Quotation marks known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different media; the double quotation mark is older than the single. It derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance. By the middle sixteenth century, printers had developed a typographic form of this notation, resembling the modern double quotation mark pointing to the right. During the seventeenth century this treatment became specific to quoted material, it grew common in Britain, to print quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation as well as in the margin. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century.
The usage of a pair of marks and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region. In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing outward. In Britain those marks were elevated to the same height as the top of capital letters. In France, by the end of the nineteenth century, they were modified to an angular shape and were spaced out; some authors claim that the reason for this was a practical one, in order to get a character, distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas and the parentheses. In other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters—the Greek breathing marks, the Armenian emphasis and apostrophe, the Arabic comma, decimal separator, thousands separator, etc. Other authors claim; the elevated quotation marks created an extra white space before and after the word, considered aesthetically unpleasing, while the in-line quotation marks helped to maintain the typographical color, since the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case letters.
While other languages do not insert a space between the quotation marks and the word, the French usage does insert them if it is a narrow space. The curved quotation marks 66-99 usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, notably where there was some English influence, for instance in Native American scripts and Indic scripts. On the other hand, Cyrillic and Ethiopic took over the angular quotation marks; the Far East angle bracket quotation marks are a development of the in-line angular quotation marks. In Central Europe, the practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing inward; the German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, the second one at the level of the apostrophes. Alternatively, these marks could be angular and in-line with lower case letters, but still pointing inward; some neighboring regions adopted the German curved marks tradition with lower–upper alignment, while others made up a variant with the closing mark pointing rightward like the opening one.
Sweden choose a convention where both marks pointed to the right but lined up both at the top level. In Eastern Europe there was a hesitation between the German tradition; the French tradition prevailed in North-Eastern Europe, whereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the closing mark pointing rightward) has become dominant in South-Eastern Europe, i.e. the Balkan countries. The single quotation marks emerged around 1800 as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation. One could expect that the logic of using the corresponding single mark would be applied everywhere, but it was not. In some languages using the angular quotation marks, the usage of single ones became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones. In Eastern Europe, the curved quotation marks are used as a secondary level when the angular marks are used as a primary level. In English writing, quotation marks are placed in pairs around a word or phrase to indicate: Quotation or direct speech: Carol said "Go ahead" when I asked her if the launcher was ready.
Mention in another work of a title of a short or subsidiary work, like a chapter or episode: "Encounter at Farpoint" was the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Scare used to mean "so-called" or to express irony: The "fresh" apples were full of worms. In American writing, double quotes are used normally. If quote marks are used inside another pair of quote marks single quotes are used as the secondary style. For example: "Didn't she say'I like red best' when I asked her wine preferences?" he asked his guests. If another set of quotes is nested, double quotes are used again, they continue to alternate as necessary. British publishing is regarded as more flexible about whether double or single quotation marks should be used. A tendency to use single quotation marks in British writ
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word or contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage. In most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet, the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still to be recognized correctly. However, in Turkish it is a glyph because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot. In Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves. However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters.
Such additional marks constitute glyphs. In general, a diacritic is a glyph if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł"; some characters such as "æ" in Icelandic and the "ß" in German may be regarded as glyphs. They were ligatures, but over time have become characters in their own right. However, a ligature such as "ſi", treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface an allographic feature, includes more than one grapheme. In normal handwriting long words are written "joined up", without the pen leaving the paper, the form of each written letter will vary depending on which letters precede and follow it, but that does not make the whole word into a single glyph. Two or more glyphs which have the same significance, whether used interchangeably or chosen depending on context, are called allographs of each other; the term has been used in English since 1727, borrowed from glyphe, from the Greek γλυφή, glyphē, "carving," and the verb γλύφειν, glýphein, "to hollow out, carve".
The word hieroglyph has a longer history in English, dating from an early use in an English to Italian dictionary published by John Florio in 1598, referencing the complex and mysterious characters of the Egyptian alphabet. The word glyph first came to widespread European attention with the engravings and lithographs from Frederick Catherwood's drawings of undeciphered glyphs of the Maya civilization in the early 1840s. In graphonomics, the term glyph is used for a noncharacter, i.e. either a subcharacter or multicharacter pattern. Most typographic glyphs originate from the characters of a typeface. In a typeface each character corresponds to a single glyph, but there are exceptions, such as a font used for a language with a large alphabet or complex writing system, where one character may correspond to several glyphs, or several characters to one glyph. In archaeology, a glyph is a inscribed symbol, it may be part of a writing system such as a syllable, or a logogram. A glyph is "the specific shape, design, or representation of a character".
It is a particular graphical representation, in a particular typeface, of an element of written language, which could be a grapheme, or part of a grapheme, or sometimes several graphemes in combination. If there is more than one allograph of a unit of writing, the choice between them depends on context or on the preference of the author, they now have to be treated as separate glyphs, because mechanical arrangements have to be available to differentiate between them and to print whichever of them is required; the same is true in computing. In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems. In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, it may be required to print other symbols such as dingbats; the range of glyphs required increases correspondingly.
