Psychic TV or PTV, is an English experimental video art and music group, formed by performance artist Genesis P-Orridge and video director Peter Christopherson after the break-up of Throbbing Gristle. Psychic TV is signed to Some Bizzare Label working along with Alex Fergusson, the band began publishing a monthly series of 23 live albums in 1986, but stopped without explanation after only 17. The tenth, a picture disk most commonly referred to as Album 10, the band subsequently earned an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records for most records released in one year. Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, was formed as an organisation at the time as the band. T. O. P. Y. was intended to be an order and the philosophical wing of Psychic TV. Psychic TV released early albums of acid house music in as fake compilations, such as Jack The Tab, after breaking up in 1999, Psychic TV reformed as PTV3 with a new line-up in 2003. Since Genesis P-Orridge primarily wrote the lyrics instead of the music and this accounts for the changing musical nature of PTV.
Thus the history of Psychic TV can be broken up into the periods of the main songwriter that was working them at the time. Psychic TV was formed with the membership of Genesis P-Orridge. Peter Christopherson got involved in 1982 and claimed that the TV component of the name was intended to focus on the elements of the outfit. P-Orridge once claimed that Psychic TV is a group who does music unlike a music group which makes music videos. Similarities can be seen in the artwork for Alternative TV and early Psychic TV releases, john Balance – foreshadowing the pairs work as Coil. Marc Almond contributed his vocals and this led to an intended series of 23 live show recordings being released, which dominated most of Psychic TVs output until 1988. In the event only 17 were released, towards the end of this period Fergusson/P-Orridge completed their third proper studio album Allegory and Self, Thee Starlit Mire. It was at point that P-Orridge became interested in acid house. Alex Fergusson left and was replaced with techno artist Fred Giannelli, the idea behind this was to release compilations of these imaginary artists, creating a sense that a healthy acid house scene existed in the UK.
From 88–90 PTV was very stable as a unit and did more gigs. A long tour of the USA and UK in 1988, Europe in 1989, in 1990, Psychic TV released the song I. C
Electro is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines, and funk. This is the distinction between electro and previously prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented, following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk, Planet Rock was followed that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, the early 1980s were electros mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke.
A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007, Electro has branched out into subgenres, including Electrocore and Skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland. From its inception, one of the characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines, particularly the Roland TR-808. As the genre evolved and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music and it is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres. Classic electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats, with a kick drum. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats is that electro tends to be mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel. The definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the uses of the term. The Roland TR-808 drum machine hit the market in 1980, defining early electro with its immediately recognizable sound, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro, almost exclusively provided by the TR-808.
As an inexpensive way of producing a sound, the TR-808 caught on quickly with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies. This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was especially appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs and its unique percussion sounds like handclaps and closed high-hat and cowbell became integral to the electro sound. A number of songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye’s “Sexual Healing, ” Cybotron’s “Clear, ” and Afrika Bambaataa’s “Planet Rock. ”The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status. Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro, most electro is instrumental, but a common element is vocals processed through a vocoder. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock, although primarily instrumental, early electro utilized rap
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes relevant to life in American late capitalist society, pioneering producer Juan Atkins cites Tofflers phrase techno rebels as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create. This unique blend of influences aligns techno with the referred to as afrofuturism. To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is often a central preoccupation, in this manner, techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness. Stylistically, techno is generally repetitive instrumental music, oftentimes produced for use in a continuous DJ set, the tempo tends to vary between approximately 120 to 150 beats per minute, depending on the style of techno.
The creative use of production technology, such as drum machines, synthesizers. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound, drum machines from the 1980s such as Rolands TR-808 and TR-909 are highly prized, and software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers. The Electrifying Mojo was the first radio DJ to play music by the Detroit techno producers Juan Atkins, Derrick May, Mojo refused to follow pre-established radio formats or playlists, and he promoted social and cultural awareness of the African American community. In exploring technos origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains that Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones, the authentic, the origin, the real. Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder, particularly Moroders work with Donna Summer. Atkins mentions that around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, and Id ride around in my car playing it.
Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were clean, Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that it was just classy and clean, and to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty, everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, and so we were attracted to this music. May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesizer tradition and he identified Japanese synthpop act Yellow Magic Orchestra, particularly member Ryuichi Sakamoto, and British band Ultravox, as influences, along with Kraftwerk. In 1980 or 1981 they met with Mojo and proposed that they provide mixes for his show, which they did end up doing the following year. These young promoters developed and nurtured the local music scene by both catering to the tastes of the local audience of young people and by marketing parties with new DJs
Robert Anton Wilson
Robert Anton Wilson was an American author, essayist, playwright, poet and self-described agnostic mystic. Recognized as an Episkopos and saint of Discordianism, Wilson helped publicize the group through his writings and his goal being to try to get people into a state of generalized agnosticism, not agnosticism about God alone but agnosticism about everything. He suffered from polio as a child, and found generally effective treatment with the Kenny Method which the American Medical Association repudiated at that time, science fiction and Alfred Korzybskis interdisciplinary theory of general semantics. He would recall that the family was living so well, compared to the Depression during this period that I imagined we were lace-curtain Irish at last. Following his graduation in 1950, Wilson was employed in a succession of jobs, after smoking marijuana for nearly a decade, he first experimented with mescaline in Yellow Springs, Ohio on December 28,1961. Wilson began to work as a freelance journalist and advertising copywriter in the late 1950s, according to Wilson, Playboy paid me a higher salary than any other magazine at which I had worked and never expected me to become a conformist or sell my soul in return.
I enjoyed my years in the Bunny Empire, I only resigned when I reached 40 and felt I could not live with myself if I didnt make an effort to write full-time at last. Along with frequent collaborator Robert Shea, Wilson edited the magazines Playboy Forum advice column and Allen Ginsberg, and lectured at the Free University of New York on Anarchist and Synergetic Politics in 1965. He received a B. A. M. A. and Ph. D. in psychology from Paideia University, Wilson reworked his dissertation, and it found publication in 1983 as Prometheus Rising. Wilson married freelance writer and poet Arlen Riley in 1958 and they had four children, including Christiana Wilson Pearson and Patricia Luna Wilson. Luna was beaten to death in an apparent robbery in the store where she worked in 1976 at the age of 15, Arlen Riley Wilson died in 1999 following a series of strokes. Among Wilsons 35 books, and many works, perhaps his best-known volumes remain the cult classic series The Illuminatus. Trilogy, co-authored with fellow Playboy editor Robert Shea.
P, lovecraft and author and occultist Aleister Crowley, and American paranoia about conspiracies and conspiracy theories. The book was intended to poke fun at the frame of mind. Wilson and Shea derived much of the material from letters sent to Playboy magazine while they worked as the editors of its Forum. The books mixed true information with imaginative fiction to engage the reader in what Wilson called guerrilla ontology, the trilogy outlined a set of libertarian and anarchist axioms known as Celines Laws, concepts Wilson revisited several times in other writings. Among the many subplots of Illuminatus, popularized Discordianism and the use of the term fnord. It incorporates experimental prose styles influenced by such as William S. Burroughs, James Joyce
Pablo Picasso first publicly utilized the idea when he pasted a printed image of chair caning onto his painting titled Still Life with Chair Caning. The most famous example is Fountain, a standard urinal purchased from a store and displayed on a pedestal. Found objects derive their identity as art from the designation placed upon them by the artist and this may be indicated by either its anonymous wear and tear or by its recognizability as a consumer icon. The context into which it is placed is a relevant factor. The idea of dignifying commonplace objects in this way was originally a challenge to the accepted distinction between what was considered art as opposed to not art. In this sense the artist gives the time and a stage to contemplate an object. Appreciation of found objects in this way can prompt philosophical reflection in the observer, there is usually some degree of modification of the found object, although not always to the extent that it cannot be recognized, as is the case with ready-mades.
