The.30 refers to the caliber of the bullet, and the 06 refers to the year the cartridge was adopted—1906. It replaced the. 30-03, 6mm Lee Navy, and. 30-40 Krag cartridges and it remains a very popular sporting round, with ammunition produced by all major manufacturers. In the early 1890s, the U. S. military adopted the smokeless powder. 30-40 Krag rimmed cartridge, the 1894 version of that cartridge used a 220-grain round-nose bullet. Around 1901, the U. S. started developing an experimental rimless cartridge for a Mauser action with box magazine and that led to the 1903. 30-03 rimless service round that used the same 220-grain round-nose bullet as the Krag. The. 30-03 achieved a velocity of 2,300 ft/s. Consequently, the round-nosed U. S. 30-03 service cartridge was falling behind. For these reasons, the U. S. military developed a new, cartridge in 1906, the cartridge was loaded with Military Rifle 21 propellant, and its maximum range was claimed to be 4,700 yd. The M1903 Springfield rifle, which had been introduced alongside the. 30-03 cartridge, was modified to accept the new.
30-06 Springfield cartridge. Modifications to the rifle included shortening the barrel at its breech and resizing the chamber, other changes to the rifle included elimination of the troublesome rod bayonet of the earlier Springfield rifles. The M1906 maximum range was originally overstated, when the M1906 cartridge was developed, the range tests had been done to only 1,800 yards, distances beyond that were estimated, but the estimate for extreme range was wrong by almost 40 percent. The range discrepancy became evident during World War I, before the widespread employment of light mortars and artillery, long-range machine gun barrage or indirect fires were considered important in U. S. infantry tactics. When the US entered World War I, it did not have machine guns, so it acquired British. When those weapons were replaced with US machine guns firing the M1906 round. Firing tests performed around 1918 at Borden Brook Reservoir, patrone was inroduced in 1914 and used a 197. 5-grain s. S. - schweres Spitzgeschoß boat-tail bullet which had a maximum range of approximately 5,140 yd.
Its maximum range was approximately 5,500 yd. Additionally, wartime surplus totaled over 2 billion rounds of ammunition. Army regulations called for training use of the oldest ammunition first, as a result, the older. 30-06 ammunition was expended for training, stocks of.30 M1 Ball ammunition were allowed to slowly grow until all of the older M1906 ammunition had been fired. By 1936, it was discovered that the range of the.30 M1 Ball ammunition with its boat-tailed spitzer bullets was beyond the safety limitations of many ranges. An emergency order was made to manufacture quantities of ammunition that matched the ballistics of the earlier M1906 cartridge as soon as possible
A wildcat cartridge, often shortened to wildcat, is a custom cartridge for which ammunition and/or firearms are not mass-produced. These cartridges are often created in order to optimize a certain performance characteristic of a commercial cartridge. Often, wildcats are commercially sold rounds that have been modified in some way to alter the cartridges performance, barrels for the caliber are originally manufactured by gunsmiths specializing in barrel making. Generally the same makers offer reloading dies, tools to custom-load bullets into cases, because changing the barrel of a gun to accommodate custom cartridges requires precision equipment, most wildcats are developed by or in association with custom barrel makers. Ammunition is handloaded, using modified parent cases and the gunsmith-provided wildcat dies, handloaders use the data to develop a load by starting with minimum loads and carefully working up. Wildcat cases and cartridges can be found for sale, but only from small makers, larger manufacturers usually do not produce wildcats because there is such a limited market for them and because there are no established CIP or SAAMI standards, which causes liability concerns.
Wildcat cartridges are developed for many reasons, the goal is to optimize some characteristic of a commercial cartridge in a given context. The sport of metallic silhouette shooting, has given rise to a number of wildcats. Wildcat cartridges are developed because, Higher velocities can be obtained by increasing the case capacity. Greater energy can be attained by increasing the caliber or the case capacity, better efficiency can be achieved by increasing the shoulder angle, shortening the case, and reducing case taper. Greater consistency can be achieved by tuning the case capacity to a bullet diameter, weight. Some methods used to develop a wildcat are, Cold forming, the parent case is well lubricated and forced carefully into the reloading die for the wildcat caliber. This will swage the case into the new shape and this type of operation is used for reducing case dimensions, such as reducing the neck diameter or pushing the shoulder back, or changing the neck diameter. This consists of taking the parent case, or a cold formed case, loading it with a light bullet and light load of powder.