In summary, in typography and computing, a glyph is a graphical unit. Character encoding Complex text layout HTML decimal character rendering Letterform Palaeography, the study of ancient writing Punchcutting The dictionary definition of glyph at Wiktionary Media related to Glyphs at Wikimedia Commons
The apostrophe character is a punctuation mark, sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. In English it is used for several purposes: The marking of the omission of one or more letters; the marking of possessive case of nouns. The marking of plurals of individual characters; the word apostrophe comes from Greek ἡ ἀπόστροφος, through Latin and French. According to Unicode, the apostrophe is the same character as the closing single quotation mark, although the semantics of this character are "context-dependent"; the apostrophe looks similar to, but is not the same as, the prime symbol, used to indicate measurement in feet or arcminutes, as well as for various mathematical purposes, the ʻokina, which represents a glottal stop in Polynesian languages. Other substitutes such as ´ and ‘ are common due to ambiguous treatment of the apostrophe in digital typesetting; the apostrophe was first used by Pietro Bembo in his edition of De Aetna. It was introduced into English in the 16th century in imitation of French practice.
Introduced by Geoffroy Tory, the apostrophe was used in place of a vowel letter to indicate elision. It was frequently used in place of a final e when it was elided before a vowel, as in un' heure. Modern French orthography has restored the spelling une heure. From the 16th century, following French practice, the apostrophe was used when a vowel letter was omitted either because of incidental elision or because the letter no longer represented a sound. English spelling retained many inflections that were not pronounced as syllables, notably verb endings and the noun ending -es, which marked either plurals or possessives. So apostrophe followed by s was used to mark a plural when the noun was a loan word; the use of elision has continued to the present day, but significant changes have been made to the possessive and plural uses. By the 18th century, apostrophe + s was used for all possessive singular forms when the letter e was not omitted; this was regarded as representing the Old English genitive singular inflection -es.
The plural use was reduced, but a need was felt to mark possessive plural. The solution was to use an apostrophe after the plural s. However, this was not universally accepted until the mid-19th century; the apostrophe is used in English to indicate what is, for historical reasons, misleadingly called the possessive case in the English language. This case does not always involve possession. For example, in the phrase "little Roger's headmaster", little Roger does not own the headmaster. In the words of Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage: The argument is a case of fooling oneself with one's own terminology. After the 18th-century grammarians began to refer to the genitive case as the possessive case and other commentators got it into their heads that the only use of the case was to show possession.... Changing the name of the genitive does not change or eliminate any of its multiple functions; this dictionary cites a study which found that only 40% of the possessive forms were used to indicate actual possession.
The modern spelling convention distinguishes possessive singular forms from simple plural forms, both of those from possessive plural forms. For singulars, the modern possessive or genitive inflection is a survival from certain genitive inflections in Old English, the apostrophe marked the loss of the old e; until the 18th century, the apostrophe was extensively used to indicate plural, its use for indicating plural "possessive" use was not standard before the middle of the 19th century. Summary of rules for most situationsPossessive personal pronouns, serving as either noun-equivalents or adjective-equivalents, do not use an apostrophe when they end in s; the complete list of those ending in the letter s or the corresponding sound /s/ or /z/ but not taking an apostrophe is ours, his, its and whose. Other pronouns, singular nouns not ending in s, plural nouns not ending in s all take's in the possessive: e.g. someone's, a cat's toys, women's. Plural nouns ending in s take only an apostrophe after the pre-existing s when the possessive is formed: e.g. three cats' toys.
Basic rule For most singular nouns the ending's is added. If a singular noun ends with an s-sound, practice varies as to whether to add's or the apostrophe alone. A accepted practice is to follow whichever spoken form is judged better: the boss's shoes, Mrs Jones' hat. In many cases, both spoken and written forms differ between writers. Acronyms and initialisms used as nou
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most the symbols "0"–"9" to represent values zero to nine, "A"–"F" to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal numerals are used by computer system designers and programmers, as they provide a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values; each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits known as a nibble, half a byte. For example, a single byte can have values ranging from 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 in binary form, which can be more conveniently represented as 00 to FF in hexadecimal. In mathematics, a subscript is used to specify the radix. For example the decimal value 10,995 would be expressed in hexadecimal as 2AF316. In programming, a number of notations are used to support hexadecimal representation involving a prefix or suffix; the prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, which would denote this value by 0x2AF3. Hexadecimal is used in the transfer encoding Base16, in which each byte of the plaintext is broken into two 4-bit values and represented by two hexadecimal digits.
In contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen: In URIs, character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %: http://www.example.com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, ASCII code point 20 in hex, 32 in decimal. In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation
ode, thus ’. In the Unicode standard, a character value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value, e.g. U+20AC is the Euro sign. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF.
CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. Unix shells, AT&T assembly language and the C programming language use the prefix 0x for numeric constants represented in hex: 0x5A3. Character and string constants may express character codes in hexadecimal with the prefix \x followed by two hex digits:'\x1B' represents the Esc control character. To output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In MIME quoted-printable encoding, characters that cannot be represented as literal ASCII characters are represented by their codes as two hexadecimal digits prefixed by an equal to sign =, as in Espa=F1a to send "España". In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h: FFh or 05A3H; some implementations require a leading zero when the first hexadecimal digit character is not a decimal digit, so one would write 0FFh instead of FFh Other assembly languages, Delphi, some versions of BASIC, GameMaker Language and Forth use $ as a prefix: $5A3.
Some assembly languages use the notation H'ABCD'. Fortran 95 uses Z'ABCD'. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based "numeric quotes": 16#5A3#. For bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x"5A3". Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8'hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value and FF is the hexadecimal constant; the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r: 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#: 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs: AA213FD51B3801043FBC... Common Lisp uses the prefixes # 16r. Setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can be used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers, thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, when the input or output base has been changed to 16. MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H: &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex.
TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix: 0h5A3 ALGOL 68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers: 16r5a3. Binary and octal numbers can be specified similarly; the most common format for hexadecimal on IBM mainframes and midrange computers running the traditional OS's is X'5A3', is used in Assembler, PL/I, COBOL, JCL, scripts and other places. This format was common on
French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic and the only overseas country of France. It is composed of 118 geographically dispersed islands and atolls stretching over an expanse of more than 2,000 kilometres in the South Pacific Ocean, its total land area is 4,167 square kilometres. French Polynesia is divided into five groups of islands: the Society Islands archipelago, composed of the Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands. Among its 118 islands and atolls, 67 are inhabited. Tahiti, located within the Society Islands, is the most populous island, having close to 69% of the population of French Polynesia as of 2017. Papeete, located on Tahiti, is the capital. Although not an integral part of its territory, Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007. Following the Great Polynesian Migration, European explorers visited the islands of French Polynesia on several occasions. Traders and whaling ships visited. In 1842, the French took over the islands and established a French protectorate they called Etablissements des français en Océanie.
In 1946, the EFOs became an overseas territory under the constitution of the French Fourth Republic, Polynesians were granted the right to vote through citizenship. In 1957, the EFOs were renamed French Polynesia. In 1983 French Polynesia became a member of the Pacific Community, a regional development organization. Since 28 March 2003, French Polynesia has been an overseas collectivity of the French Republic under the constitutional revision of article 74, gained, with law 2004-192 of 27 February 2004, an administrative autonomy, two symbolic manifestations of which are the title of the President of French Polynesia and its additional designation as an overseas country. French Polynesia was one of the last places on Earth to be settled by humans. Scientists believe the Great Polynesian Migration happened around 1500 BC as Austronesian people went on a journey using celestial navigation to find islands in the South Pacific Ocean; the first islands of French Polynesia to be settled were the Marquesas Islands in about 200 BC.
The Polynesians ventured southwest and discovered the Society Islands around AD 300. European encounters began in 1521 when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, sailing at the service of the Spanish Crown, sighted Puka-Puka in the Tuāmotu-Gambier Archipelago. In 1606 another Spanish expedition under Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sailed through Polynesia sighting an inhabited island on 10 February which they called Sagitaria the island of Rekareka to the southeast of Tahiti. Over a century British explorer Samuel Wallis visited Tahiti in 1767. French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti in 1768, while British explorer James Cook arrived in 1769. In 1772, the Spanish Viceroy of Peru Don Manuel de Amat ordered a number of expeditions to Tahiti under the command of Domingo de Bonechea, the first European to explore all of the main islands beyond Tahiti. A short-lived Spanish settlement was created in 1774, for a time some maps bore the name Isla de Amat after Viceroy Amat. In 1772, Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen came across Bora Bora in the Society Islands.
Christian missions began with Spanish priests. Protestants from the London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797. King Pōmare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to Mo'orea in 1803. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed; the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti; the island groups were not united until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1889. After France declared a protectorate over Tahiti in 1840, the British and French signed the Jarnac Convention in 1847, declaring that the kingdoms of Raiatea and Bora Bora were to remain independent from either powers and that no single chief was to be allowed to reign over the entire archipelago. France broke the agreement, the islands were annexed and became a colony in 1888 after many native resistances and conflicts called the Leewards War, lasting until 1897.
In the 1880s, France claimed the Tuamotu Archipelago, which belonged to the Pōmare Dynasty, without formally annexing it. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuata in 1842, the French regarded the entire Marquesas Islands as French. In 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony; the islands of Rimatara and Rūrutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, so in 1889 they were annexed by France. Postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892; the first official name for the colony was Établissements de l'Océanie. In 1940, the administration of French Polynesia recognised the Free French Forces and many Polynesians served in World War II. Unknown at the time to the French and Polynesians, the Konoe Cabinet in Imperial Japan on 16 September 1940 included French Polynesia among the many territories whic
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu