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List of phobias

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The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject (e.g. homophobia). The suffix is antonymic to -phil-.

For more information on the psychiatric side, including how psychiatry groups phobias such as agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, see phobia. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In some cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game, of notable example being a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News.[1] In some cases, a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym with the suffix -phil-, e.g. Germanophobe / Germanophile.

A large number of -phobia lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Also, a number of psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. Sometimes it leads to bizarre results, such as suggestions to cure "prostitute phobia".[2] Such practice is known as content spamming and is used to attract search engines.

An article published in 1897 in American Journal of Psychology noted "the absurd tendency to give Greek names to objects feared (which, as Arndt says, would give us such terms as klopsophobia – fear of thieves, triakaidekaphobia – fear of the number 13....".[3]

Psychological conditions

Specialists may prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms such as personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder.

Phobia name Description
Ablutophobia Fear of bathing, washing, or cleaning
Acousticophobia Fear of noise – a branch of phonophobia
Acrophobia Fear of heights
Aerophobia Fear of aircraft or flying
Agoraphobia Fear of open places
Agyrophobia Fear of crossing streets
Aichmophobia Fear of sharp or pointed objects (such as a needle or knife)
Ailurophobia Fear of cats
Algophobia Fear of pain
Androphobia Fear of adult men[4]
Anthropophobia Fear of people or the company of people, a form of social phobia
Aquaphobia Fear of water.[a]
Arachnophobia Fear of spiders and other arachnids
Astraphobia Fear of thunder and lightning
Autophobia Fear of isolation[5]
Aviophobia, aviatophobia Fear of aircraft or flying
Basophobia, basiphobia Fear associated with astasia-abasia (fear of walking/standing erect) and a fear of falling
Batrachophobia, ranidaphobia Fear of frogs and other amphibians
Blood-injection-injury type phobia A DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias
Chemophobia Fear of chemicals
Chiroptophobia Fear of bats
Chromophobia, chromatophobia Fear of colors
Chronophobia Fear of time and time moving forward
Cibophobia, sitophobia Aversion to food, synonymous to anorexia nervosa
Claustrophobia Fear of having no escape and being closed in
Coimetrophobia Fear of cemeteries
Colorphobia Fear or a strong aversion towards a particular color
Coprophobia Fear of feces or defecation[4]
Coulrophobia Fear of clowns (not restricted to evil clowns)
Cyberphobia Fear of or aversion to computers and the Internet; and of learning new technologies
Cynophobia Fear of dogs
Decidophobia Fear of making decisions
Demonophobia, daemonophobia Fear of demons
Dentophobia, odontophobia Fear of dentists and dental procedures
Dromophobia Fear of crossing streets
Dysmorphophobia or body dysmorphic disorder A phobic obsession with a real or imaginary body defect
Emetophobia Fear of vomiting
Enochlophobia Fear of crowds
Entomophobia Fear of insects
Equinophobia, hippophobia Fear/dislike of horses
Ergophobia, ergasiophobia Fear of work or functioning, or a surgeon's fear of operating
Erotophobia Fear of sexual love or sexual abuse
Erythrophobia, erytophobia, ereuthophobia Fear of the color red, or fear of blushing
Eurotophobia Aversion to female genitals
Frigophobia Fear of becoming too cold
Gamophobia Fear of cohabitation, marriage or nuptials
Gelotophobia Fear of being laughed at
Gephyrophobia Fear of bridges
Genophobia, coitophobia Fear of sexual intercourse
Gerascophobia Fear of growing old or aging
Globophobia Fear of balloons
Glossophobia Fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak
Gymnophobia Fear of nudity[6]
Gynophobia Fear of women
Halitophobia Fear of bad breath
Haphephobia Fear of being touched
Hedonophobia Fear of obtaining pleasure
Heliophobia Fear of the sun or sunlight
Hemophobia, haemophobia Fear of blood
Herpetophobia Fear of reptiles or amphibians
Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia Fear of the number 666
Hoplophobia Fear of firearms
Hypnophobia, somniphobia Fear of sleep[7]
Ichthyophobia Fear of fish, including fear of eating fish, or fear of dead fish
Koumpounophobia Fear of buttons[8]
Lilapsophobia Fear of tornadoes or hurricanes
Mageirocophobia Fear of cooking
Melanophobia Fear of the color black
Melissophobia, apiphobia Fear of bees
Monophobia Fear of being alone or isolated or of one's self
Mottephobia Fear of moths or butterflies[9][10]
Murophobia Fear of mice or rats
Musophobia, murophobia, suriphobia Fear of mice or rats
Myrmecophobia Fear of ants
Mysophobia Fear of germs, contamination or dirt
Necrophobia Fear of death or the dead
Neophobia[b] Fear of newness, novelty, change or progress
Nomophobia Fear of being out of mobile phone contact
Nosocomephobia Fear of hospitals
Nosophobia Fear of contracting a disease
Nostophobia, ecophobia Fear of returning home
Numerophobia Fear of numbers
Nyctophobia[c] Fear of darkness
Oikophobia Fear of home surroundings and household appliances
Oneirophobia Fear of dreams
Ophidiophobia Fear of snakes
Ophthalmophobia Fear of being stared at
Ornithophobia Fear of birds
Osmophobia, olfactophobia Fear of odors
Panphobia Fear of everything or constant fear of an unknown cause
Phagophobia Fear of swallowing
Phallophobia Fear of erections
Pharmacophobia Fear of medications
Phasmophobia Fear of ghosts or phantoms
Philophobia Fear of love
Phobophobia Fear of fear itself or of having a phobia
Phonophobia Fear of loud sounds or voices
Pogonophobia Fear of beards
Pornophobia Dislike or fear of pornography; may be used in reference to the opposition to visual nudity
Pyrophobia Fear of fire
Radiophobia Fear of radioactivity or X-rays
Scoleciphobia Fear of worms
Scopophobia Fear of being looked at or stared at
Sexophobia Fear of sexual organs or sexual activities
Siderodromophobia Fear of trains or railroads
Sociophobia Fear of people or social situations
Spectrophobia Fear of mirrors
Stasiphobia Fear of standing or walking
Taphophobia, taphephobia Fear of the grave, or fear of being placed in a grave while still alive
Technophobia Fear of advanced technology (see also Luddite)
Telephone phobia Fear or reluctance of making or taking telephone calls
Teratophobia Fear of disfigured people
Tetraphobia Fear of the number 4
Thalassophobia Fear of the sea, or fear of being in the ocean
Thanatophobia Fear of dying
Tokophobia Fear of childbirth or pregnancy
Tomophobia Fear of invasive medical procedure[11]
Toxiphobia Fear of being poisoned
Traumatophobia A synonym for injury phobia: fear of having an injury
Trichophobia Fear of something in hair follicles that stops it from growing,[12] or fear of hair loss
Triskaidekaphobia, terdekaphobia Fear of the number 13
Trypanophobia, belonephobia, enetophobia Fear of needles or injections
Trypophobia Fear of holes or textures with a pattern of holes[13]
Workplace phobia Fear of the workplace
Xanthophobia Fear of the color yellow
Zoophobia Fear of animals

