Amman is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the countrys economic and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the centre of the Amman Governorate. The city has a population of 4,007,526, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab, the earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as Ain Ghazal. Its successor was known as Rabbath Ammon, which was the capital of the Ammonites, as Philadelphia and it was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji. Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills or valleys they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh, East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city.
Approximately 2 million visitors arrived in Amman in 2014, which ranked it as the 93rd most visited city in the world, Amman has a relatively fast growing economy, and it is ranked Beta− on the global city index. Moreover, it was named one of the Middle East and North Africas best cities according to economic, environmental, the city is among the most popular locations in the Arab world for multinational corporations to set up their regional offices, alongside Doha and only behind Dubai. It is expected that in the next 10 years these three cities will capture the largest share of multinational corporation activity in the region. Amman derives its name from the 13th century BC when the Ammonites named it Rabbath Ammon, over time, the term Rabbath was no longer used and the city became known as Ammon. The influence of new civilizations that conquered the city changed its name to Amman. In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as Rabbat ʿAmmon, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom who reigned from 283 to 246 BC, renamed the city to Philadelphia after occupying it.
The name was given as an adulation to his own nickname, in the outskirts of Amman, one of the largest known ancient settlements in the Near East was discovered. The site, known as Ain Ghazal which is situated on a valley-side, dates back to 7250 BC and it was a typical average sized aceramic Neolithic village that accommodated around 3,000 inhabitants. Its houses were rectangular mud-bricked buildings that included a main square living room, the site was discovered in 1974 as construction workers were working on a road crossing the area. By 1982 when the excavations started, around 600 meters of road ran through the site, despite the damage brought by urban expansion, the remains of Ain Ghazal provided a wealth of information. These statues are human figures made with white plaster, the figures have painted clothes, and in some cases ornamental tattoos. Thirty-two figures were found in two caches, fifteen of them full figures, fifteen busts, and two fragmentary heads, three of the busts were two-headed, the significance of which is not clear
The Zarqa River is the second largest tributary of the lower Jordan River, after the Yarmouk River. It is the third largest river in the region by annual discharge and it rises in springs near Amman, and flows through a deep and broad valley into the Jordan, at an elevation 1,090 metres lower. The river is polluted and its restoration is one of the top priorities for the Jordanian Ministry of the Environment. The Zarqa River is commonly identified with the biblical Jabbok River, the Zarqa River is about 30 million years old. At the rivers origin is Ain Ghazal, an archaeological site that dates back to the Neolithic. Archeological finds along the course of the river indicate the area was rich in flora, the Zarqa River is well known for its amber deposits that date back to the Hauterivian era of the Early Cretaceous. A remarkable flora and fauna was reported from this amber reflecting tropical paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during the time of resin deposition, the modern Arabic name, Nahr az-Zarqa means the blue river, where nahr means river and zarqa means blue.
The Zarqa River is identified with the biblical river Jabbok, the Biblical Jacob crossed the Jabbok on his way to Canaan, after leaving Harran. It leads west into the Sukkot Valley, from where one crosses over the Jordan and can easily reach Shechem, the biblical cities of Zaretan and Adam are at the mouth of the valley. The river is first mentioned in connection with the meeting of Jacob and Esau and it was the boundary separating the territory of Reuben and Gad from that of Ammon, the latter being described as lying along the Jabbok. The territory of Sihon is described as extending from Arnon unto Jabbok, eusebius places the river between Gerasa and Philadelphia. The headwaters of the Zarqa begin just northeast of Amman, rising from a spring named Ain Ghazal, the river flows to the north before heading west. At its higher reaches, the banks are mostly steep. Near Ain Ghazal, two tributary wadis join the river, and it opens up into a shallow basin and it forms the border between the Jordanian administrative regions of Irbid and Balqa Governorate.
