.17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire, commonly known as the.17 HMR, is a rimfire rifle cartridge developed by the ammunition company Hornady in 2002. It descended from the.22 Magnum by necking down the.22 Magnum case to take a.17 caliber projectile, commonly loaded with a 17 grain projectile, it can deliver muzzle velocities in excess of 775 m/s. The.17 HMR round is similar to rounds developed by dedicated rimfire wildcatters who worked to create a cartridge with an exceptionally flat trajectory. With 5mm diameter barrels and bullets being virtually unavailable at the time, the commercially available.17 caliber became their bullet of choice. The.22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire was the parent case, rather than 5mm RMR, because it was commonly available. The.17 caliber wildcats not only met, but far exceeded the 5 mm RMRs velocities, the accuracy of these cartridges was quite good. However, the energy of the 5mm RMR is superior to both.22 WMR and.17 HMR, so there is still potential in the 5mm rimfire for wildcatters.
Hornady, in conjunction with Marlin Firearms and Sturm, with the.22 WMR case as the starting point, a simple barrel change was sufficient for most.22 WMR firearms to chamber the new cartridge. In 2002 the first rifles and ammunition began appearing on the market, while the ammunition was relatively expensive due to the high-performance.17 caliber bullets used, it was still cheaper than most centerfire ammunition. By 2004 CCI, Federal Cartridge and Remington had each introduced.17 HMR ammunition offerings. Cartridges for.17 HMR come with bullets that weigh 15. 5-grain, 17-grain, and 20-grain, and come in such as polymer tipped, hollow points, soft points. A growing number of companies offer.17 HMR ammunition, CCI Ammunition loads all of the.17 HMR ammunition for the CCI, Federal Cartridge and Remington brands. However, the ammunition is loaded with different bullets to different specifications, Ammunition is available from Winchester, PMC and Sellier & Bellot. Citing safety concerns about the use in semi-automatic firearms, Remington issued a product safety warning.
Higher velocity, 2350-2550fps compared to the popular ≈1255fps. 22LR High Velocity, Flatter trajectory Longer range As the round is faster there is less chance of ricochet due to bullet break up at shorter ranges More expensive. Overly destructive at close range for small game, faster flight, 2350-2550fps compared to the Hornady 2200fps 22Wmr 30gr rounds Flatter trajectory Longer range. The.17 HM2 is based on the.22 LR case necked down to.17 caliber using the bullet as the HMR. 4 mm caliber Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 4. 5×26mm MKR Varmint Als Field Testing the.17 HMR
In firearm ballistics, the primer is a component of pistol and shotgun rounds. Early primers were simply the same black powder used to fire the weapon and this external powder was connected though a tube in the barrel that led to the main charge. As powder wont burn when wet, this led to difficulty, or even the inability, modern primers are shock sensitive chemicals. In smaller weapons the primer is usually integrated into the rear of a cartridge, in larger weapons like cannon the primer is a separate component placed inside the barrel to the rear of the main propellant charge. The first step to firing a firearm of any sort is igniting the propellant, the earliest firearms were cannons, which were simple closed tubes. There was an aperture, the touchhole, drilled in the closed end of the tube. This hole was filled with finely ground powder, which was ignited with a hot ember or torch. With the advent of firearms, this became an undesirable way of firing a gun. The first attempt to make the process of firing a small arm easier was the matchlock, the matchlock incorporated a lock that was actuated by a trigger, originally called a tricker.
The lock was a lever which pivoted when pulled. The match was a burning fuse made of plant fibers that were soaked in a solution of nitrates and sulfur. This slow-match was ignited before the gun was needed, and it would slowly burn, after the gun was loaded and the touchhole primed with powder, the burning tip of the match was positioned so that the lock would bring it into contact with the touchhole. To fire the gun, it was aimed and the trigger pulled and this brought the match down to the touchhole, igniting the powder. With careful attention the slow-burning match could be burning for long periods of time. The next revolution in technology was the wheel-lock. It used a spring-loaded, serrated steel wheel which rubbed against a piece of iron pyrite, a key was used to wind the wheel and put the spring under tension. Once tensioned, the wheel was held in place by a trigger, when the trigger was pulled, the serrated edge of the steel rubbed against the pyrite, generating sparks. These sparks were directed into a pan, called the flash pan, the flashpan usually was protected by a spring-loaded cover that would slide out of the way when the trigger was pulled, exposing the powder to the sparks
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves. It is called rimfire because the pin of a gun strikes and crushes the bases rim to ignite the primer. Once the rim of the cartridge has been struck and the bullet discharged, while many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today in significant use. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845 and his cartridge consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top and the idea was to improve the safety of indoor shooting. In English-speaking countries, the Flobert cartridge corresponds to.22 BB, Rimfire cartridges are limited to low pressures because they require a thin case so that the firing pin can crush the rim and ignite the primer. Rimfire cartridges of.44 caliber up to.56 caliber were once common when black powder was used as a propellant, modern rimfire cartridges use smokeless powder which generates much higher pressures and tend to be of.22 caliber or smaller.
