In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single. Alkanes have the chemical formula CnH2n+2. The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane, CH4 where n =1, in an alkane, each carbon atom has 4 bonds, and each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms. The longest series of linked carbon atoms in a molecule is known as its skeleton or carbon backbone. The number of atoms may be thought of as the size of the alkane. One group of the alkanes are waxes, solids at standard ambient temperature and pressure. They can be viewed as molecular trees upon which can be hung the more functional groups of biological molecules. The alkanes have two main sources and natural gas. Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons having only single covalent bonds between their carbons, according to the definition by IUPAC, the former two are alkanes, whereas the third group is called cycloalkanes.
Saturated hydrocarbons can combine any of the linear and branching structures, the formula is CnH 2n−2k+2. Alkanes are the ones, corresponding to k =0. Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in different ways, forming structural isomers. The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches. This isomer is called the n-isomer. However the chain of atoms may be branched at one or more points. The number of possible isomers increases rapidly with the number of carbon atoms, for example, 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues are chiral due to their stereogenic center at carbon atom number 3. In addition to the alkane isomers, the chain of atoms may form one or more loops
An oil is any neutral, nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable. The general definition of oil includes classes of compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure, properties. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin and they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in religious ceremonies and rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, olive oil, oil. The earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek
In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance. That is, the name is not recognized according to the rules of any system of chemical nomenclature such as IUPAC inorganic or IUPAC organic nomenclature. A trivial name is not a name and is usually a common name. Generally, trivial names are not useful in describing the properties of the thing being named. Properties such as the structure of a chemical compound are not indicated. And, in cases, trivial names can be ambiguous or will carry different meanings in different industries or in different geographic regions. On the other hand, systematic names can be so convoluted, as a result, a limited number of trivial chemical names are retained names, an accepted part of the nomenclature. Trivial names often arise in the language, they may come from historic usages in, for example. Many trivial names pre-date the institution of formal naming conventions, all elements that have been isolated have trivial names. In scientific documents, international treaties and legal definitions and this need is satisfied by systematic names.
One such system, established by the International Union of Pure, other systems have been developed by the American Chemical Society, the International Organization for Standardization, and the World Health Organization. However, chemists still use names that are not systematic because they are traditional or because they are more convenient than the systematic names. The word trivial, often used in a sense, was intended to mean commonplace. In addition to names, chemists have constructed semi-trivial names by appending a standard symbol to a trivial stem. Some trivial and semi-trivial names are so used that they have been officially adopted by IUPAC. Traditional names of elements are trivial, some originating in alchemy, IUPAC has accepted these names, but has defined systematic names of elements that have not yet been prepared. It has adopted a procedure by which the scientists who are credited with preparing an element can propose a new name, once the IUPAC has accepted such a name, it replaces the systematic name.
Nine elements were known by the Middle Ages – gold, tin, copper, iron and carbon
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen, in organic chemistry and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion, called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxy group, according to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group. Water, carboxylic acids, and many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily and this behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of oxygen and hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, organic compounds, which are often poorly soluble in water, become water soluble when they contain two or more hydroxy groups, as illustrated by sugars and amino acid. The hydroxy group is pervasive in chemistry and biochemistry, many inorganic compounds contain hydroxy groups, including sulfuric acid, the chemical compound produced on the largest scale industrially.
Hydroxy groups participate in the reactions that link simple biological molecules into long chains. The joining of a fatty acid to glycerol to form a triacylglycerol removes the −OH from the end of the fatty acid. The joining of two aldehyde sugars to form a disaccharide removes the −OH from the group at the aldehyde end of one sugar. The creation of a bond to link two amino acids to make a protein removes the −OH from the carboxy group of one amino acid. Hydroxyl radicals are highly reactive and undergo chemical reactions that make them short-lived, when biological systems are exposed to hydroxyl radicals, they can cause damage to cells, including those in humans, where they react with DNA, and proteins. In 2009, Indias Chandrayaan-1 satellite, NASAs Cassini spacecraft and the Deep Impact probe have each detected the presence of water by evidence of hydroxyl fragments on the Moon. As reported by Richard Kerr, A spectrometer detected an infrared absorption at a wavelength of 3.0 micrometers that only water or hydroxyl—a hydrogen, NASA reported in 2009 that the LCROSS probe revealed an ultraviolet emission spectrum consistent with hydroxyl presence.
