The.17 Remington was introduced in 1971 by Remington Arms Company for their model 700 rifles. It is based on the.222 Remington Magnum, necked down to.172 in and it was designed exclusively as a varmint round, though it is suitable for smaller predators. There are those such as P. O, ackley who used it on much larger game, but such use is not typical. Extremely high initial velocity, flat trajectory and very low recoil are the.17 Remingtons primary attributes, the smaller.172 bullet typically has a much lower ballistic coefficient than other typical varmint calibers, such as that of the.223 Remington. Because of this, the.172 bullet loses velocity slightly sooner and is sensitive to wind. The advantages of this cartridge are low recoil, flat trajectory, the tiny entrance wound and usual lack of exit wound on coyote-sized animals make it an ideal round for fur bearing animals which the hunter intends to collect a pelt from. The.17 Remington is one of the few cartridges in which powder charge weight is greater than bullet weight.
Though this condition has been known to degrade accuracy, the.17 Remington is noted for exceptional accuracy and this reputation for accuracy is due in no small part to the fact that only good quality bolt action and single shot rifles have been so chambered from the factory. Because the cartridge is based on the.223, it can be used in the AR-15 and Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic rifles by simply replacing the barrel
.222 Remington Magnum
The.222 Remington Magnum was a short-lived commercially produced cartridge derived from the.222 Remington. Originally developed for a US military prototype Armalite AR-15 rifle in 1958, the cartridge was not adopted by the military, case capacity is about 20% greater than that of the.222 Remington, producing moderately higher muzzle velocities. The.222 Remington Magnum served as the basis for the German-developed 5. 6×50mm Magnum sporting cartridge, during the late 1950s, ArmaLite and other U. S. firearm designers started their individual Small Caliber/High Velocity rifle experiments using the commercial.222 Remington cartridge. When it became clear there was not enough case capacity to meet U. S. Continental Army Commands velocity and penetration requirements, ArmaLite contacted Remington to create a cartridge with a longer case body. At the same time, Springfield Armorys Earle Harvey had Remington create a longer cartridge case known as the.224 Springfield. Springfield was forced to out of the CONARC competition.
To prevent confusion among all of the competing.222 cartridge designations, in the spring of 1962 Remington submited the specifications of the.223 Remington to the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute. With the U. S. military adoption of the M16 assault rifle in 1963, as a commercial sporting cartridge the.223 Remington was introduced in 1964. The.223 Remington cartridge has a neck and the shoulder is moved back slightly compared to the.222 Remington Magnum. Case capacity is about 5% smaller than that of the.222 Remington Magnum, as any widely used military cartridge is guaranteed to be a success on the commercial market, the.223 Remington sold exceptionally well and the.222 Remington Magnum faded rather quickly. The.223 Remington cartridge will fit in a.222 Remington Magnum chamber, the.222 Remington Magnum has not entirely gone, however. It lives on in the hands of handloaders and the cartridge became the parent round for a new development introduced in 2004. The.204 Ruger is based on the.222 Remington Magnum case necked down to hold a.20 caliber bullet, list of rifle cartridges 5 mm caliber.222 Remington and.222 Rem Mag at Chuck Hawks
A centerfire cartridge is a cartridge with a primer located in the center of the cartridge case head. Unlike rimfire cartridges, the primer is a separate and replaceable component, centerfire cartridges have supplanted the rimfire variety in all but the smallest cartridge sizes. The stronger base of a cartridge is able to withstand higher pressures which in turn give a bullet greater velocity. Larger caliber rimfire cartridges require greater volumes of priming explosive than centerfire cartridges, reducing the amount of priming explosive would reduce the reliability of rimfire cartridge ignition, and increase the probability of misfire or dud cartridges. Economies of scale are achieved through interchangeable primers for a variety of centerfire cartridge calibers. The expensive individual brass cases can be reused after replacing the primer, the forward portion of some empty cases can be reformed for use as obsolete or wildcat cartridges with similar base configuration. Modern cartridges larger than.22 caliber are mostly centerfire, actions suitable for larger caliber rimfire cartridges declined in popularity until the demand for them no longer exceeded manufacturing costs, and they became obsolete.