This makes it the second largest tributary of the lower Jordan River, after the Yarmouk River, irregular floods after rain storms may increase the flow to as much as 54 million cubic meters. The median annual flow is 63.3 million cubic meters, the total basin area is 3,900 km2 the largest in Jordan. A small dam, Al-Rwyha dam, near the village of Dayr Alla, marks the end of the portion of the river. There is very little agriculture along the banks of the river in this region, when built, it was expected that the reservoir would supply water for municipal use in the Amman region
Ayn Ghazal is a neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman, about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport. The settlement at Ain Ghazal first appeared in the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B and is split into two phases, phase I starts circa 10,300 BP and ends c.9,950 BP, while phase II ends c.9,550 BP. In its prime era circa 7000 BCE, the site extended over 10–15 hectares and was inhabited by ca.3000 people, after 6500 BC, the population dropped sharply to about one sixth within only a few generations, probably due to environmental degradation. It is situated in a rich environmental setting immediately adjacent to the Zarqa River. It is located at an elevation of about 720m within the ecotone between the woodland to the west and the open steppe-desert to the east. Ain Ghazal started as a typical aceramic, Neolithic village of modest size and it was set on terraced ground in a valley-side, and was built with rectangular mud-brick houses that accommodated a square main room and a smaller anteroom.
Walls were plastered with mud on the outside, and with plaster inside that was renewed every few years. Evidence recovered from the excavations suggests that much of the countryside was forested and offered the inhabitants a wide variety of economic resources. Arable land is plentifull within the immediate environs. These variables are atypical of many major sites in the Near East. Yet despite its apparent richness, the area of Ain Ghazal is climatically and environmentally sensitive because of its proximity throughout the Holocene to the fluctuating steppe-forest border. As an early farming community, the Ain Ghazal people cultivated cereals and chickpeas in fields above the village, in addition they hunted wild animals – deer, equids and smaller mammals such as fox or hare. The estimated population of the MPPNB site from ‘Ain Ghazal is of 259-1349 individuals with an area of 3. 01-4.7 ha. Is argued that at its founding at the commencement of the MPPNB ‘Ain Ghazal was likely about 2 ha in size, at this point in time their estimated population was 600-750 people or 125-150 people per hectare.
The diet of the occupants of PPNB Ain Ghazal was remarkably varied, domesticated plants included wheat and barley species, but legumes appear to have been preferred cultigens. A wide suite of plants were consumed. The determination of domesticated animals, sensu stricto, is a topic of much debate, at PPNB Ain Ghazal goats were a major species, and they were used in a domestic sense, although they may not have been morphologically domestic. Many of the phalanges recovered exhibit pathologies that are suggestive of tethering, an impressive range of wild animal species were consumed at the site
The Louvre Pyramid is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I. M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard of the Louvre Palace in Paris. The large pyramid serves as the entrance to the Louvre Museum. Completed in 1989, it has become a landmark of the city of Paris, commissioned by the President of France, François Mitterrand, in 1984, it was designed by the architect I. M. Pei. The structure, which was constructed entirely with glass segments and metal poles, reaches a height of 21.6 metres and its square base has sides of 34 metres and a base surface area of 1,000 square metres. It consists of 603 rhombus-shaped and 70 triangular glass segments, the pyramid structure was engineered by Nicolet Chartrand Knoll Ltd. of Montreal and Rice Francis Ritchie of Paris. Visitors entering through the pyramid descend into the spacious lobby re-ascend into the main Louvre buildings, for design historian Mark Pimlott, I. M. Pei’s plan distributes people effectively from the central concourse to myriad destinations within its vast subterranean network.
Several other museums have duplicated this concept, most notably the Museum of Science, the Dolphin Centre, featuring a similar pyramid, was opened in April 1982, by Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester. The construction work on the base and underground lobby was carried out by the Vinci construction company. In 1839, according to one account, in ceremonies commemorating the glorious revolution of 1830, The tombs of the Louvre were covered with black hangings. In front and in the middle was erected a monument of a pyramidical shape. The construction of the pyramid triggered many years of strong and lively aesthetic, Pei being insufficiently French to be entrusted with the task of updating the treasured Parisian landmark. Meanwhile, Political critics referred to the structure as Pharaoh Francois Pyramid, while some continue to feel the harsh modernism of the edifice is out of place, others consider the juxtaposition of contrasting architectural styles a successful merger of the old and the new.