The Venus Express orbiter sent back Venus science data from April 2006 until December 2014, results from Venus Express include the detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere. Hydronium Ion Oxide Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson, Susan, Brandy, Logan
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry, for historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds, such as carbides, simple oxides of carbon, and cyanides are considered inorganic. The distinction between organic and inorganic compounds, while useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry. Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all aspects of organic compounds, Organic synthesis is the methodology of their preparation. The word organic is historical, dating to the 1st century, for many centuries, Western alchemists believed in vitalism. This is the theory that certain compounds could be synthesized only from their classical elements—earth, air, vitalism taught that these organic compounds were fundamentally different from the inorganic compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulation.
Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern atomic theory and it first came under question in 1824, when Friedrich Wöhler synthesized oxalic acid, a compound known to occur only in living organisms, from cyanogen. A more decisive experiment was Wöhlers 1828 synthesis of urea from the inorganic salts potassium cyanate, urea had long been considered an organic compound, as it was known to occur only in the urine of living organisms. Wöhlers experiments were followed by others, in which increasingly complex organic substances were produced from inorganic ones without the involvement of any living organism. Even though vitalism has been discredited, scientific nomenclature retains the distinction between organic and inorganic compounds, even the broadest definition requires excluding alloys that contain carbon, including steel. The C-H definition excludes compounds that are considered organic, neither urea nor oxalic acid is organic by this definition, yet they were two key compounds in the vitalism debate.
The IUPAC Blue Book on organic nomenclature specifically mentions urea and oxalic acid, other compounds lacking C-H bonds but traditionally considered organic include benzenehexol, mesoxalic acid, and carbon tetrachloride. Mellitic acid, which contains no C-H bonds, is considered an organic substance in Martian soil. The C-H bond-only rule leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon-fluorine compounds, for example, CF4 would be considered by this rule to be inorganic, whereas CF3H would be organic. Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways, one major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Another distinction, based on the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers, natural compounds refer to those that are produced by plants or animals. Many of these are extracted from natural sources because they would be more expensive to produce artificially
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen, at standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20. 8% of the Earths atmosphere, additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earths crust. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, oxygen is continuously replenished by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is too reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation, but ozone is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog.
At low earth orbit altitudes, sufficient atomic oxygen is present to cause corrosion of spacecraft, the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle, Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries Leonardo da Vinci built on Philos work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration, Oxygen was discovered by the Polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion, English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus.
From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion, Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract De respiratione. Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, which was the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, one part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. The fact that a substance like wood gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the combustion products
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, the name comes from the Greek πνίγειν to choke, directly referencing nitrogens asphyxiating properties. It is an element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2, dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earths atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids, in the nucleic acids, the human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen and hydrogen.
The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates, and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen, the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric, Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines. Nitrogen compounds have a long history, ammonium chloride having been known to Herodotus. They were well known by the Middle Ages, alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis, as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts.
The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia, celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold, the discovery of nitrogen is attributed to the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air. Though he did not recognise it as a different chemical substance, he clearly distinguished it from Joseph Blacks fixed air. The fact that there was a component of air that does not support combustion was clear to Rutherford, Nitrogen was studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as air or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός. In an atmosphere of nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the alcohol ethanol, the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names typically indicates that the substance includes a functional group and, so. But many substances, particularly sugars contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix, an important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members is the saturated straight chain alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. The word alcohol is from the Arabic kohl, a used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English, alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S3, hence the essence or spirit of this substance. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic, the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and narrowed to ethanol, when spirits as a synonym for hard liquor.
Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, Vigo wrote, the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre. The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium, by extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including alcohol of wine, the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum, Johnson glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat. The words meaning became restricted to spirit of wine in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as alcohols in modern chemistry after 1850, the term ethanol was invented 1892, based on combining the word ethane with ol the last part of alcohol. In the IUPAC system, in naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds ol, e. g. as in methanol and ethanol.
When necessary, the position of the group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the ol, propan-1-ol for CH 3CH 2CH 2OH, propan-2-ol for CH 3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present, the prefix hydroxy is used, in other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word alcohol, e. g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH, the simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RRCHOH, the simplest of which is 2-propanol, for the tertiary alcohols the general form is RRRCOH
Phenol, known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group and it is mildly acidic and requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause chemical burns. Phenol was first extracted from tar, but today is produced on a large scale from petroleum. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and it is primarily used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, Bakelite, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides. Phenol is appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL, homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide, is far more water-soluble and it reacts completely with aqueous NaOH to lose H+, whereas most alcohols react only partially.