An early form of ammunition, without a percussion cap, was invented between 1808 and 1812 by Jean Samuel Pauly. This was the first fully integrated cartridge, true centerfire ammunition was invented by the Frenchman Clement Pottet in 1829. However, Pottet would not perfect his design until 1855, the centerfire cartridge was improved by Benjamin Houllier, Gastinne Renette, Charles Lancaster, George Morse, Francois Schneider, Hiram Berdan and Edward Mounier Boxer. The identifying feature of centerfire ammunition is the primer which is a cup containing a primary explosive inserted into a recess in the center of the base of the cartridge. The firearm firing pin crushes this explosive between the cup and an anvil to produce hot gas and a shower of incandescent particles to ignite the powder charge, Berdan priming is less expensive to manufacture and is much more common in military-surplus ammunition made outside the United States. Berdan primers are named after their American inventor, Hiram Berdan of New York who invented his first variation of the Berdan primer and patented it on March 20,1866, in U. S. A small copper cylinder formed the shell of the cartridge, and this system worked well, allowing the option of installing a cap just before use of the propellant-loaded cartridge as well as permitting reloading the cartridge for reuse. S.
Berdan primers have remained essentially the same functionally to the present day, Berdan primers are similar to the caps used in the caplock system, being small metal cups with pressure-sensitive explosive in them. Modern Berdan primers are pressed into the pocket of a Berdan-type cartridge case. Inside the primer pocket is a bump, the anvil, that rests against the center of the cup. Berdan cases are reusable, although the process is rather involved, the used primer must be removed, usually by hydraulic pressure or a pincer or lever that pulls the primer out of the bottom
.221 Remington Fireball
The.221 Remington Fireball is a centerfire cartridge created by Remington Arms Company in 1963 as a special round for use in their experimental single-shot bolt-action pistol, the XP-100. A shortened version of the.222 Remington, it is popular as a varmint and it has application as both a pistol round and as a rifle round. In the early 1960s Remington was working on an experimental bolt-action pistol based on their model 600 action, the goal was a highly accurate pistol that would be well suited for competition. After working with the.222 Remington they determined that it contained more powder capacity than was necessary to work efficiently in the barrels of pistols. While rifle barrels commonly range in length from 14.5 to 26 in, pistol barrels are typically much shorter, as a result, Remington decided to develop a shorter version of the.222 Remington cartridge, optimized for use in the XP-100. Rifles chambered for the.221 Fireball include the Remington 700, despite its smaller size, the.221 Fireball is capable of velocities nearly equal to that of the.222 Remington largely due to its higher SAAMI pressure.
The maximum SAAMI pressure level for the.221 Fireball is 52,000 C. U. P. as compared to 46,000 C. U. P. for the.222 Remington. The purpose of the pressure was to allow it to perform more effectively in the shorter barrel of the XP-100. The.221 Fireball produces the highest velocity of any commercial pistol cartridge, the.221 Fireball has been used by wildcatters to create a small efficient.17 caliber cartridge. The most common is the.17 Mach IV which is essentially the.221 necked down to the smaller caliber and this cartridge is reported to have a very flat trajectory and to be relatively quiet with low recoil. It has been so popular as a wildcat that in 2007 Remington legitimized it by introducing their own version only slightly different from the Mach IV and calling it the.17 Remington Fireball. A.20 caliber version is gaining popularity called the.20 VarTarg, vartarg being the combination of the words varmint and target. The.221 Fireball has used as the base for the.300 Whisper. List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 5 mm caliber
The word bullet is a firearm term. A bullet is a projectile expelled from the barrel of a firearm, the term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle which means small ball. Bullets are made of a variety of materials and they are available singly as they would be used in muzzle loading and cap and ball firearms, as part of a paper cartridge, and much more commonly as a component of metallic cartridges. Bullets are made in a numbers of styles and constructions depending on how they will be used. Many bullets have specialized functions, such as hunting, target shooting, defense, a bullet is not a cartridge. In paper and metallic cartridges a bullet is one component of the cartridge, bullet sizes are expressed by their weight and diameter in both English and Metric measurement systems. For example.22 caliber 55 grain bullets or 5. 56mm 55 grain bullets are the same caliber, the word bullet is often used colloquially to refer to a cartridge, which is a combination of the bullet, paper or metallic case/shell and primer.
