The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Čeladná is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It lies under the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Range. There are many holiday houses in the large area of the village. In recent years it has become a popular holiday resorts with new hotels, a horse ranch, golf course and new apartment buildings are being built right in the centre
A frog is any member of a diverse and carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are accounting for over 85 % of extant amphibian species, they are one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history. An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, no tail. Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators.
Adult frogs live on dry land. Frogs lay their eggs in water; the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets; the life cycle is completed. A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frog skin has a rich microbiome, important to their health. Frogs are efficient at converting what they eat into body mass, they are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations in their breeding season, exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to survive.
Frogs are valued as food by humans and have many cultural roles in literature and religion. Frog populations have declined since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over 120 are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s; the number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to resolve them; the use of the common names "frog" and "toad" has no taxonomic justification. From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads"; the use of the term "frog" in common names refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic and have smooth, moist skins. There are numerous exceptions to this rule; the European fire-bellied toad has a warty skin and prefers a watery habitat whereas the Panamanian golden frog is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin.
The origin of the order name Anura — and its original spelling Anoures — is the Ancient Greek "alpha privative" prefix ἀν- "without", οὐρά, meaning "animal tail". It refers to the tailless character of these amphibians; the origins of the word frog are debated. The word is first attested in Old English as frogga, but the usual Old English word for the frog was frosc, it is agreed that the word frog is somehow related to this. Old English frosc remained in dialectal use in English as frosh and frosk into the nineteenth century, is paralleled in other Germanic languages, with examples in the modern languages including German Frosch, Icelandic froskur, Dutch vors; these words allow us to reconstruct a Common Germanic ancestor *froskaz. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary finds that the etymology of *froskaz is uncertain, but agrees with arguments that it could plausibly derive from a Proto-Indo-European base along the lines of *preu = "jump". How Old English frosc gave rise to frogga is, uncertain, as the development does not involve a regular sound-change.
Instead, it seems that there was a trend in Old English to coin nicknames for animals ending in -g, with examples—themselves all of uncertain etymology—including dog, pig and wig. Frog appears to have been adapted from frosc as part of this trend. Meanwhile, the word toad, first attested as Old English tādige, is unique to English and is of uncertain etymology, it is the basis for the word tadpole, first attested as Middle English taddepol meaning'toad-head'. About 88% of amphibian species are classified in the order Anura; these include over 7,000 species in 56 families, of which the Craugastoridae, Hylidae and Bufonidae are the richest in species. The Anura include any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition; the characteristics of anuran adults include: 9 or fewer presacral vertebrae, the presence of a urostyle formed of fused vertebrae, no tail, a long and forward-sloping ilium, shorter fore limbs than hind limbs and ulna fused and fibula fused, elongated an
Nošovice is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic, with a population of 970. It lies in the historical region of Těšín Silesia; the village was first mentioned in 1584 as Potmienossowicze in the document sealing the selling of Friedeck state country by Stanislaus Pavlovský von Pavlovitz, Bishop of Olomouc, to Bartholomew von Wrbno. The Friedeck state country was split from the Duchy of Teschen in 1573 when the village must have existed; the name of the village originates from locator Potmienoss, who settled with his people in a desolate place between the villages Nižní Lhoty and Dobrá in 1447 and founded the settlement. The leading Potmie part of the name was dropped. In 1679 it was mentioned as Nossovicensi. Politically the Friedeck state country was a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia, since 1526 a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. After World War I and fall of Austria-Hungary it became a part of Czechoslovakia. In March 1939 it became a part of Protectorate of Moravia.
After World War II it was restored to Czechoslovakia. Memorial of fallen in the second world war in Nošovice in front of elementary school. Calvary by the old road to Little Prašivá. Chapel on the interface of Dobrá and Nošovice. Little Chapel in the part of village Malé Nošovice na Podlesí. Crucifix at the old road to the river at the boundary of two parcels. Surroundings of the village is ideal for cycling; the swimming pool is a natural river at the National natural monument Skalická Morávka. There is sport and social complex, built in 2006 and adjoins to the area of elementary school; the Radegast brewery is located here, as well as the factory of the Hyundai Motor Company, built in 2006. Nošovické sauerkraut is grown and produced here. Official website
Košařiska is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 365, 38.7% of the population are the Poles. The village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia and is situated on the Kopytná creek on the foothills of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids mountain range; the name of the village is derived from the word koszarzysko denoting a place where a koszar was placed. The village was first mentioned in 1657 as Kossarzyska, it belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia and a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Cieszyn and the legal district of Jablunkov. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality dropped from 480 in 1880 to 471 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by German-speaking people.
In terms of religion in 1910 the majority were Protestants, followed by Roman Catholics. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia. Official website
Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem
Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It had an estimated population of 2,004 in 2006. There is an 18th-century wooden church in the village, it was relocated here in 1931 from the Subcarpathian Rus. Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem is a popular spot for tourists. Official website Mikroregion Frýdlantsko Paper model of St. Prokop and Barbora church in Kuncice pod Ondrejnik
Kozlovice (Frýdek-Místek District)
Kozlovice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 2,850 inhabitants. Village Měrkovice is administrative part of Kozlovice; the village was founded in 1294. Village website