Eurosport is a pan-European television sports network and operated by Discovery, Inc. Discovery took a 20% minority interest share in December 2012, became the majority shareholder in the Eurosport venture with TF1 in January 2014, taking a 51% share of the company. On 22 July 2015 Discovery agreed to acquire TF1's remaining 49% stake in the venture. Eurosport owns a wide range of rights across many sports but does not bid for premium priced rights such as those to major football leagues. However, in 2015 it was awarded rights to broadcast the Olympic Games from 2018 for most of Europe and 2022 for the UK and France in a deal worth €1.3 billion. It transmits much of the same footage across many markets, using unseen commentators rather than on-screen presenters so that the same visual feed may be broadcast in multiple languages while holding down production costs. Eurosport has expanded its deal with The All England Club to show all the Wimbledon matches live in 16 additional countries, it is a 3-year deal that includes digital rights.
This expands their tennis portfolio to show all four Grand Slams. The network of channels is available in 54 countries, in 20 different languages, providing viewers with European and international sporting events. Eurosport first launched on European satellites on 5 February 1989. In the 1990s, Eurosport timeshared with The Quantum Channel. In February 2017, Discovery launched the channel in India, branded as DSport; the channel was made available on various platforms in both HD feeds. Eurosport provides viewers with international sporting events, it broadcasts different sporting events in each region. This includes several football competitions: Bundesliga Premier League English Football League EFL Cup Coupe de France Ekstraklasa UEFA Nations League UEFA Europa League UEFA Women's Championship UEFA Women's Champions League Major League Soccer CAF African Cup of Nations AFC Asian Cup FIFA U-20 World Cup, FIFA Women's World Cup, FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup and FIFA Futsal World CupOther sports events include the Paris Dakar Rally, Monte Carlo Rally, athletics events such as World Athletics Championships and the European Athletics Championships, cycling events such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España, tennis events including the French Open, Australian Open, the US Open, the World Championship Snooker, National Hockey League, World Boxing Super Series, action sports like skating and surfing.
In June 2015 it was announced that Eurosport had secured the pan-European rights to the winter and summer Olympic Games between 2018 and 2024. In July 2017 Eurosport had secured the domestic and international rights from 2017 to 2020 of the Italian Lega Basket Serie A. Eurosport is the new owner of the pay TV, international and internet rights. Eurosport has TV rights for Italian Basketball Supercup and Italian Basketball Cup. In October 2018, Eurosport has reached an agreement with the World Boxing Super Series for the exclusive acquisition of the Competition's broadcast rights in SpainIn October 2018, Eurosport sealed a 3-year deal to show British Darts Organisation major events BDO World Darts Championship, World Masters & World Trophy In January 2019 it was announced that Eurosport will screen 39 ATP tennis tournaments including the tour finals in Russia for 3 years. Eurosport Events is the Eurosport group's sporting events management/promotion/production division, which promotes the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the FIA European Touring Car Cup and the FIA European Rally Championship.
Eurosport Events was the promoter of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge, a rival rallying series to the World Rally Championship. The IRC ceased at the end of the 2012 season, with Eurosport taking over series promotion of the ERC from 2013. Since 2008, the Eurosport Group has been broadcasting the annual 24 Hours of Le Mans in full. Eurosport airs MotoGP and Superbike World Championship in various territories including the Netherlands, Romania and Germany, On 29 September 2015, Eurosport acquired the Portuguese broadcasting rights for Formula One between 2016 and 2018. Region-specific events are noted in the table below with a flag indicating the country it is broadcast in. If no flag is present, the broadcast is multi territory. ^1 - via DSport Prior to the creation of Eurosport, the European Broadcasting Union was acquiring substantial amounts of sports rights, yet its members were only able to broadcast a fraction of them. This provided the impetus for setting up the Eurosport Consortium, made up of several EBU members, to establish an outlet where these rights could be exploited.