This use of bullet, when cartridge is intended, leads to confusion when the components of a cartridge are discussed or intended, the bullets used in many cartridges are fired at a muzzle velocity faster than the speed of sound. Meaning they are supersonic and thus can travel a substantial distance, bullet speed through air depends on a number of factors such as barometric pressure, air temperature, and wind speed. Subsonic cartridges fire bullets slower than the speed of sound and so there is no sonic crack and this means that a subsonic cartridge such as.45 ACP can be effectively suppressed to be substantially quieter than a supersonic cartridge such as the.223 Remington. Bullets do not normally contain explosives, but damage the target by impact. The first use of gunpowder in Europe was recorded in 1247 and it had been used in China for hundreds of years. Later in 1364 hand cannon appeared, early projectiles were made of stone. Stone was used in cannon and hand cannon, in cannon it was eventually found that stone would not penetrate stone fortifications which gave rise to the use of heavier metals for the round projectiles.
Hand cannon projectiles developed in a similar following the failure of stone from siege cannon. The first recorded instance of a ball from a hand cannon penetrating armor occurred in 1425. In this photograph of shot retrieved from the wreck of the Mary Rose which was sunk in 1545, the round shot are clearly of different sizes and some are stone while others are cast iron. The development of the hand culverin and matchlock arquebus brought about the use of cast lead balls as projectiles, bullet is derived from the French word boulette, which roughly means little ball
A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called lands, which contact with the projectile. When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling and this allows the use of aerodynamically-efficient bullets and thus improves range and accuracy. The word rifle originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a rifled gun, the word rifle is now used for any long hand-held aimed device activated by a trigger, such as Air rifles and the Personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare and shooting sports, rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze, some fire in an automatic mode. Thus, modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in design, in fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A militarys light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles.
Generally, the difference between a rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system. Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are generally belt-fed, many machine guns allow the operator to quickly exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles generally do not. Most machine guns fire from a bolt in order to reduce the danger of cook-off. Machine guns are often crewed by more than one soldier, the rifle is an individual weapon, the term rifle is sometimes used to describe larger crew-served rifled weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. This might have led to a increase in accuracy.
Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets, the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles quickly fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters, muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at relatively low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of manufacturing, and the need to load readily from the muzzle
In firearm ballistics, the primer is a component of pistol and shotgun rounds. Early primers were simply the same black powder used to fire the weapon and this external powder was connected though a tube in the barrel that led to the main charge. As powder wont burn when wet, this led to difficulty, or even the inability, modern primers are shock sensitive chemicals. In smaller weapons the primer is usually integrated into the rear of a cartridge, in larger weapons like cannon the primer is a separate component placed inside the barrel to the rear of the main propellant charge. The first step to firing a firearm of any sort is igniting the propellant, the earliest firearms were cannons, which were simple closed tubes. There was an aperture, the touchhole, drilled in the closed end of the tube. This hole was filled with finely ground powder, which was ignited with a hot ember or torch. With the advent of firearms, this became an undesirable way of firing a gun. The first attempt to make the process of firing a small arm easier was the matchlock, the matchlock incorporated a lock that was actuated by a trigger, originally called a tricker.