Marcel Duchamp coined the term ready-made in 1915 to describe an object that had been selected. Duchamp assembled Bicycle Wheel in 1913 by attaching a common front wheel and this was not long after his Nude Descending a Staircase was attracting the attention of critics at the International Exhibition of Modern Art. In 1917, Fountain, a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, in the same year, Duchamp indicated in a letter to his sister, Suzanne Duchamp, that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work. As he writes, One of my friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture. Irene Gammel argues that the piece is more in line with the aesthetics of Duchamps friend. Research by Rhonda Roland Shearer indicates that Duchamp may have fabricated his found objects, exhaustive research of mundane items like snow shovels and bottle racks in use at the time failed to reveal identical matches. The urinal, upon inspection, is non-functional.
However, there are accounts of Walter Arensberg and Joseph Stella being with Duchamp when he purchased the original Fountain at J. L. Mott Iron Works. The use of objects was quickly taken up by the Dada movement, being used by Man Ray. A well-known work by Man Ray is Gift, which is an iron with nails sticking out from its flat underside, jose De Creeft began making large-scale assemblages in Paris, such as Picador, made of scrap metal and other materials. The combination of found objects is a type of ready-made sometimes known as an assemblage
Andy Warhol was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in galleries in the late 1950s. He promoted a collection of known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with coining the widely used expression 15 minutes of fame. In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the rock band The Velvet Underground. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism and he is notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. Warhol has been the subject of retrospective exhibitions, books. The Andy Warhol Museum in his city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable, the highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash, his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold.
A2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the bellwether of the art market, Warhol was born on August 6,1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was the child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Mikó, located in todays northeastern Slovakia, Warhols father emigrated to the United States in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhols grandparents. Warhols father worked in a coal mine, the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was Byzantine Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church, Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated, Ján was born in Pittsburgh. Pavols son, James Warhola, became a childrens book illustrator. He became a hypochondriac, developing a fear of hospitals and doctors, often bedridden as a child, he became an outcast at school and bonded with his mother.
At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio, Warhol described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident, as a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art presented a challenge to traditions of art by including imagery from popular culture such as advertising. In pop art, material is sometimes removed from its known context, isolated. Pop art employs aspects of culture, such as advertising, comic books. One of its aims is to use images of popular culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture and it is associated with the artists use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. Pop art is interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada, Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art often takes imagery that is currently in use in advertising, product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbells Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol.
Even the labeling on the outside of a box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art. The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain, in the United States, pop art was a response by artists, it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational art. They used impersonal, mundane reality and parody to defuse the personal symbolism, in the U. S. some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony, early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Similarly, pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism, among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, and Kurt Schwitters. During the 1920s, American artists Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery, the Independent Group, founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement.
They were a gathering of young painters, architects and their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology. This material of found objects such as advertising, comic characters, magazine covers. One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzis I was a Rich Mans Plaything, following Paolozzis seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused primarily on the imagery of American popular culture, particularly mass advertising. Nevertheless, Alloway was one of the critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts
A synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones. Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano, Hammond organ, vocals, natural sounds like ocean waves, etc. or generate new electronic timbres. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals, synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the 1970s, synths were used in disco, especially in the late 1970s, in the 1980s, the invention of the relatively inexpensive, mass market Yamaha DX7 synth made synthesizers widely available. 1980s pop and dance music often made use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in genres of pop, rock. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer, the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments.
One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray. He accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit and this musical telegraph used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a diaphragm in a magnetic field. This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy, though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897, Thaddeus Cahill invented the Teleharmonium, which used dynamos, and was capable of additive synthesis like the Hammond organ, Cahills business was unsuccessful for various reasons, and similar but more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs. In 1906, American engineer, Lee De Forest ushered in the electronics age and he invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, called the Audion tube.
This led to new entertainment technologies, including radio and sound films, ondes Martenot and Trautonium were continuously developed for several decades, finally developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, in 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. The earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in Germany and the United States, during the three years that Hammond manufactured this model,1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers
Montreal, officially Montréal, is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie, or City of Mary, it is believed to be named after Mount Royal, the city has a distinct four-season continental climate, with warm-to-hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016, Montreal had a population of 1,704,694, Montreals metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,958,257 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included. Legally a French-speaking city,60. 5% of Montrealers speak French at home,21. 2% speak English and 19. 8% speak neither, Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 56% of the population able to speak both official languages. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world after Paris, historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.