One explanation for the increased acidity over alcohols is resonance stabilization of the anion by the aromatic ring. In this way, the charge on oxygen is delocalized on to the ortho. In another explanation, increased acidity is the result of orbital overlap between the lone pairs and the aromatic system. The pKa of the enol of acetone is 10.9, the acidities of phenol and acetone enol diverge in the gas phase owing to the effects of solvation. About 1⁄3 of the acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects. Phenolate esters are more stable toward hydrolysis than acid anhydrides and acyl halides but are sufficiently reactive under mild conditions to facilitate the formation of amide bonds, Phenol exhibits keto-enol tautomerism with its unstable keto tautomer cyclohexadienone, but only a tiny fraction of phenol exists as the keto form. The equilibrium constant for enolisation is approximately 10−13, meaning only one in every ten trillion molecules is in the keto form at any moment. The small amount of stabilisation gained by exchanging a C=C bond for a C=O bond is more than offset by the large destabilisation resulting from the loss of aromaticity, Phenol therefore exists essentially entirely in the enol form.
Phenoxides are enolates stabilised by aromaticity, under normal circumstances, phenoxide is more reactive at the oxygen position, but the oxygen position is a hard nucleophile whereas the alpha-carbon positions tend to be soft. Phenol is highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution as the oxygen atoms pi electrons donate electron density into the ring, by this general approach, many groups can be appended to the ring, via halogenation, acylation and other processes
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties, some synthetic compounds of similar structure are termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon and nitrogen, alkaloids may contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other such as chlorine, bromine. Alkaloids are produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria, plants. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction, many have found use in traditional or modern medicine, or as starting points for drug discovery. Other alkaloids possess psychotropic and stimulant activities, and have used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. Although alkaloids act on a diversity of systems in humans and other animals. The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut, Compounds like amino acid peptides, nucleotides, nucleic acid and antibiotics are usually not called alkaloids.
Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the position are usually classified as amines rather than as alkaloids. Some authors, consider alkaloids a special case of amines, the name alkaloids was introduced in 1819 by the German chemist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meißner, and is derived from late Latin root Latin and the suffix Greek, -οειδής – like. However, the term came into use only after the publication of a review article by Oscar Jacobsen in the chemical dictionary of Albert Ladenburg in the 1880s. There is no method of naming alkaloids. Many individual names are formed by adding the suffix ine to the species or genus name, for example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna, strychnine is obtained from the seed of Strychnine tree. If several alkaloids are extracted from one plant their names often contain suffixes idine, aline, inine etc. There are at least 86 alkaloids whose names contain the root vin because they are extracted from plants such as Vinca rosea. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic, for example, medicinal plants have been known in the Mesopotamia at least around 2000 BC.
The Odyssey of Homer referred to a given to Helen by the Egyptian queen. It is believed that the gift was an opium-containing drug, a Chinese book on houseplants written in 1st–3rd centuries BC mentioned a medical use of Ephedra and opium poppies
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon, and thus are group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one atom has been removed are functional groups. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons, the classifications for hydrocarbons, defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry are as follows, Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen, the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2, where r is the number of rings and those with exactly one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property, hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers.
As given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms and those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n and those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2, aromatic hydrocarbons, known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers, in terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, and thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system, lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturns largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations.
The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt, mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however easily liquefied, and exists in propane bottles mostly as a liquid, butane is so easily liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters
In chemistry, a ketone /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RCR, where R and R can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group and they are considered simple because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH. Many ketones are known and many are of importance in industry. Examples include many sugars and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone, the word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone. According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone, the position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, traditional names are still generally used. The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the group, followed by ketone as a separate word.
The names of the groups are written alphabetically. When the two groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being the adjacent to carbonyl group. If both alkyl groups in a ketone are the same the ketone is said to be symmetrical, although used infrequently, oxo is the IUPAC nomenclature for a ketone functional group. Other prefixes, are used, for some common chemicals, keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group. The term oxo is used widely through chemistry, for example, it refers to an oxygen atom bonded to a transition metal. The ketone carbon is often described as sp2 hybridized, a description that includes both their electronic and molecular structure, ketones are trigonal planar around the ketonic carbon, with C−C−O and C−C−C bond angles of approximately 120°. Ketones differ from aldehydes in that the group is bonded to two carbons within a carbon skeleton. In aldehydes, the carbonyl is bonded to one carbon and one hydrogen and are located at the ends of carbon chains, ketones are distinct from other carbonyl-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic acids and amides.
The carbonyl group is polar because the electronegativity of the oxygen is greater than that for carbon, ketones are nucleophilic at oxygen and electrophilic at carbon. Because the carbonyl group interacts with water by bonding, ketones are typically more soluble in water than the related methylene compounds