He was awarded to the Chavelier of the Legion of Honour in 1871 and Official of the Legion of Honour in 1908.
He was awarded to the Chavelier of the Legion of Honour in 1871 and Official of the Legion of Honour in 1908.
1. Bourg-en-Bresse – Bourg-en-Bresse is a commune in eastern France, capital of the Ain department, and was capital of the ancient province of Bresse. It is located 70 km north-northeast of Lyon, the inhabitants of Bourg-en-Bresse are known as Burgiens. Bourg-en-Bresse is located at the base of the Jura mountains, on the left bank of the Reyssouze. It lies 70 kilometers northeast of Lyon and 50 kilometers south-southwest of Lons-le-Saunier, roman remains have been discovered at Bourg, but little is known of its early history. Raised to the rank of a town in 1250, it was at the beginning of the 15th century the capital of the dukes of Savoy in the province of Bresse. In February 1535 it was conquered by France during an invasion of Savoy, but was restored to Duke Philibert Emmanuel in 1559. The duke later built a citadel, which afterwards withstood a six-months siege by the soldiers of Henry IV during the Franco-Savoyard War of 1600–1601. The town was ceded to France in 1601. In 1814, the inhabitants, in spite of the condition of their town, offered resistance to the Austrians. The church of Notre-Dame has a built in the Renaissance. In the interior there are stalls of the 16th century, the other public buildings, including a handsome prefecture, are modern. The town hall contains a library and the Lorin Museum with a collection of pictures, while another museum has a collection of old costumes, among the statues in the town there is one of historian Edgar Quinet, a native of Bourg. The church of Brou, a suburb of Bourg-en-Bresse, is of artistic interest. Margaret of Bourbon, wife of Philip II of Savoy, had intended to found a monastery on the spot, the church was actually built early in the 16th century by her daughter-in-law Margaret of Austria, wife of Philibert le Beau of Savoy, in memory of her husband. The exterior, especially the façade, is ornamented, but the chief interest lies in the works of art in the interior. The most important are the three mausoleums with the effigies of Marguerite of Bourbon, Philibert le Beau, and Margaret of Austria. All three are remarkable for perfection of sculpture and richness of ornamentation, the rood loft, the oak stalls, and the reredos in the chapel of the Virgin are masterpieces in a similar style. The Gare de Bourg-en-Bresse railway station offers connections to Paris, Strasbourg, Lyon and Geneva by high-speed rail, the A39 motorway connects Bourg with Dole and Dijon, the A40 with Mâcon and Geneva
2. Military engineering – Military engineering is loosely defined as the art and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. Military engineers are responsible for logistics behind military tactics. Modern military engineering differs from civil engineering, in the 20th and 21st centuries, military engineering also includes other engineering disciplines such as mechanical and electrical engineering techniques. According to NATO, military engineering is that engineer activity undertaken, regardless of component or service, Military engineering does not encompass the activities undertaken by those engineers who maintain, repair and operate vehicles, vessels, aircraft, weapon systems and equipment. Military engineering is a subject taught in military academies or schools of military engineering. The construction and demolition tasks related to engineering are usually performed by military engineers including soldiers trained as sappers or pioneers. In modern armies, soldiers trained to perform such tasks while well forward in battle, the word engineer was initially used in the context of warfare, dating back to 1325 when engine’er referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, engine referred to a machine, i. e. A mechanical contraption used in war, in its place, the term military engineering has come to be used. Modern military engineering can be divided into three main tasks or fields, combat engineering, strategic support, and ancillary support, combat engineering is associated with engineering on the battlefield. Combat engineers are responsible for increasing mobility on the front lines of war such as digging trenches, strategic support is associated with providing service in communication zones such as the construction of airfields and the improvement and upgrade of ports, roads and railways communication. Ancillary support includes provision and distribution of maps as well as the disposal of unexploded warheads, Military engineers construct bases, airfields, roads, bridges, ports, and hospitals. During peacetime before modern warfare, military engineers took the role of civil engineers by participating in the construction of civil-works projects, nowadays, military engineers are almost entirely engaged in war logistics and preparedness. Combat engineers clear routes, repair airfields and harbours, bridge rivers all at top speed, the first civilization to have a dedicated force of military engineering specialists were the Romans, whose army contained a dedicated corps of military engineers known as architecti. This group was pre-eminent among its contemporaries, such military engineering feats would have been completely new, and probably bewildering and demoralizing, to the Gallic defenders. The best known of these Roman army engineers due to his writings surviving is Vitruvius, alexander the Great also used engineers in his army. In ancient times, military engineers were responsible for warfare and building field fortifications, temporary camps. The most notable engineers of ancient times were the Romans and Chinese, the Romans were responsible for constructing fortified wooden camps and paved roads for their legions
3. Aide-de-camp – An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state. This is not to be confused with an adjutant, who is the administrator of a military unit. The first aide-de-camp is typically the foremost personal aide, in some countries, the aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, and participates at ceremonial functions. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is usually the aiguillette, whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants, normally of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel. An aiguillette is worn on the shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position. In Belgium the title of Honorary Aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John dOultremont, generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one”. In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, the aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor, in 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, and his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. On the last day of British rule in Hong Kong on 30 June 1997 and he then gave the Vice Regal Salute before proceeding, with the Pattens, to leave Government House for the last time. Prince Charles is a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II, Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of admiral, major general. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a flag lieutenant, aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, and to certain other appointments. All aides-de-camp also wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed, aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor generals badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governors badge. They are appointed officers of the Canadian Forces. In certain instances, civilians may be appointed, non-uniformed civilians do not wear the aiguillette, but do wear their lieutenant governors badge as a symbol of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages wear the aiguillette on the right shoulder, aides-de-camp to all others wear their aiguillette on the left shoulder
4. Legion of Honour – The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Chevalier, Officier, Commandeur, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion also bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which also used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours, gifts, and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, officers, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, distinctions, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, however, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted. This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
5. Virtual International Authority File – The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
6. Integrated Authority File – The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format