The lock was a lever which pivoted when pulled. The match was a burning fuse made of plant fibers that were soaked in a solution of nitrates and sulfur. This slow-match was ignited before the gun was needed, and it would slowly burn, after the gun was loaded and the touchhole primed with powder, the burning tip of the match was positioned so that the lock would bring it into contact with the touchhole. To fire the gun, it was aimed and the trigger pulled and this brought the match down to the touchhole, igniting the powder. With careful attention the slow-burning match could be burning for long periods of time. The next revolution in technology was the wheel-lock. It used a spring-loaded, serrated steel wheel which rubbed against a piece of iron pyrite, a key was used to wind the wheel and put the spring under tension. Once tensioned, the wheel was held in place by a trigger, when the trigger was pulled, the serrated edge of the steel rubbed against the pyrite, generating sparks. These sparks were directed into a pan, called the flash pan, the flashpan usually was protected by a spring-loaded cover that would slide out of the way when the trigger was pulled, exposing the powder to the sparks
A shooting sport is a competitive sport involving tests of proficiency using various types of guns, such as firearms and airguns. Shooting sports are categorized by the type of firearm, for similar reasons, concerned over poor marksmanship during the American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association of America in 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a scientific basis. In 1872, with help from New York state, a site on Long Island. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, and became the site of the first National Matches until New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey. The popularity of the National Matches soon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location, Camp Perry. In 1903, the U. S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, the NBPRP participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry. In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all colleges, universities.
By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the National Matches, french pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions. This fact certainly contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics, over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standards. The targets that formerly resembled humans or animals in their shape, at the same time, some events have been dropped and new ones have been added. The 2004 Olympics featured three shooting disciplines where athletes competed for 51 medals in 10 mens and 7 womens events—slightly fewer than the previous Olympic schedule, the Olympic Games continue to provide the shooting sports with its greatest public relations opportunity. The sport has always enjoyed the distinction of awarding the first medals of the Games, the International Shooting Sport Federation has oversight of all Olympic shooting events worldwide, while National Governing Bodies administer the sport within each country.
Having originally established shooting as a sport in the USA. The NRA dutifully managed and financially supported international and conventional shooting sports for over 100 years until the formation of USA Shooting, modern competitive archery involves shooting arrows at a target for accuracy from a set distance or distances. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman—and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite. The most popular competitions worldwide are called target archery, another form, particularly popular in Europe and America, is field archery, which generally is shot at targets set at various distances in a wooded setting. There are several other lesser-known and historical forms, as well as archery novelty games, note that the tournament rules vary from organization to organization
The.300 Whisper is a CIP standard cartridge in the Whisper family, a group of cartridges developed in the early 1990s by J. D. Jones of SSK Industries. Some implementations of.300 Whisper meet the SAAMI specifications for 300 AAC Blackout, as of 2016, there is no CIP specification for the latter and no SAAMI specification for the former, leading to assumptions of these two being interchangeable, which is not true in all cases. The.300 Whisper was originally based on the.221 Fireball case necked up to.30 caliber, avid reloaders have found the.223 Remington or 5. 56×45mm NATO works well when shortened and resized to.30 caliber. Firing in the.300 Whisper chamber results in a sharper shoulder. Magnum pistol powders such as H110 work well for supersonic loads, sierra 240 grain jacketed bullets work well if the barrel has a 1,8 twist. Barrels with a 1,10 twist will stabilize 220 grain bullets at subsonic speeds,125 grain bullets will reach 2400 ft/s. The use of bullets, along with the low powder weight and small case capacity.
These subsonic loads offer energy levels similar to that of the popular.45 ACP pistol cartridge, cases for the.300 Whisper can be formed from common and plentiful.223 Remington brass by sizing and trimming to length. However, J. D. Jones has recommended against this and this problem can be exacerbated when military 5. 56×45mm cases are used. Perhaps most importantly, any firearm with a.223 Remington bolt face can be converted to.300 Whisper by re-barreling the action, as such, the.300 Whisper works well in AR-15–based rifles, especially when some type of gas regulator is installed. Whisper is a trademark of SSK Industries. The.300 AAC Blackout can be seen as a SAAMI-certified version of Jones wildcat