Another technique uses a charge of fast burning powder topped with a full of Cream of Wheat. This technique is used for increasing case dimensions, such as pushing the neck forward, increasing the neck angle, or straightening the case walls. Generally, after either a cold forming or a fire forming operation, the mouth of the case will be longer than ideal, and the case will be trimmed back to the trim to length. Trimming is a normal reloading operation, as high pressure cartridges will flow each time they are fired, changing the diameter of the case
Bolt-action firearms are most often rifles, but there are some bolt-action shotguns and a few handguns as well. Examples of this date as far back as the early 19th century. From the late 19th century, all the way through both World Wars, the rifle was the standard infantry firearm for most of the worlds militaries. Bolt-action firearms are still popular for hunting and target shooting. The first bolt-action rifle was produced in 1824 by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse, von Dreyse would perfect his Nadelgewehr by 1836, and it was adopted by the Prussian Army in 1841. It however was not the first bolt-action weapon to see combat as it was not fielded until 1864, during the American Civil War, the bolt-action Palmer carbine was patented in 1863, and by 1865,1000 were purchased for use as cavalry weapons. The French Army adopted its first bolt-action rifle, the Chassepot rifle, in 1866, ultimately the military turned to bolt-action rifles using a box magazine, the first of its kind was the M1885 Remington–Lee, but the first to be generally adopted was the British 1888 Lee–Metford.
World War I marked the height of the bolt-action rifles use, there are, many semi-automatic sniper rifle designs, especially in the designated marksman role. Today, bolt-action rifles are used as hunting rifles. These rifles can be used to hunt anything from vermin, to deer, to game, especially big game caught on a safari. Bolt-action shotguns are considered a rarity among modern firearms, but were formerly a commonly used action for.410 entry-level shotguns, as well as for low-cost 12 gauge shotguns. The M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System is the most advanced and recent example of a bolt-action shotgun, some pistols utilize a bolt action, although this is uncommon, and such examples are typically specialized target handguns. Most of the bolt-action designs involve the shooters doing a turn + pull handle movement to open the bolt, cock the firing pin, there are three major turning bolt-action system designs, the Mauser system, the Lee–Enfield system, and the Mosin–Nagant system. The vast majority of bolt-action rifles utilize one of three systems, with other designs seeing only limited use.
The Mauser system is stronger than that of the Lee–Enfield due to two locking lugs just behind the head which make it better able to handle higher pressure cartridges. The 8×68mm S and 9. 3×64mm Brenneke magnum rifle cartridge families were designed for the Mauser M98 bolt action. A novel safety feature was the introduction of a locking lug present at the rear of the bolt that normally did not lock the bolt. The Mauser system features cock on opening, meaning the upward rotation of the bolt when the rifle is opened cocks the action, a drawback of the Mauser M98 system is that it cannot be cheaply mass-produced very easily
The 6. 5mm Creedmoor, called the 6.5 Creedmoor or 6.5 CM for short, is a centerfire rifle cartridge introduced by Hornady in 2007 as a modification of the.30 TC, which was based on the.300 Savage. It was designed specifically for target shooting, although it is achieving success in game hunting. Bullet for bullet, the 6. 5mm Creedmoor achieves a muzzle velocity than longer cartridges such as the 6. 5-284 Norma or magnum cartridges such as the 6. 5mm Remington Magnum. However, due to its 2.825 inches overall length, it is capable of being chambered in bolt action rifles. 6.5 mm bullets, in general, are known for their relatively high density and ballistic coefficients. This is a medium power cartridge often compared to the 6. 5×55mm.260 Remington and 6. 5×47mm Lapua but is not as accurate as the Lapua ^^case. Three hundred yard energy using 129 grain Hornady SST bullets is listed by an independent reviewer as 1641 ft. lbs, SAAMI test data confirms 6.5 mm Creedmoor velocity of 2,940 fps for the 129 grain bullet and 2,690 for the 140 grain bullet.