Rimfire cartridges are typically inexpensive, primarily due to the inherent cost-efficiency of the ability to manufacture the cartridges in large lots, the price of metals used in the cartridges increased in 2002, the prices of the ammunition further increased in 2012 possibly due to hoarding. The idea of placing a priming compound in the rim of the cartridge evolved from an 1831 patent, by 1845, this had evolved into the Flobert.22 BB Cap, in which the priming compound is distributed just inside the rim. The.22 BB Cap is essentially just a percussion cap with a round ball pressed in the front, intended for use in an indoor gallery target rifle, it used no gunpowder, but relied entirely on the priming compound for propulsion. Its velocities were very low, comparable to an airgun, the next rimfire cartridge was the.22 Short, developed for Smith & Wessons first revolver, in 1857, it used a longer rimfire case and 4 grains of black powder to fire a conical bullet. This led to the.22 Long, with the bullet weight as the short.
This was followed by the.22 Extra Long with a longer than the.22 Long. The.22 Long Rifle is a.22 Long case loaded with the heavier Extra Long bullet intended for performance in the long barrel of a rifle. Larger rimfire calibers were used during the American Civil War in the Henry Repeater, the Spencer Repeater, the Ballard rifle and the Frank Wesson carbine. The early 21st century has seen a revival in interest in rimfire cartridges, a new and increasingly popular rimfire, the 17 HMR is based on a.22 WMR casing with a smaller formed neck which accepts a.17 bullet. The advantages of the 17 HMR over.22 WMR and other rimfire cartridges are its much flatter trajectory, the.17 HM2 is based on the.22 Long Rifle and offers similar performance advantages over its parent cartridge, at a significantly higher cost. While.17 HM2 sells for about four times the cost of.22 Long Rifle ammunition, it is significantly cheaper than most centerfire ammunition. A notable rimfire cartridge that is still in production in Europe and this cartridge can fire a small ball, but is primarily loaded with a small amount of shot, and used in smoothbore guns as a miniature shotgun, or garden gun
.22 Long Rifle
The.22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge is a long-established variety of ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common in the world today. The cartridge is often referred to simply as.22 LR and various rifles, pistols and even some smoothbore shotguns have been manufactured in this caliber. American firearms manufacturer J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company introduced the cartridge in 1887 by combining the casing of the.22 Long with the 40-grain bullet of the.22 Extra Long. The round owes its origin to the Flobert BB cap of 1845 through the.22 Smith & Wesson cartridge of 1857 and it is one of the few cartridges that are accepted by a large variety of rifles, as well as pistols. The.22 Long Rifle and related cartridges use a bullet, which means that the bullet is the same diameter as the case. Low cost, minimal recoil, and relatively low noise make the.22 LR an ideal cartridge for recreational shooting, initial training, small-game hunting. Used by Boy Scouts for the rifle shooting merit badge, the cartridge is popular among novice shooters, a wide variety of rimfire ammunition is available commercially, and the available ammunition varies widely both in price and performance.
Bullet weights among commercially available range from 20 to 60 grains. Promotional loads for plinking can be purchased in bulk for significantly less cost than precision target rounds, the low cost of ammunition has a substantial effect on the popularity of the.22 LR. For this reason, rimfire cartridges are used for target practice. The low recoil of the cartridge makes it ideal for introductory firearms courses, novice shooters can be surprised or frightened by the recoil of more powerful rounds. Beginners shooting firearms beyond their comfort level frequently develop a habit of flinching in an attempt to counter anticipated recoil, the resulting habit impedes correct posture and follow-through at the most critical phase of the shot and is difficult to correct. With high recoil eliminated, other errors in marksmanship technique are easier to identify, available for this round are AR-15 upper receivers and M1911 slide assemblies. Many handgun manufacturers have an upper pistol conversion kit to make it shoot.22 ammunition and these rimfire conversions allow shooters to practice inexpensively while retaining the handling characteristics of their chosen firearms.
