In precise timekeeping, ΔT is a measure of the cumulative effect of the departure of the Earth's rotation period from the fixed-length day of atomic time. Formally it is the time difference obtained by subtracting Universal Time from Terrestrial Time: ΔT = TT − UT; the value of ΔT for the start of 1902 is zero. So the Earth's rotations over that century took about 64 seconds longer than would be required for days of atomic time; the Earth's rotational speed is ν = 1/2π dθ/dt, a day corresponds to one period P = 1/ν. A rotational acceleration dν/dt gives a rate of change of the period of dP/dt = −1/ν2 dν/dt, expressed as α = ν dP/dt = −1/ν dν/dt; this has units of 1/time, is quoted as milliseconds-per-day per century. Integrating α gives an expression for ΔT against time. Universal Time is a time scale based on the Earth's rotation, somewhat irregular over short periods, thus any time based on it cannot have an accuracy better than 1 in 108. However, a larger, more consistent effect has been observed over many centuries: Earth's rate of rotation is inexorably slowing down.
This observed change in the rate of rotation is attributable to two primary forces, one decreasing and one increasing the Earth's rate of rotation. Over the long term, the dominating force is tidal friction, slowing the rate of rotation, contributing about α = +2.3 ms/day/cy or dP/dt = +2.3 ms/cy, equal to the small fractional change +7.3×10−13 day/day. The most important force acting in the opposite direction, to speed up the rate, is believed to be a result of the melting of continental ice sheets at the end of the last glacial period; this removed their tremendous weight, allowing the land under them to begin to rebound upward in the polar regions, an effect, still occurring today and will continue until isostatic equilibrium is reached. This "post-glacial rebound" brings mass closer to the rotational axis of the Earth, which makes the Earth spin faster, according to the law of conservation of angular momentum, similar to an ice skater pulling their arms in to spin faster. Models estimate this effect to contribute about −0.6 ms/day/cy.
Combining these two effects, the net acceleration of the rotation of the Earth, or the change in the length of the mean solar day, is +1.7 ms/day/cy. This matches the average rate derived from astronomical records over the past 27 centuries. Terrestrial Time is a theoretical uniform time scale, defined to provide continuity with the former Ephemeris Time. ET was an independent time-variable, proposed in the period 1948–52 with the intent of forming a gravitationally uniform time scale as far as was feasible at that time, depending for its definition on Simon Newcomb's Tables of the Sun, interpreted in a new way to accommodate certain observed discrepancies. Newcomb's tables formed the basis of all astronomical ephemerides of the Sun from 1900 through 1983: they were expressed in terms of Greenwich Mean Time and the mean solar day, but in respect of the period 1960–1983, they were treated as expressed in terms of ET, in accordance with the adopted ET proposal of 1948–52. ET, in turn, can now be seen as close to the average mean solar time between 1750 and 1890, because, the period during which the observations on which Newcomb's tables were based were performed.
While TT is uniform, it is in practice realised by International Atomic Time with an accuracy of about 1 part in 1014. Earth's rate of rotation must be integrated to obtain time, Earth's angular position. Integrating +1.7 ms/d/cy and centering the resulting parabola on the year 1820 yields 32 × 2 - 20 seconds for ΔT. Smoothed historical measurements of ΔT using total solar eclipses are about +17190 s in the year −500, +10580 s in 0, +5710 s in 500, +1570 s in 1000, +200 s in 1500. After the invention of the telescope, measurements were made by observing occultations of stars by the Moon, which allowed the derivation of more spaced and more accurate values for ΔT. ΔT continued to decrease until it reached a plateau of +11 ± 6 s between 1680 and 1866. For about three decades before 1902 it was negative, reaching −6.64 s. It increased to +63.83 s in January 2000 and +68.97 s in January 2018. This will require the addition of an ever-greater number of leap seconds to UTC as long as UTC tracks UT1 with one-second adjustments.
Physically, the meridian of Greenwich in Universal Time is always to the east of the meridian in Terrestrial Time, both in the past and in the future. +17190 s or about 4 3⁄4 h corresponds to 71.625°E. This means that in the year −500, Earth's faster rotation would cause a total solar eclipse to occur 71.625° to the east of the location calculated using the uniform TT. All values of ΔT before 1955 depend on observations of the Moon, either via eclipses or occultations; the angular momentum lost by the Earth due to friction induced by the Moon's tidal effect is transferred to the Moon, increasing its angular momentum, which means that its moment arm is increased (for the time be
The German Evangelical Church was a successor to the German Evangelical Church Confederation from 1933 until 1945. The German Christians, an antisemitic and racist pressure group and Kirchenpartei, gained enough power on boards of the member churches to be able to install Ludwig Müller to the office of Reichsbischof in the 1933 church elections; the German Evangelical Church Confederation was subsequently renamed the German Evangelical Church. In 1934, the German Evangelical Church suffered controversies and internal struggles which left member churches either detached or reorganised into German Christians-led dioceses of what was to become a single, unified Reich Church compatible with Nazi ideology for all of Nazi Germany. In 1935, in wake of controversies and church struggles, the Ministry for Church Affairs removed Ludwig Müller and installed a committee headed by Wilhelm Zoellner to lead the confederation; as a result, the German Evangelical Church regained partial support as some of member churches that left rejoined.