Long-range shooter Ray RayDog Sanchez summarised the bolt-action Tubb 2000 rifle in 6. 5mm Creedmoor as boringly accurate at 1000 yards and he asserted the rifle and ammunition combination he used was able to maintain sub-MOA groups at 1000 yards. Lapua brass for 6. The 6.5 Creedmoors accuracy compared to the 6. 5x47 Lapua, according to Rifleshooter. com’s editor, In my personal experience, the 6. 5×47 Lapua seems to be slightly more accurate than the 6.5 Creedmoor. Handloading for the 6.5 Creedmoor is expensive, Brass often costs $0.068 per reload because it lasts less than 10 reloads on average. Norma now makes brass for the cartridge but it is hard to find, when the 6.5 CM was first introduced it was advertised as a 60,000 psi capable case. However, when it was placed into production Hornady listed it as 62,000 psi and had it SAAMI registered as such, for this reason many hand loaders have had poor experiences reloading for it. Blown primers on the first shot at 62,000 psi is not uncommon, early shooting articles listed the ammo as loaded to 58,000 psi but ones list it as 57,000 psi.
This is because Hornady reduced the loads in its factory ammo because of complaints that it was often blowing primers, Lapua brass though is on the way. Lapua has delivered Creedmoor brass at Shot show 2017, and production quantitates are starting to show, the Lapua version has a small primer pocket. Thus, loads from a Lapua Creedmoor should not be used in a regular Creedmoor with a primer pocket without applying proper hand loading test for pressure first. Also the use of a smaller diameter decapping rod is required to size, as of 4 April 2017, Starline Brass announced that it would add 6.5 Creedmoor to its high quality line of products. At the moment, it is whether this will use a large or small primer or when cases would be available for sale
The.308 Winchester is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge from which the 7. 62×51mm NATO round was derived. The.308 Winchester was introduced in 1952, two prior to the NATO adoption of the 7. 62×51mm NATO T65. Winchester branded the cartridge and introduced it to the hunting market as the.308 Winchester. Winchesters Model 70 and Model 88 rifles were chambered for the new cartridge. Since then, the.308 Winchester has become the most popular short-action and it is commonly used for civilian hunting, target shooting, Metallic Silhouette, bench rest target shooting, metal matches and military sniping, and police sharpshooting. The relatively short case makes the.308 Winchester especially well-adapted for short-action rifles, when loaded with a bullet that expands, tumbles, or fragments in tissue, this cartridge is capable of high terminal performance. Their interchange is, considered safe by the Sporting Arms, the.308 Winchester has 3.64 ml cartridge case capacity.
The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine guns alike, all dimensions in millimeters and inches. Americans would define the angle at alpha/2 =20 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 305 mm,4 grooves, Ø lands =7.62 mm, Ø grooves =7.82 mm, land width =4.47 mm and the primer type is large rifle. Rulings the.308 Winchester can handle up to 415.00 MPa Pmax piezo pressure, regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that.308 Winchester chambered arms in C. I. P, regulated countries are currently proof tested at 519.00 MPa PE piezo pressure. North American SAAMI maximum pressure for the 308 Winchester is 62,000 PSI, the.308 Winchester is one of the most popular hunting cartridges in the United States, and possibly the world. It has gained popularity in countries as an exceptional cartridge for game in the medium- to large-sized class.