It remains an important centre of commerce, finance, technology, education, tourism, film, Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design. In 2009, Montreal was named North Americas leading host city for international events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress. According to the 2015 Global Liveability Ranking by the Economist Intelligence Unit, in the 2017 edition of their Best Student Cities ranking, Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Montreal as the worlds best city to study abroad. Also, Montreal has 11 universities with 170,000 students enrolled, the Greater Montréal region has the highest number of university students per capita among all metropolitan areas in North America. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics, the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In 2012, Montreal was ranked as a Beta+ world city, in Kanien’kéha, or Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te.
In Anishinaabemowin, or Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang, though the city was first named by French colonizers Ville Marie, or City of Mary, its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The most popular theory is that the name derives from Mont Réal, Cartiers 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, according to the Commission de toponymie du Québec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, Canadian place names have only one official form. Thus, Montreal is officially spelled with an accent over the e in both English and French. In practice, this is limited to governmental uses. English-speaking Montrealers, including English-language media, regularly omit the accent when writing in English, archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD1000, they had started to cultivate maize, within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.
Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at locations in the valley since at least the 14th century
Field recording is the term used for an audio recording produced outside a recording studio, and the term applies to recordings of both natural and human-produced sounds. Field recording of sounds, called phonography, was originally developed as a documentary adjunct to research work in the field. With the introduction of high-quality, portable recording equipment, it has become an evocative artform in itself. In the 1970s, both processed and natural phonographic recordings, became popular, for this reason, field recordists have favoured high-quality recorders and microphone pre-amplifiers. The history of the equipment used in this area closely tracks the development of portable audio recording technology. Field recording is typically recorded in the same format as the desired result, for instance. In contrast, a remote recording captures many microphones on multiple channels, to be creatively modified, augmented. Field recording experienced an increase in popularity during the early 1960s, with the introduction of high-quality.
The arrival of the DAT in the 1980s introduced a new level of recording fidelity with extended frequency response. In addition to these technologies, other means for field recording have included the analog cassette, the DCC. The latest generation of recorders are completely digital-based and it is possible to use personal electronic devices, with software, to do field recording and editing. Newly developed techniques include the placement of microphones, the diffusion of captured sounds. Field recording was originally a way to document oral presentations, field recording is an important tool in bioacoustics and biomusicology, most commonly in research on bird song. Animals in the wild can display very different vocalizations from those in captivity, the use of field recordings in avant-garde, musique concrète, and, more recently, Ambient music was evident almost from the birth of recording technology. Field recordings are now a source material for a range of musical results, from contemporary musique concrète compositions to film soundtracks, video game soundtracks.
The sounds recorded by any device, and transferred to digital format, are used by musicians through their performance with MIDI-interfaced instruments. A contemporary artist with great success for his compositions is Christian Fennesz, earlier innovators who are noted for the importance and boldness of their projects are Luigi Russolo, who, in 1913, with his manifesto, Larte dei rumori, gave musical value to environmental noise. He designed and built the Intonarumori—the first instruments for making noise, francesco Balilla Pratella utilized the Intonarumori in his opera, Laviatore Dro, which was written in close collaboration with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer. Burroughs was a figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories, five books have been published of his interviews and correspondences. He collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians and he was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. He was born into a family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence, but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties and he left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, and anthropology as a postgraduate, and attended medical school in Vienna. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy.
In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, J. G. Burroughs had one child, William S. Burroughs, Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering an attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee. His was a prominent family of English ancestry in St. Louis and his grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughss mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee and his maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran an antique and gift shop, Cobblestone Gardens, first in St. Louis, in Palm Beach, as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Ave. in St. Louiss Central West End. He attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay and he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, which was stressful for him.
The school was a school for the wealthy, where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens. Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy, according to his own account, he destroyed these later, ashamed of their content. He became a well-known homosexual writer after the publication of Naked Lunch in 1959, some say that he was expelled from Los Alamos after taking chloral hydrate in Santa Fe with a fellow student. Yet, according to his own account, he left voluntarily, Burroughs finished high school at Taylor School in Clayton, and in 1932, left home to pursue an arts degree at Harvard University, where he was affiliated with Adams House
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music