In 1936, the Zoellner committee denounced German Christians and leaned towards the Confessing Church and its positions. In 1937, the Nazis removed the Zoellner committee and reinstalled German Christians into the leading position. In 1937-1945, the German Evangelical Church was controlled by the Ministry, it was no longer considered a subject to the Kirchenkampf to Adolf Hitler. It disbanded in 1945, it was succeeded by the Evangelical Church in Germany in 1948. It is known in English as the Protestant Reich Church and colloquially as the Reich Church. In 1933, the German Christians took leadership in some member churches of the German Evangelical Church Confederation. A new designation was voted on and adopted, with the organisation now being called the German Evangelical Church. In its early stages, it remained a loose confederation of churches just like its predecessor, it included a vast majority of Protestants in what was now Nazi Germany, excluding those affiliated with the free churches like the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church.
In a 1933 voting to the Reichssynode, the German Christians were able to elect Ludwig Müller, a pro-Nazi pastor, to the office of Reichsbischof. On December 20, 1933, Müller merged the church's Protestant Youth organisations into the Hitler Jugend without consulting their leadership or any member churches. Many in the German Evangelical Church resisted a discussion began. Müller tried to silence it by using powers of the elected office, his attempts failed, prompting Adolf Hitler to meet with Protestant leaders on January 25, 1934. Although the meeting ended with Protestant churches declaring their loyalty to the state, removing Müller was not a subject to discussion for Hitler. After that, member churches began to either detach from the German Evangelical Church. There was little resistance to the attempt to introduce elements of Nazi ideology into church doctrine. Most of the resistance came from confessing communities within "intact" and "destroyed churches" and the Pfarrernotbund led by pastor Martin Niemöller.
In consequence of the 1934 meeting, many member churches distanced themselves from the Nazi-controlled Reich Church due to controversies pertaining to its constitution, the nazification of its theology, incorporation of its Youth organisations into the Hitler Jugend, etc. Such churches became neutral or followed the Protestant opposition to Nazism that established an alternative umbrella organisation of their own that became known as the Confessing Church; the Reich Church ended up being a confederation of those German Protestant churches that espoused a single doctrine named Positive Christianity, compatible with Nazism. Although it aimed to become a unified Protestant state church for all of Nazi Germany, this attempt utterly failed as the German Evangelical Church became fractured into various groups that bore an unclear legal status in relation to each other: churches with a German Christians-dominated governing board reorganising them into dioceses of the Reich Church led by German Christians churches with a governing board without a German Christian majority merging them as members of the Reich Church, but rejected Müller as its leader the Confessing Church that saw itself as the true Protestant church for all of Germany, provided resistance to the German Christians-led German Evangelical Church and to its so-called dioceses, acted on principles of the "1934 church emergency law of Dahlem" that deemed the constitution of the German Evangelical Church "shattered" Müller's influence declined after more constant clashes in the German Evangelical Church, triggering the foundation of the Ministry for Church Affairs led by Hans Kerrl on July 16, 1935.
A decree issued by Kerrl in September 1935, appointed a committee led by Wilhelm Zoellner to head the Reich Church instead of Müller. It was received positively by intact churches and confessing parts of the German Evangelical Church. In 1936, the committee denounced the teachings of the German Christians-controlled Church of Thuringia, the regime feared that the Confessi
Rayavaram is a village in Pudukkottai district in Tamil Nadu, India. Rayavaram lies 90 kilometres north of Madurai; the nearest town is Pudukkottai. The closest airport is at Tiruchirappalli, it has at least 75 buses covering surrounding areas. The village's economy is based on agriculture; the village has several oorani and kulam like Rayavaram Kanmai, Chettipatti Kanmai, Palayaoorni and Nallanchetti Oorani, Ponachi, Narayanan Chetti Oorani, Poochetti Oorani, Nalanchetti Oorani, Ayyanar kovl Oorani, Koththathi Kanmai, Kurunthangudi Kanmai, Ayungudi Kanmai, Aalangudi Kanmai and Valayan vayal Kanmai. As of 2001, Rayavaram had a population of 3257. Males constituted 49% of the population and females 51%. Rayavaram had an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 12% of the population was under 6 years of age
Rostraureum tropicale is a species of fungus from genus Rostraureum, found in Ecuador. Rostraureum tropicale is a pathogen of Terminalia ivorensis and causes basal stem cankers on dying trees; the fungus is distributed in the lowland tropics of Ecuador. Hosts include Terminalia superba. Morphologically, Rostraureum tropicale has characteristics similar to those for Cryphonectria and Chrysoporthe, but appears to be superficially closest to Cryphonectria longirostris; the fungus displays characteristics typical of diaporthalean fungi, with periphysate ostiolar canals with no paraphyses, asci are unitunicate with refractive apical rings. Fruiting structures are orange to yellow, ascospores are one-septate and fusoid to ellipsoid. Rostraureum tropicale can be distinguished from Endothia and Chrysoporthe by the observation that perithecial necks are not embedded in well-developed stromatic tissue. Additionally, it can be distinguished from Chrysoporthe by the presence of orange perithecial necks instead of fuscous-black necks.
