roots in the surrogate force formed in support of Soviet interests during the establishment of the People's Republic of Poland after the Second World War. Two Polish armies, the First Army and the Second Army fought with the Red Army on the Eastern Front, supported by some Polish air force elements; the formation of a Third Army was begun but not completed. The end of the war found the Polish Army in the midst of intense organisational development. Although the implementation of the Polish Front concept was abandoned, new tactical unit and troop types were created; as a result of mobilisation, troop numbers in May 1945 reached 370,000 soldiers, while in September 1945 440,000.
Military districts were organised in liberated areas. The districts exercised direct authority over the units stationed on the territory administered by them. Returning to the country, the Second Army was tasked with the protection of the western border of the state from Jelenia Gora to Kamien Pomorski, on the basis of its headquarters, the staff of the Poznan Military District was created at Poznań; the southern border, from Jelenia Gora to the Użok railway station was occupied by the First Army. Its headquarters staff formed the basis of the Silesian Military District. In mid-1945, after the end of World War II, the Polish Army, as part of the overall armed forces, the People's Army of Poland, was divided into six districts; these were the Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw, the Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin, the Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków, the Lodz Military District, HQ in Lodz, the Poznan Military District, HQ in Poznan, the Pomeranian Military District, HQ in Torun and the Silesian Military District, HQ in Katowice, created in the fall of 1945.
In June 1945 the 1st, 3rd and 8th Infantry Divisions were assigned internal security duties, while the 4th Infantry Division was reorganised for the purpose of creating the Internal Security Corps. The rule was that military units were used against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, while the Internal Security Corps was used to fight the armed underground independence; however army units fought the underground resistance, vice versa. The culmination of the UPA suppression operation was the so-called'Wisła Action' which took place in 1947. At the same time demobilisation took place. On 10 August 1945 a "decree of the partial demobilisation" of the armed forces was issued; the next demobilisation phase took place in February and December 1946. One of the most important tasks facing the army after the war was national mine clearance. Between 1944 and 1956 the demining operation involved 44 engineering units or about 19,000 sappers, they cleared mines and other munitions in a cle
Lucjan Żeligowski was a Polish general, military commander and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II. He is remembered for his role in Żeligowski's Mutiny and as head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. Lucjan Żeligowski was born on October 17, 1865, in Oszmiana, in the Russian Empire to Polish parents Gustaw Żeligowski and Władysława Żeligowska née Traczewska. Before the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century the town was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After graduating from military officers' school located in Riga, Żeligowski joined the Imperial Russian Army, where he served at various staff and command posts, he married Tatiana Pietrova and had two children. Żeligowski fought in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. During the First World War he served as a lieutenant colonel and commanding officer of an Imperial Russian rifle regiment. After the February Revolution of 1917, Żeligowski became one of the organizers of the Polish Army in the former Russian Empire.
Commander of an infantry regiment in the ranks of the Polish 1st Corps, he was promoted and given command over a brigade. In 1918 he started the creation of a Polish unit in the area of Kuban, which became the 4th Polish Rifle Division; as part of the Polish Army, his unit fought alongside the Denikin's Whites in the Russian Civil War. In October of the same year he became the Commander in Chief of all the Polish units fighting in Russia. After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War and the defeat of Denikin, Żeligowski's unit was ordered to retreat to Romanian Bessarabia, where it took part in defence of the border against Bolshevik raids. In April 1919, the division was withdrawn to the newly established Second Polish Republic, where it was incorporated into the Polish Army and renamed to the Polish 10th Infantry Division. During the war against the Bolshevist Russia, Żeligowski, a personal friend of Polish Marshal Józef Piłsudski, was promoted to general and given the command over an operational group of his name, composed of his 10th division and additional units of partisan origin.
As such, he soon became the commanding officer of the entire Lithuanian-Belarusian Front, operating in the area of Polesie and the Pinsk Marshes. During the Battle of Warsaw in 1920 his unit was attached to the 3rd Polish Army and took part in the pursuit of fleeing Bolshevik and Soviet forces at the Battle of the Niemen. In October 1920, Żeligowski, a native of historical lands of Lithuania, was chosen to command the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division, composed of P. O. W. Members and partisans from the territory of modern Belarus and Lithuania. On October 8, 1920, after a staged coup, he defected with his unit and took control over the city of Wilno and its area; the coup, named after him, would be remembered as the defining moment of his life. On October 12 he proclaimed independence of the said area as Republic of Central Lithuania, with Wilno as its capital. A de facto military dictator, after the parliamentary elections he passed his powers to the newly elected parliament, which in turn decided to submit the area to Poland.
After the annexation of Central Lithuania to Poland, Żeligowski continued his service in the Polish Army. Promoted to three-star general in 1923, he served as an army inspector, or a commander of a military district of the capital city of Warsaw. In 1925 he became the Polish Minister of Military Affairs. Ousted by Piłsudski's coup d'état, he was soon returned to the post, he settled in his family manor in Andrzejewo near Wilno. In 1930 he published a book containing his memoirs of the Polish-Bolshevik War named War of 1920: Memories and thoughts, he wrote numerous articles on the conflicts of early 20th century for a variety of Polish newspapers. In 1935 he was elected a member of parliament and remained in the Sejm until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. During the Invasion of Poland, Żeligowski volunteered for the Polish Armed Forces, but was not accepted due to his old age and poor health, he served as an advisor to the command of the Polish southern front. After the Polish defeat, he evaded being captured by the Germans and the Soviets and managed to reach France, where he joined the Polish Government in Exile headed by General Władysław Sikorski.
An active member of the Polish National Council, an advisory body, he escaped to London after the French defeat in 1940. After the end of Second World War Żeligowski declared he would return to Poland, but he died on July 9, 1947, in London, his body was brought back to Poland, Żeligowski was buried in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. Commander's Cross of the Virtuti Militari awarded the Silver Cross Grand Cross of the Polonia Restituta Cross of Independence with Swords Cross of Valour - four times Merit Forces Central Lithuania Commemorative Medal for War 1918-1921 Decade's Regained Independence Medal Order of St. George IV class Order of St. Vladimir with Swords class IV Order of St. Anna, class II and III Order of St. Stanislaus, II class Commander's Cross of the Legion of Honour Croix de guerre Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature Lucjan Żeligowski, Wojna w roku 1920: Wspomnienia I Rozwazania, Warszawa: Wydawn. Ministerstwa * Obrony Narodowej, 1990. Lucjan Żeligowski, O ideę słowiańską.
London: F. Mildner & Sons, 1941. Lucjan Żeligowski, Zapomniane prawdy. London: F. Mildner & Sons, 1941. Central L