During the design phase, there was a proposal that the design include a spire on the pyramid to simplify window washing, Pei objected and this proposal was eliminated. It has been claimed by some that the glass panes in the Louvre Pyramid number exactly 666, the story of the 666 panes originated in the 1980s, when the official brochure published during construction did indeed cite this number. The number 666 was mentioned in various newspapers, the Louvre museum, states that the finished pyramid contains 673 glass panes. A higher figure was obtained by David A. Shugarts, who reports that the pyramid contains 689 pieces of glass, Shugarts obtained the figure from the Peis offices. The side with the entrance, has 11 panes fewer, David A. Shugarts reports that according to a spokeswoman of the offices of Pei, the French President never specified the number of panes to be used in the pyramid. La Pyramide Inversée is a skylight in the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall in front of the Louvre Museum and it looks like an upside-down and smaller version of the Louvre Pyramid
Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is the seat of the Jericho Governorate, and is governed by the Fatah faction of the Palestinian National Authority. In 2007, it had a population of 18,346, the city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, and has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967, administrative control was handed over to the Palestinian Authority in 1994. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and it was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are even older. Copious springs in and around the city have attracted human habitation for thousands of years, Jericho is described in the Hebrew Bible as the City of Palm Trees. Jerichos Arabic name, ʼArīḥā, means fragrant and has its roots in Canaanite Reaẖ, the first excavations of the site were made by Charles Warren in 1868. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-Alayiq between 1907–1909 and in 1911, and John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936, extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958.
Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolo Marchetti conducted excavations in 1997-2000, the earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan, a couple of kilometers from the current city. In both Arabic and Hebrew, tell means mound - consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East, Jericho is the type site for the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods. Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BCE, during the Younger Dryas period of cold and drought, permanent habitation of any one location was impossible. However, the Ein es-Sultan spring at what would become Jericho was a camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A The first permanent settlement on the site of Jericho developed near the Ein es-Sultan spring between 9,500 and 9000 BCE, as the world warmed up, a new culture based on agriculture and sedentary dwelling emerged, which archaeologists have termed Pre-Pottery Neolithic A.
At Jericho, circular dwellings were built of clay and straw bricks left to dry in the sun, each house measured about 5 metres across, and was roofed with mud-smeared brush. Hearths were located within and outside the homes, by about 9400 BCE, the town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A phase at Tell es-Sultan is sometimes called Sultanian and this tower and the even older ones excavated at Tell Qaramel in Syria are the oldest ever to be discovered. The wall may have served as a defence against flood-water, with the used for ceremonial purposes. The wall and tower were built during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period around 8000 BCE, for the tower, carbon dates published in 1981 and 1983 indicate that it was built around 8300 BCE and stayed in use until ca.7800 BCE. The wall and tower would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct, the town contained round mud-brick houses, yet no street planning
Lime plaster is a type of plaster composed of sand and lime, usually non-hydraulic hydrated lime. Ancient lime plaster often contained horse hair for reinforcement and pozzolan additives to reduce the working time, traditional non-hydraulic hydrated lime only sets through carbonatation when the plaster is kept moist and access of CO2 from the air is possible. It will not set when submersed in water, when a very thick layer or several layers are applied the lime can remain soft for weeks. The curing time of lime plaster can be shortened by using lime or adding pozzolan additives. In ancient times, Roman lime plaster incorporated pozzolanic volcanic ash, in modern times, non-hydraulic lime plaster can be made to set faster by adding gypsum. Lime plaster sets up to a mass that is durable yet relatively flexible. Hydraulic lime plaster can be almost as hard as cement plaster, when cured lime plaster is unaffected by water and will not soften or dissolve like drywall and earthen or gypsum plaster.