Non-psychological conditions

Phobia name Description
Bibliophobia Fear or hatred of books, as a cultural phenomenon[14]
Hoplophobia A political term for fear of weapons, specifically firearms
Lipophobia Avoidance of fats in food[15][16][17] (see also Lipophobicity)
Osmophobia Hypersensitivity to smells causing aversion to odors
Phonophobia Hypersensitivity to sound causing aversion to sounds
Photophobia Hypersensitivity to light causing aversion to light

Biology and chemistry

Biologists use a number of -phobia/-phobic terms to describe predispositions by plants and animals against certain conditions. For antonyms, see here.

Phobia name Description
Acidophobia/Acidophobic Preference for non-acidic conditions
Heliophobia/Heliophobic Aversion to sunlight
Hydrophobia/Hydrophobic A property of being repelled by water
Lipophobicity A property of fat rejection (sometimes also called lipophobia)
Oleophobicity A property of oil rejection
Photophobia A negative phototaxis or phototropism response, or a tendency to stay out of the light
Superhydrophobe A property given to materials that are extremely difficult to get wet
Thermophobia Aversion to heat

Prejudices and discrimination

The suffix -phobia is used to coin terms that denote a particular anti-ethnic or anti-demographic sentiment, such as Americanophobia, Europhobia, Francophobia, Hispanophobia, and Indophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists (e.g. Polonophobia vs. anti-Polonism). Anti-religious sentiments are expressed in terms such as Christianophobia and Islamophobia. Prejudices described as -phobia also extend to other groups of people for sexual orientation or age group.