In North America it is used extensively on whitetail deer, clay Harvey, an American gun writer, says it is usable on moose and elk. Layne Simpson, an American who has hunted in Sweden, says he is surprised how many hunters there use the cartridge, craig Boddington was told by a Norma Precision executive that the.308 is one of Normas best-selling calibers. In Africa the.308 Win is one of the most popular calibers among Bushveld hunters and is used on anything from duiker right up to the massive eland. The.308 Winchester has slightly more drop at range than the. 30-06 Springfield
Thompson/Center Arms is an American firearms company based in Springfield, Massachusetts. The company is best known for its line of interchangeable-barrel, single-shot pistols, Thompson/Center manufactures muzzle-loading rifles and is credited with creating the resurgence of their use in the 1970s. In the 1960s, Warren Center developed an unusual break-action, single-shot pistol that known as the Contender in his basement workshop. Meanwhile, the K. W. Thompson Tool Company had been searching for a product to manufacture year-round, in 1965, Warren Center joined the K. W. Thompson Tool Company, and together, they announced Warren Centers Contender pistol in 1967. As K. W. Thompson Tool began marketing Centers Contender pistol, then, in 1970, Thompson/Center created the modern black powder industry, introducing Warren Centers Hawken-styled black powder muzzle-loader rifle. On January 4,2007, Thompson/Center was purchased by Smith & Wesson, on December 8,2010, Smith & Wesson announced that the original Rochester, New Hampshire plant would be closed and manufacturing was transferred to Springfield, Massachusetts.
Thompson/Centers success came with the emergence of long range hunting, target shooting. Their break-action, single-shot design brought rifle-like accuracy and power in a handgun, the Contender, first introduced in 1967, is a break-action, single-shot pistol or rifle with a number of unique features. The first unique feature is the way the barrel is attached to the frame, by removing the fore-end, a large hinge pin is exposed, by pushing this hinge pin out, the barrel can be removed. Since the sights and extractor remain attached to the barrel in the Contender design, a barrel of another caliber can be installed and pinned in place, the fore-end replaced, and the pistol is ready to shoot with a different barrel and pre-aligned sights. This allowed easy changes of calibers and barrel lengths, the Encore was released in 1983. The Encore uses a different trigger mechanism, designed to be stronger than the original Contenders, the Encore uses a considerably larger and stronger frame than the Contender, and accordingly, is found in over 86 cartridges - ranging from.22 Hornet to the huge.416 Rigby.
There has even been one pistol-length stainless barrel made in.600 Nitro Express, the Encore barrel list includes shotgun barrels in 28,20, and 12 gauge, and muzzleloading barrels in.45.50 caliber, and 12 gauge using #209 shotgun primers. In 2007, Encore rimfire barrels became available in 22 LR and 17 HMR, an upgraded T/C Encore is called the Pro Hunter which generally includes stocks with rubber Flex Tech inserts and are stainless or carbon steel with weather shielding. There are other differences among the rifles including the breech plug on muzzleloader versions. The original Contender, now known as the generation one Contender, was replaced by the G2 Contender soon after the Encore came out, the G2 Contender is essentially dimensionally the same as the original Contender, but uses an Encore style trigger group. Unlike the original Contender, dry-firing of the G2 Contender is possible only in the center hammer position, unlike the original Contender, the break-action does not need to be opened/closed to practice dry-firing, provided the hammer is lowered between dry firing shots.
The adjustability of G2 Contender triggers is different from the original G1 Contender
Ammunition is the general term used for the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. The term ammunition can be traced back to the mid 17th century, broadly speaking, ammunition refers to both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all weapons will require some form of ammunition to operate, the word comes from the French la munition, which refers to the material used for war. The terms ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although the term munition now usually refers to both the actual weapons system alongside the ammunition required to operate it. The purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the cartridge, which all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a range of sizes and types and is often designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain types that enable their use across different weapons.
There are types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition. Ammunition is commonly colored in a manner to assist in the identification. A round is a cartridge containing a projectile, primer. A shell is a form of ammunition that is fired by a large cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials. However, since that time, they are often filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a release of a weapons system. This may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, a dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended, typically failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only partially functions. Dud ammunition, which is classified as an ordnance, is regarded as highly dangerous