1.
Plus and minus signs
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The plus and minus signs are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. Their use has extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. Plus and minus are Latin terms meaning more and less, respectively, though the signs now seem as familiar as the alphabet or the Hindu-Arabic numerals, they are not of great antiquity. In Europe in the early 15th century the letters P and M were generally used, the symbols appeared for the first time in Luca Pacioli’s mathematics compendium, Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalità, first printed and published in Venice in 1494. The + is a simplification of the Latin et, the − may be derived from a tilde written over m when used to indicate subtraction, or it may come from a shorthand version of the letter m itself. In his 1489 treatise Johannes Widmann referred to the symbols − and + as minus and mer, was − ist, das ist minus, und das + ist das mer. They werent used for addition and subtraction here, but to indicate surplus and deficit, the plus sign is a binary operator that indicates addition, as in 2 +3 =5. It can also serve as an operator that leaves its operand unchanged. This notation may be used when it is desired to emphasize the positiveness of a number, the plus sign can also indicate many other operations, depending on the mathematical system under consideration. Many algebraic structures have some operation which is called, or is equivalent to and it is conventional to use the plus sign to only denote commutative operations. Subtraction is the inverse of addition, directly in front of a number and when it is not a subtraction operator it means a negative number. For instance −5 is negative 5, a unary operator that acts as an instruction to replace the operand by its additive inverse. For example, if x is 3, then −x is −3, similarly, − is equal to 2. The above is a case of this. All three uses can be referred to as minus in everyday speech, further, some textbooks in the United States encourage −x to be read as the opposite of x or the additive inverse of x to avoid giving the impression that −x is necessarily negative. However, in programming languages and Microsoft Excel in particular, unary operators bind strongest, so in those cases −5^2 is 25. Some elementary teachers use raised plus and minus signs before numbers to show they are positive or negative numbers. For example, subtracting −5 from 3 might be read as positive three take away negative 5 and be shown as 3 − −5 becomes 3 +5 =8, in grading systems, the plus sign indicates a grade one level higher and the minus sign a grade lower

2.
Dash
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The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar to a hyphen or minus sign, but differs from both of these symbols primarily in length and function. Glitter, felt, yarn, and buttons—his kitchen looked as if a clown had exploded, a flock of sparrows—some of them juveniles—alighted and sang. The en dash indicates spans or differentiation, where it may be considered to replace and or to, The French and Indian War was fought in western Pennsylvania and along the present US–Canada border. —Mahatma Gandhi There are several forms of dash, of which the most common are, Less common are the dash and three-em dash. The figure dash is so named because it is the width as a digit. This is true of most fonts, not only monospaced fonts, the figure dash is used when a dash must be used within numbers. It does not indicate a range, for which the en dash is used, nor does it function as the minus sign, the figure dash is often unavailable, in this case, one may use a hyphen-minus instead. In Unicode, the dash is U+2012. HTML authors must use the numeric forms ‒, or ‒, to type it unless the file is in Unicode, there is no equivalent character entity. In TeX, the fonts have no figure dash, however. In XeLaTeX, one could use \char2012, the en dash, n dash, n-rule, or nut is traditionally half the width of an em dash. In modern fonts, the length of the en dash is not standardized, the widths of en and em dashes have also been specified as being equal to those of the upper-case letters N and M respectively, and at other times to the widths of the lower-case letters. This may include such as those between dates, times, or numbers. Various style guides restrict this range indication style to only parenthetical or tabular matter, for example, APA style uses an en dash in ranges, but AMA style uses a hyphen. Various style guides recommend that when a number range might be misconstrued as subtraction, the word to should be used instead of an en dash. For example, a voltage of 50 V to 100 V is preferable to using a voltage of 50–100 V. Relatedly, in ranges that include negative numbers, to is used to avoid ambiguity or awkwardness. It is also considered poor style to use the en dash in place of the words to or and in phrases that follow the forms from X to Y, the en dash can also be used to contrast values, or illustrate a relationship between two things. Examples of this include, Australia beat American Samoa 31–0

3.
Radical 1
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Radical 1 meaning one is 1 of 6 Kangxi radicals composed of 1 stroke. In the Kangxi Dictionary there are 42 characters to be found under this radical, radical 1, in this case known as 橫 héng horizontal, is one of the eight principles of the character 永 which are the basis of Chinese calligraphy. Chinese calligraphy, from pictograph to ideogram, the history of 214 essential Chinese/Japanese characters, tracing the Roots of Chinese Characters,500 Cases