Unlike gypsum or clay plaster, lime plaster is sufficiently durable, compared to cement plaster, plaster made from hydrated lime is less brittle and less prone to cracking, requiring no expansion joints. It will not detach from the wall when subjected to stress due to expansion inflicted by solar radiation. Unlike cement plaster it will shield softer materials from shear stresses otherwise possibly causing the deterioration of the underlaying surface and it is usually not recommended to replace more than 20% of the lime content with cement when rendering the facade. Lime plaster is permeable and allows for the diffusion and evaporation of moisture, the elevated pH of the lime in the plaster will act as a fungicide, mold will not grow in lime plaster. Non-hydraulic lime plaster sets slowly and is quite caustic while wet, plasterers must take care to protect themselves or use mild acids as vinegar or lemon juice to neutralize chemical burn. When the plaster is dry, the pH falls to about 8.6, non-hydraulic lime plaster requires moisture to set and has to be prevented from drying for several days.
The number of qualified tradesmen capable of plastering with lime is in due to widespread adoption of drywall. One of the earliest examples of lime plaster dates back to the end of the eighth millennium BC, three statues were discovered in a buried pit at Ain Ghazal in Jordan that were sculpted with lime plaster over armatures of reeds and twine. They were made in the neolithic period, around 7200 BC. The fact that these sculptures have lasted so long is a testament to the durability of lime plaster, lime plaster was found to have been a multi-purpose material at the archaeological site of Ain Ghazal in modern-day Jordan. The site dates human occupation from 7200 BC to 5000 BC, lime plaster is believed to have coated internal walls of buildings and to have been used as the main component of some anthropomorphical figurines discovered at the site
Pavillon de Flore
The Pavillon de Flore, part of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, stands at the southwest end of the Louvre, near the Pont Royal. It was originally constructed in 1607–1610, during the reign of Henry IV, the pavilion was entirely redesigned and rebuilt by Hector Lefuel in 1864–1868 in a highly decorated Second Empire Neo-Baroque style. The most famous sculpture on the exterior of the Louvre, Jean-Baptiste Carpeauxs The Triumph of Flora, was added below the pediment of the south facade at this time. The Tuileries Palace was destroyed by fire in 1871, and a north facade, the Pavillon de Flore is part of the Musée du Louvre. The Pavillon de Flore is in central Paris, on the Right Bank and is connected to the Louvre and it is directly adjacent to the Pont Royal on the Quai François Mitterrand, which is between the Passerelle Léopold-Sédar Senghor and the Pont du Carrousel. Its geographic coordinates are 48°51′40″N 2°19′50″E, the Pavillon de Flore was part of a larger plan, devised during the reign of King Henry IV, to connect the Palais du Louvre and Palais des Tuileries via two long wings at their north and south ends.
First, the Petite Galerie, running south from the Palais du Louvre to the River Seine, was connected to the Grande Galerie. The latter was constructed east to west along the Seine until it reached the Tuileries, the cornerstone of the pavilion was laid in 1607. Its design has traditionally been assigned to Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau, the Palais des Tuileries was extended south from the Pavillon Bullant to the Pavillon de Flore via the Petite Galerie des Tuileries. Work on the Grand Design was abandoned following the assassination of Henry IV in 1610, however, by this time, the building of the Grande Galerie, the Petite Galerie des Tuileries, and the Gros Pavillon de la Rivière had been completed. King Louis XIV danced in Isaac de Benserades Ballet royal de Flore in February 1669 at the Tuileries and it has been suggested that this is when the name Pavillon de Flore came into use, although the earliest known written mention is in 1726. Pavillon de Flore is the name used today, although other names have been used in between, for several years, the apartments of Marie Antoinette were located within the structure.