Additionally.22 conversion kits allow practice at indoor ranges which prohibit high-power firearms, annual production is estimated by some at 2–2.5 billion rounds. The NSSF estimates that half of the US production of 10 billion cartridges is composed of. 22LR, performance varies between barrel length and the type of action. For example, bolt-action rifles may perform differently from semiautomatic rifles, the.22 LR is effective to 150 yd, though practical ranges tend to be less. After 150 yd, the ballistics of the round are such that it will be difficult to compensate for the large drop, the relatively short effective range, low report, and light recoil has made it a favorite for use as a target-practice cartridge
A revolver is a repeating handgun that has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers and at least one barrel for firing. Revolvers might be regarded as a subset of pistols, or as a subset of handguns. Though the term revolver usually only refers to handguns, other firearms may have a revolving chamber and these include some models of grenade launchers and rifles. Most revolvers contain five or six rounds in the cylinder, though the original name was revolving gun, the short-hand revolver is universally used. The revolver allows the user to fire multiple rounds without reloading, each time the user cocks the hammer, the cylinder revolves to align the next chamber and round with the hammer and barrel, which gives this type of firearm its name. In a single-action revolver, the user pulls the back with his free hand or thumb. In a double-action revolver, pulling the trigger moves the back, releases it. Loading and unloading a double-action revolver requires the operator to swing out the cylinder and insert the proper ammunition, the first guns with multichambered cylinders that revolved to feed one barrel were made in the late 16th century in Europe.
They were expensive and rare curiosities, not until the 19th century would revolvers become common weapons of industrial production. One of the first was a flintlock revolver patented by Elisha Collier in 1814, the first percussion revolver was made by Lenormand of Paris in 1820 and the first percussion cap revolver was invented by the Italian Francesco Antonio Broccu in 1833. He received a prize of 300 francs for his invention, although he did not patent it, however, in 1835 a similar handgun was patented by Samuel Colt, who would go on to make the first mass-produced revolver. The first cartridge revolvers were produced around 1854 by Eugene Lefaucheux, revolvers soon became standard for nearly all uses. In the early 20th century, semi-automatic pistols were developed, which can hold more rounds, Automatic pistols have a flat profile, more suitable for concealed carry. Automatic pistols have almost completely replaced revolvers in military and law enforcement use, revolvers still remain popular as back-up and off-duty handguns among American law enforcement officers and security guards.
Also, revolvers are still common in the American private sector as defensive, in the development of firearms, an important limiting factor was the time it took to reload the weapon after it was fired. While the user was reloading, the weapon was useless, several approaches to the problem of increasing the rate of fire were developed, the earliest being multi-barrelled weapons which allowed two or more shots without reloading. Later weapons featured multiple barrels revolving along a single axis, the earliest examples of what today is called a revolver were made in Germany in the late 16th century. These weapons featured a barrel with a revolving cylinder holding the powder
.17 Winchester Super Magnum
.17 Winchester Super Magnum, is a rimfire rifle cartridge developed by the ammunition company Winchester in 2012. It descended from the.27 caliber nail gun blank by necking down the case to take a.17 caliber bullet. Initial loadings were with a 20 grain bullet, delivering muzzle velocities around 3000 ft/s, Winchester, in conjunction with Savage, introduced this cartridge at the 2013 SHOT Show. The brass case for this round is roughly 50% thicker than the 17 HMR, factory ammunition is available from Winchester, Federal American Eagle, and more recently Hornady. Hornady 17 Win Super Mag and Federal Ammunition American Eagle®17 Win, Super Magnum cartridges are currently only available with 20 grain polymer-tipped projectiles rated @3000 FPS at the muzzle. Currently, rifles firing the 17 WSM are the Savage B-Mag bolt action, ruger Model 77/17, Winchester 1885 Low Wall single shot, the Volquartsen semi-automatic, H-S Precision Pro Series 2000, and the semi-automatic Franklin Armory F-17. The F-17 is the first gas-operated rimfire firearm, designed to handle the pressures of this cartridge.
Also recently Jard Inc. joined this list with their J7117 WSM AR15 rifle,4 mm caliber Table of handgun and rifle cartridges Super.17 WSM, Savage B-Mag Review
Ammunition is the general term used for the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. The term ammunition can be traced back to the mid 17th century, broadly speaking, ammunition refers to both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all weapons will require some form of ammunition to operate, the word comes from the French la munition, which refers to the material used for war. The terms ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although the term munition now usually refers to both the actual weapons system alongside the ammunition required to operate it. The purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the cartridge, which all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a range of sizes and types and is often designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain types that enable their use across different weapons.