Phobia name Description
Albanophobia Fear/dislike of Albanians
Americanophobia Fear/disike of Americans
Anglophobia Fear/dislike of England or English culture
Biphobia Fear/dislike of bisexuality or bisexuals
Christianophobia Fear/dislike of Christians
Ephebiphobia Fear/dislike of youth
Europhobia Fear/dislike of Europeans or European culture
Francophobia Fear/dislike of French people or other French culture
Germanophobia Fear/dislike of Germans
Gerontophobia, gerascophobia Fear/dislike of the elderly or of growing old
Heterophobia Fear/dislike of heterosexuals
Hinduphobia Fear/dislike of Hindus
Hispanophobia Fear/dislike of Hispanic people, Hispanic culture and the Spanish language
Homophobia Fear/dislike of homosexuality, homosexuals, or gays (as opposed to lesbians)
Indophobia Fear/dislike of India or Indian culture
Islamophobia Fear/dislike of Muslims
Judeophobia Fear/dislike of Jews
Lesbophobia Fear/dislike of lesbians
Lusophobia Fear/dislike of the Portuguese, Portuguese culture and the Portuguese language
Nipponophobia Fear/dislike of the Japanese
Koryophobia Fear/dislike of the Koreans
Pedophobia, paedophobia or pediaphobia Fear/dislike of babies and children
Polonophobia Fear/dislike of the Polish
Psychophobia Fear/dislike of mental illness or the mentally ill
Russophobia Fear/dislike of Russians
Shiaphobia Fear/dislike of Shiites
Sinophobia Fear/dislike of Chinese people
Sunniphobia Fear/dislike of Sunnis
Transphobia Fear/dislike of transgender people
Turcophobia Fear/dislike of Turks
Vegaphobia Fear/dislike of vegetarian or vegan people
Xenophobia Fear/dislike of foreigners

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Distinct from hydrophobia, a scientific property that makes chemicals averse to interaction with water, as well as an archaic name for rabies.
  2. ^ Neophobia can alternatively be described as cainophobia, cainotophobia, centophobia, kainolophobia, kainophobia, metathesiophobia and prosophobia.
  3. ^ Nyctophobia can alternatively be described as achluophobia, lygophobia and scotophobia.

References

  1. ^ The A–Z of Fear, a 30 October 1998 BBC News unsigned article in the "Entertainment" section
  2. ^ "Content Spammers Help You Overcome Prostitute Phobia". Webpronews.com. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Hall, G. Stanley (1897). "A Study of Fears". American Journal of Psychology. University of Illinois Press. 8 (2): 157. doi:10.2307/1410940. JSTOR 1410940. 
  4. ^ a b Robert Jean Campbell (2009). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–. ISBN 978-0-19-534159-1. 
  5. ^ Gould, Dr. George Milbry (1910). The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blackiston's Son & Co. p. 100. 
  6. ^ Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 9781135825096. 
  7. ^ Dunglison, Robert; Dunglison, Richard James (1895). Richard James Dunglison, ed. A dictionary of medical science: containing a full explanation of the various subjects and terms of anatomy, physiology, ... (21 ed.). Lea Brothers & Co. 
  8. ^ Russell, Julia; Lintern, Fiona; Gauntlett, Lizzie (2016-09-01). Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology Coursebook. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9781316605691. Retrieved 2 March 2017. 
  9. ^ Kupfer, M.D., David; Lewis, David. Oxford American Handbook of Psychiatry. OUP USA. ISBN 9780195308846. 
  10. ^ "AR Based Environment for Exposure Therapy to Mottephobia"
  11. ^ Schmid, Markus; Wolf, Robert C; Freudenmann, Roland W; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos (2009-11-18). "Tomophobia, the phobic fear caused by an invasive medical procedure - an emerging anxiety disorder: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports. 3: 131. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-131. ISSN 1752-1947. PMC 2803803Freely accessible. PMID 20062769. 
  12. ^ Basavaraj, K. H.; Navya, M. A; Rashmi, R. (2010). "Relevance of psychiatry in dermatology: Present concepts". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (3): 270–275. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.70992. ISSN 0019-5545. PMC 2990831Freely accessible. PMID 21180416. 
  13. ^ Thomas, Gregory (15 October 2012). "Do holes make you queasy or even fearful". The Daily Herald. Arlington, IL. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Jackson, Holbrook (1932). The Fear of Books. University of Illinois. ISBN 978-0-252-07040-2. 
  15. ^ Fischler, C. "From lipophilia to lipophobia. Changing attitudes and behaviors towards fat: a socio-historical approach", in: Dietary fats determinants of preference, selection, and consumption / edited by DJ Mela. London : New York : Elsevier Applied Science, c1992. p. 103-115.
  16. ^ Askegaard, S. Ostberg, J. "Consumers' Experience of Lipophobia: A Swedish Study", Advances in Consume Research, 2003, vol. 30, p. 161
  17. ^ Askegaard, Søren, Holt, Douglas B. Jensen, Anne F. "Lipophobia: A Transatlantic Concept?" Advances in Consume Research, 1999, vol. 26, issue 1 p. 331-336.

Further reading

  • Aldrich, C. (2 December 2002). The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing. pp. 224–236. ISBN 1-55369-886-X. 

External links