During the French Revolution, the Pavillon de Flore was renamed Pavillon de lÉgalité, under its new name, it became the meeting point for several of the Committees of the period. Many other committees of the Revolutionary Government occupied the Palais des Tuileries during the time of the National Convention, notable occupiers included the Monetary Committee, the Account and Liquidation Examination Committee. However, the most famous was the Committee of Public Safety, the Committee of Public Safety was the principal and most renowned body of the Revolutionary Government, forming the de facto executive branch of France during the Reign of Terror. Run by the Jacobins under Robespierre, the group of twelve centralized denunciations, the committee was responsible for the deaths of thousands, mostly by guillotine. The executive body was installed in the apartments of Marie-Antoinette, situated on the first floor. The governing body met twice a day and the executions themselves were carried out across the gardens
Art of the Upper Paleolithic
The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known. Older possible examples include the incised ochre from Blombos Cave, Cave art in Europe continued to the Mesolithic about 12,000 years ago. As this corresponds to the phase of the last glacial period. As a notable aspect of what some call the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, and evidence for behavioral modernity, Art helps define what makes us human – it is part of what we are or can be. Decoration was made on functional tools, such as spear throwers, perforated batons, common subject matters include the animals that were hunted and predators and other animals that were not, the human form was often expressed – especially female shapes. Men are depicted, such as the Pin Hole man, shells from Mediterranean species have been found at Gönnersdorf, over 1,000 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast. The higher sea levels today mean that the level and nature of settlements in the Upper Paleolithic are unable to be explored. It is possible that they were used in rituals, or alternatively heated on a fire, either type of use may account for the many broken examples, often with the fragments dispersed over some distance.
Many sites have large quantities of flat stones apparently used as flooring, Ice Age art can be naturalistic and figurative, it can be geometric and non-representational. Some of the oldest works of art were found in the Schwäbische Alb, Baden-Württemberg, the Venus figurine known as the Venus of Hohle Fels, dates to some 40,000 years ago. Other fine examples of art from the Upper Palaeolithic includes, cave painting, incised / engraved cave art such as at Creswell Crags, portable art, and open-air art. There are numerous carved or engraved pieces of bone and ivory and these include spear throwers, including one shaped like a mammoth, and many of the type of objects called a bâton de commandement. One of the most famous pieces of art from Britain is the Robin Hood Cave Horse from Derbyshire. Other examples include the Kendricks Cave Decorated Horse Jaw, many of the finest examples were featured in the Ice Age Art, Arrival of the Modern Mind exhibition at the British Museum in 7 February –26 May 2013.
A cave at Turobong in South Korea containing human remains has found to contain carved deer bones. Petroglyphs of deer or reindeer found at Sokchang-ri may date to the Upper Paleolithic, potsherds in a style reminiscent of early Japanese work have been found at Kosan-ri on Jeju island, due to lower sea levels at the time, would have been accessible from Japan. The oldest African petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Mesolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, zimbabwes oldest art finds date to at least 10,000 years. The earliest undisputed African rock art dates back about 10,000 years, apparently originating in the Nile River valley and spread as far west as Mali
Venus of Laussel
The Venus of Laussel is an 18. 11-inch-high limestone bas-relief of a nude woman. It is painted with red ochre and was carved into the limestone of a shelter in the commune of Marquay. The carving is associated with the Gravettian Upper Paleolithic culture and it is currently displayed in the Musée dAquitaine in Bordeaux, France. The figure holds a horn, or possibly a cornucopia, in one hand. According to some researchers, this may symbolize the number of moons or the number of cycles in one year. She has her hand on her abdomen, with large breasts, there is a Y on her thigh and her faceless head is turned toward the horn. The figure was discovered in 1911 by Jean-Gaston Lalanne, a physician and it was carved into large block of limestone in a rock shelter at the commune of Marquay in the Dordogne department of south-western France. The limestone block fell off the wall of the shelter and it was brought to the Musée dAquitaine in Bordeaux, France. Art of the Upper Paleolithic List of Stone Age art Marshack, The Roots of Civilization, Moyer Bell Ltd, Mount Kisco, pictures of the Venus of Laussel and further reliefs from Laussel