There are types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition. Ammunition is commonly colored in a manner to assist in the identification. A round is a cartridge containing a projectile, primer. A shell is a form of ammunition that is fired by a large cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials. However, since that time, they are often filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a release of a weapons system. This may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, a dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended, typically failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only partially functions. Dud ammunition, which is classified as an ordnance, is regarded as highly dangerous
Personal defense weapon
Most PDWs fire a small-caliber, high-velocity bottleneck cartridge, resembling a small or short rifle round. This gives the PDW better range and armor-penetrating capability than submachine guns and these soldiers may be at risk of encountering the enemy, but rarely enough that a long-barrel weapon would be an unnecessary burden during their normal duties. Because of their weight and controllability, they have been used by special forces. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, shortened versions of the rifle were issued as carbines for cavalry troops. This designation was dropped as infantry rifle designs were shortened, such as in the Short Magazine Lee–Enfield rifle, pistols were typically issued as a self-defense weapons. However, they were not effective in most combat situations, as a result, during the First World War, the Mauser C96 and artillery versions of the Luger pistol were issued with attachable shoulder stock holsters, which allowed for greater control and accuracy. This attachment was developed to allow an infantryman to convert his rifle to a form of gun or automatic rifle in approximately 15 seconds.
Production of the device and modified M1903 rifles started during 1918, the war ended before they were sent to Europe. The contract was cancelled on March 1,1919, after production of 65,000 devices,1.6 million magazines,65 million cartridges and 101,775 modified Springfield rifles, the Pedersen device was declared surplus in 1931. To prevent them falling into the hands of the lawless. In 1938, the U. S. Army Ordnance Department received a request for a rifle to be issued to mortarmen, drivers, cooks. During field exercises, these troops found that the M1 Garand rifle was too heavy, while handguns are undeniably convenient, they had limited range and power. This request was refused by authorities, U. S. Army Ordnance issued a requirement for a light rifle with greater range and accuracy than the M1911 pistol, while weighing half as much as the M1 Garand. As result, the U. S. developed the semi-automatic M1 Carbine, widely employed deep into the Vietnam War, these carbines are generally considered the forerunners of modern personal defense weapons.
Developed during the late 1980s, the Personal Defense Weapon concept was created in response to a NATO request as a replacement for 9×19mm Parabellum submachine guns, introduced in 1991, the FN P90 features a bullpup design with a futuristic appearance. It has a 50-round magazine housed horizontally above the barrel, a reflex sight. A simple blow-back automatic weapon, it was designed to fire the FN5. 7×28mm cartridge which can penetrate soft body armor. The P90 was designed to have a length no greater than a mans shoulder width, to allow it to be carried and maneuvered in tight spaces
SPP-1 underwater pistol
The SPP-1 Underwater Pistol was made in the Soviet Union for use underwater by Soviet frogmen as an underwater firearm. It was developed in the late 1960s and accepted for use in 1971, ordinary-shaped bullets are inaccurate and very short-range. As a result, this fires a round-based 4.5 millimetres caliber steel dart about 115 millimetres long, weighing 12.8 grams. The complete cartridge is 145 millimetres long and weighs 17.5 grams, the SPP-1 has four barrels, each containing one cartridge. Its ammunition comes as a magazine of four cartridges which is inserted into the pistols breech and its barrel is not rifled, the fired projectile is kept in line by hydrodynamic effects. As a result, it is inaccurate when fired out of water. A double-action firing mechanism fires one cartridge sequentially for each pull of the trigger, when all four cartridges are spent, the gun can be reloaded above or below water. The SPP-1M pistol is essentially the same as the SPP-1, with the following differences and its trigger guard is larger to accommodate diving gloves.
The weapon was designed by Vladimir Simonov, the cartridge by Pyotr Sazonov, Simonov designed the APS amphibious rifle. Depth reduces range because the higher pressure closes the cavity sooner, once the projectile is no longer supercavitating, hydrodynamic drag increases greatly, and the projectile becomes unstable. Lethal range is defined as the range from which it can penetrate a padded underwater suit or a 5 millimetres thick glass faceplate. It is manufactured by TOZ Tula Arms Plant, and exported by Rosoboronexport, the state agency for Russias export/import of defense-related products