Rostraureum tropicale is phylogenetically most related to species of Endothia, based on ribosomal and β-tubulin DNA sequences. However, species of Chrysoporthe and Cryphonectria belong to the same superclade and are thus related to Rostraureum tropicale. Rostraureum tropicale is pathogenic towards Terminalia ivorensis and a related host, Terminalia superba, causing well-developed stem cankers within six weeks of inoculation, it is more pathogenic than Chrysoporthe cubensis, which causes smaller lesions on Terminalia superba. However, C. cubensis is not a pathogen of trees in the Combretaceae. Rostraureum tropicale in Index Fungorum
Lichfield Museum known as "Lichfield Heritage Centre", is dedicated to the history and heritage of the city of Lichfield. The museum is located on the south side of the market square on the second floor of St Mary's Church in the centre of Lichfield, Staffordshire in the United Kingdom; the museum was opened by the Earl of Lichfield on 30 May 1981 when the 19th century city centre church was converted into a multi-purpose building to serve the community. The newly formed second floor of the church was dedicated to a museum and heritage exhibition dedicated to the history of Lichfield; the museum is run by volunteers and is an independent Registered Charity and financially self-supporting. The museum features a treasury exhibition, were can be seen chalices and centrepieces from the city, Diocese of Lichfield and The Staffordshire Regiment. Viewable is the Lichfield Heritage Collection which features over 6000 photographs. There is a muniment room which features some of the oldest objects in the collection including the City's ancient charters, the earliest being Queen Mary`s Charter of 1553 followed by several others over the centuries, right up to Elizabeth II.
The Guild Book of St Mary's Guild of 1387 - 1680 is the oldest document exhibited. There are two audio-visual presentations which feature stories into Lichfield's ancient past, the building of the Cathedral and the sieges during the Civil War; the Staffordshire Millennium Embroideries are a unique representation of a thousand years of Staffordshire's history, embroidered in silk, cotton, metallic thread and leather, one panel for each century of the Millennium. This inspired work was created by Mrs Sylvia Everitt of Rawnsley, near Cannock, who made these embroideries over five years of dedicated work as her gift to the people of Staffordshire in commemoration of the Millennium, she toured the county for several years giving lectures about her embroideries before donating them to the Lichfield Museum where they are now permanently displayed in a specially designed Gallery. For her work Sylvia was awarded the MBE in 2002. Tours are available to the top of St Mary's 158-year-old spire to a viewing platform 40m above the market square with views over the city and surrounding countryside.
There is a coffee gift shop on the ground floor at the exit of the museum. The museum is open 7 days a week from 09:30 until 16:00. Lichfield Museum - St. Mary's Lichfield Visit Britain Tourism website
Anolis poncensis is a species of lizard of the family of Dactyloidae. The species is endemic to Puerto Rico, it was first identified in the hills three miles east of the city. The Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources considers it a "vulnerable species"; the body of this anole is more slender than other grass Anoles. It has distinguishing brownish dorsum, greenish sides, blue eyes, a small white dewlap, a short pale lateral line, a number of black spots behind the eyes. Males females up to 40 mm; this species is endemic to Puerto Rico. Its distribution is rather small, being limited to the arid and semi-arid western half of the southern coast of the island, it was identified and catalogued in 1902 by Leonhard Stejneger, a curator with the Division of Reptiles and Batrachians of the United States National Museum. Its species name, consisting of "ponce" plus the Latin suffix -nsis, was given in reference to the place of its discovery, the city of Ponce, its discovery and documentation were published in Stejneger, 1904: "The herpetology of Porto Rico".
Fauna of Puerto Rico List of amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico Anolis poncensis. Distribution of Anolis poncensis within Puerto Rico. CaribHerp: Amphibians and reptiles of Caribbean Islands. Caribbean Herpetology. 2016. Accessed 14 June 2016. Map illustrating the distribution of Anolis poncensis within Puerto Rico. Anolis poncensis STEJNEGER 1904. Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist, describing A. poncensis as belonging to the "Family Polychrotidae". Brandley, M. C. & De Queiroz, K. 2004. Phylogeny, ecomorphological evolution, historical biogeography of the Anolis cristatellus series. Herpetological Monographs 18: 90-126. Grant, C. 1932. Herpetological notes from the Puerto Rico area. Jour. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 16: 161-165 Nicholson, Kirten E.. Crother, Craig Guyer & Jay M. Savage 2012, it is time for a new classification of anoles. Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89. Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626: 295–299.
Rivero, J. A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, España: x + 152 + 148pp. Schmidt, K. P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10:160 pp. Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R. W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, 165 pp. Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R. W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp. Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States National Museum. 1902: 549-724. Werning, H. 2012. Zwischen Anolis und Cycluren: Unterwegs auf Puerto Rico. Reptilia 17: 100-109