Sky Television plc was chosen as a commercial partner, the channel launched on 5 February 1989. Eurosport was closed down in May 1991 after the competing Screensport channel had filed a complaint to the European Commission over the corporate structure; the channel was however saved. A new Eurosport channel was able to start its broadcasts the same month. On 1 March 1993, the satellite channel Screensport merged with Eurosport. Eurosport came under a French consortium comprising the TF1 Group, Ca
A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people. Riots involve theft and destruction of property, public or private; the property targeted varies depending on the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, restaurants, state-owned institutions, religious buildings. Riots occur in reaction to a grievance or out of dissent. Riots have occurred due to poor people with no jobs or living conditions, governmental oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between ethnic groups, or religions, the outcome of a sporting event or frustration with legal channels through which to air grievances. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots consist of disorganized groups that are "chaotic and exhibit herd behavior." However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that riots are not irrational, herd-like behavior, but follow inverted social norms. T. S. Ashton, in his study of food riots among colliers, noted that "the turbulence of the colliers is, of course, to be accounted for by something more elementary than politics: it was the instinctive reaction of virility to hunger."
Charles Wilson noted, "Spasmodic rises in food prices provoked keelmen on the Tyne to riot in 1709, tin miners to plunder granaries at Falmouth in 1727."Today, some rioters have an improved understanding of the tactics used by police in riot situations. Manuals for successful rioting are available on the internet, with tips such as encouraging rioters to get the press involved, as there is more safety and attention with the cameras rolling. Civilians with video cameras may have an effect on both rioters and police. Dealing with riots is a difficult task for police forces, they may use tear gas or CS gas to control rioters. Riot police may use less-than-lethal methods of control, such as shotguns that fire flexible baton rounds to injure or otherwise incapacitate rioters for easier arrest. A police riot is a term for the disproportionate and unlawful use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians; this term is used to describe a police attack on civilians, or provoking civilians into violence.
A prison riot is a large-scale, temporary act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners. It is done to express a grievance, force change or attempt escape. In a race riot, race or ethnicity is the key factor; the term had entered the English language in the United States by the 1890s. Early use of the term referred to riots that were a mob action by members of a majority racial group against people of other perceived races. In a religious riot, the key factor is religion; the rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion, or those believed to belong to that religion. Student riots are riots precipitated by students in higher education, such as a college or university. Student riots in the US and Western Europe in the 1960s and the 1970s were political in nature. Student riots may occur as a result of oppression of peaceful demonstration or after sporting events. Students may constitute an active political force in a given country.
Such riots may occur in the context of wider social grievances. Urban riots are riots in the context of urban decay, provoked by conditions such as discrimination, high unemployment, poor schools, poor healthcare, housing inadequacy and police brutality and bias. Urban riots are associated with race riots and police riots. Sports riots such as the Nika riots can be sparked by the losing or winning of a specific team or athlete. Fans of the two teams may fight. Sports riots may happen as a result of teams contending for a championship, a long series of matches, or scores that are close. Sports are the most common cause of riots in the United States, accompanying more than half of all championship games or series. All sports riots occur in the winning team's city. Food and bread riots are caused by harvest failures, incompetent food storage, poisoning of food, or attacks by pests like locusts; when the public becomes desperate from such conditions, groups may attack shops, homes, or government buildings to obtain bread or other staple foods like grain or salt, as in the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots.
The economic and political effects of riots can be as complex as their origins. Property destruction and harm to individuals are immediately measurable. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, 2,383 people were injured, 8,000 were arrested, 63 were killed and over 700 businesses burned. Property damage was estimated at over $1 billion. At least ten of those killed were shot by police or National Guard forces; the 2005 civil unrest in France lasted over three weeks and spread to nearly 300 towns. By the end of the incident, over 10,000 vehicles were over 300 buildings burned. Over 2,800 suspected rioters were arrested and 126 police and firefighters were injured. Estimated damages were over €200 Million. Many governments and political systems have fallen after riots, including: Russian Empire Ancien Régime British Raj in India, when bread and salt riots hastened the withdrawal in 1947 Governments across the Middle East and North Africa during the Arab Spring Riots are dealt with by the police, although methods differ from country to country.
Tactics and weapons used can include attack dogs, water cannons, plastic bullets, rubber bullets, pepper spray, flexible baton rounds, snatch squads. Many police forces have dedicated divisions to deal wit
The Polish Cup in football is an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs, held continuously from 1950, is the second most important national title in Polish football after the Ekstraklasa title. Due to mass participation of teams, the tournament is called The Cup of the Thousand Teams. Participation is open to any club registered with the Polish FA, regardless of whether it competes in any league in the national pyramid. Reserve and veteran teams are eligible, with reserve teams reaching the final on two occasions; the Cup is popular among lower level teams. In some cases, the underdogs reached the final, with the most famous example being Czarni Żagań, which in 1964–1965 season lost the final game 0–4 to Górnik Zabrze. Lower league clubs have to enter regional qualification rounds and the winners of these join the teams from the first and second division in the competition proper; the regional qualifications are played in the preceding season, so that one edition of Polish Cup for lower ranked clubs can last two seasons.
Each tie is decided by a single game, held at the lower league side's stadium. The final used to be 2002 -- 2006 it was contested over two legs. Since 2007, the Cup has returned to the single-game final; the first edition of the Polish Cup took place in 1926, but it was abandoned. In the late 1930s, the President of Poland's Football Cup was organized, which featured teams of the Polish Football Association's regional districts. Previous cup winners are: Football in Poland Polish Championship in Football Polish SuperCup Official website Cup at UEFA
A razor is a bladed tool used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving. Kinds of razors include straight razors, disposable razor, electric razors. While the razor has been in existence since before the Bronze Age, the most common types of razors in current usage are the safety razor and the electric razor, though other kinds are still in use. Razors have been identified from many Bronze Age cultures; these were made of bronze or obsidian and were oval in shape, with a small tang protruding from one of the short ends. Various forms of razors were used throughout history, which are different in appearance but similar in use to modern straight razors. In prehistoric times clam shells, shark teeth, flint were sharpened and used to shave with. Drawings of such blades were found in prehistoric caves; some tribes still use. Excavations in Egypt have unearthed solid gold and copper razors in tombs dating back to the 4th millennium BC. Several razors as well as other personal hygiene artifacts were recovered from Bronze Age burials in northern Europe and are believed to belong to high status individuals.
The Roman historian Livy reported that the razor was introduced in ancient Rome in the 6th century BC. by legendary king Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. Priscus was ahead of his time; the first modern straight razor complete with decorated handles and hollow ground blades was constructed in Sheffield, in England, the centre of the cutlery industry, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Benjamin Huntsman produced the first superior hard steel grade, through a special crucible process, suitable for use as blade material in 1740, though it was first rejected in England. Huntsman's process was adopted by the French sometime later; the English manufacturers were more reluctant than the French to adopt the process and only did so after they saw its success in France. Sheffield steel, a polished steel known as Sheffield silver steel and famous for its deep gloss finish, is considered a superior quality steel and is still used to this day in France by such manufacturers as Thiers Issard. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the wealthy had servants to shave them or could frequent barbershops.
Daily shaving was not a widespread practice in the 19th century. The custom of shaving every day among American men is a 20th-century innovation, started after World War I. Men were required to shave daily so their gas masks would fit properly and this became much easier with the advent of the safety razor, standard issue during the war. In the 19th century, cutlers in Sheffield and Solingen, Germany produced a variety of razors. Straight razors were the most common form of shaving before the 20th century and remained common in many countries until the 1950s. Barbers were specially trained to give customers a thorough and quick shave, a collection of straight razors ready for use was a common sight in most barbershops. Barbers still have them. Straight razors fell out of fashion, their first challenger was manufactured by King C. Gillette: a double-edged safety razor with replaceable blades. Gillette's idea was the use of the "loss leader" concept, in which the razors were sold at a loss, but the replacement blades earned a high margin and provided continuous sales.
They were immensely successful because of advertising campaigns and slogans denigrating the straight razor's effectiveness and questioning its safety. These new safety razors did not require any serious tutelage to use; the blades were hard to sharpen, were meant to be thrown away after one use, rusted if not discarded. They required a smaller initial investment, though they cost more over time. Despite its long-term advantages, the straight razor lost significant market share, and as shaving became less intimidating and men began to shave themselves more, the demand for barbers providing straight razor shaves decreased. In 1960, stainless steel blades which could be used more than once became available, reducing the cost of safety-razor shaving; the first such blades were made by the Wilkinson firm, famous maker of ceremonial swords, in Sheffield. Soon Gillette and other manufacturers were making stainless-steel blades; these were followed by disposable razors. For each type of replaceable blade, there is a disposable razor.
In the 1930s, electric razors became available. These can rival the cost of a good straight razor, although the whole straight-razor shaving kit can exceed the cost of an expensive electric razor. Straight razors with open steel blades commonly known as cut-throats, were the most used razors before the 20th century. Straight razors consist of a blade sharpened on one edge; the blade can be made of either high carbon steel, slower to hone and strop, holds an edge longer, or stainless steel, which hones and strops but has a less durable edge. At present, stainless-steel razors are harder to find than carbon steel, but both remain in production; the blade rotates on a pin through its tang between two protective pieces called scales: when folded into the scales, the blade is protected from damage, the user is protected. Handle scales are made of various materials, including mother-of-pearl, bone and wood. Once made of ivory, this has been discontinued; these razors are similar in use and appearance to straight razors, but use disposable blades, either standard double edged cut in hal
The Ekstraklasa, named Lotto Ekstraklasa since the 2016–17 season due to its sponsorship by Lotto, is the top Polish professional league for men's association football teams. The winner of the Ekstraklasa claims the Polish national championship. Contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the I liga, seasons start in July, end in May or June the following year. Teams play. Games are played on Fridays, Saturdays and Mondays; the winner of the Ekstraklasa qualifies for the Polish SuperCup. The Ekstraklasa is now operated by the Ekstraklasa SA; the Ekstraklasa was formed as Liga Polska on 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, since 1 March 1927 as Liga Piłki Nożnej, but the Polish Football Association had been in existence since 20 December 1919, a year after the independence of Poland in 1918. The first games of the freshly created league took place on 3 April 1927, while first national non-league football championship took place in 1920. A total of 81 teams have played in the top division of Polish football since the founding of the league, of which 16 clubs have won the title.
The current champions are Legia Warsaw. On 4–5 December 1926 in Warsaw, representatives from several Polish clubs met for the purpose of discussing the creation of a league, it is unknown where the idea of a Polish league originated from, however a national league was thought to be a much more practical solution than hitherto practiced two-stage system of regional matches followed by a national match. To dismay of clubs' officials, the PZPN was not receptive to the idea of a national league and therefore sought to thwart it. However, it turned out that all but one of the Polish clubs supported the idea; the decision to create it was made regardless. In late February 1927, at the PZPN's meeting in Warsaw, its officials opposed the formation of a league, but the clubs egged on by some generals from the Polish Army, proceeded anyway; the creation of the League was announced on 1 March 1927. The only opponent of the league's formation was Cracovia – a influential and strong organization in Polish football of the 1920s.
Cracovia's boycott was because its chairman, Dr. Edward Cetnarowski, at the same time held the post of the director of the PZPN. Cetnarowski was a personality known not only in Poland, but in other countries, it was due to his efforts that in September 1923, Cracovia toured Spain, drawing 1–1 with Barcelona and losing 0–1 to Real Madrid. In October thanks to Cetnarowski, Sevilla travelled to Kraków, losing 2–3 to Cracovia. Games of the first championships started on 3 April 1927. All major teams took part in it; this is the list of the teams: In this first season of the league, fight for championship was decided between two powerful teams – Wisła Kraków and 1. FC Katowice; this rivalry was treated seriously, not only by the two sides involved, but by the whole nation. 1. FC was regarded as the team supported by German minority, while Wisła, at the end of this historic season, represented ambitions of all Poles; some time in the fall of 1927 in Katowice, an ill-fated game between 1. FC and Wisła took place.
Stakes were high – the winner would become the champion. Kraków's side became the champion. 1. FC finished second, third was Warta Poznań. In 1928 Cracovia decided to enter the league, gladly accepted by all fans of football. However, championships were once again won by Wisła, with such excellent players as Henryk Reyman, Mieczyslaw Balcer and Jan Kotlarczyk. Warta Poznań was second and Legia Warsaw third; this was the last year of 1. FC's glory; the team finished fifth. In 1929 yet another team was added to the list of champions of Poland; this time it was Warta Poznań. However, after the last game, on 1 December 1929, it was Garbarnia Kraków, celebrating the championship. Two weeks in mid-December, PZPN's officials changed the result of the Warta – Klub Turystow Łódź game. Warta lost 1–2, but due to walk-over, this was changed to 3–0 in favor of Poznań's side; as a result of the decision, Warta became the champion, Garbarnia finished second with 32 points and Klub Turystow was relegated. In 1930, Cracovia regained the championship, a year another Kraków's side, won the league.
It is clear. During this time, only once the championship was won by a side from a different city; the 1931 champion, was unique as this was the first time that the league had been won by a side whose all players had been bought from other teams. As has been said, the early 1930s marked a decline of the dominance of Kraków and Lwów as centers of Polish football; the point of gravity moved towards west – to Polish part of Upper Silesia, which had belonged to Poland since 1921. In 1932 the champion was Cracovia, but starting in 1933, Ruch Chorzów dominated the league, being
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th