af is the Internet country code top-level domain for Afghanistan. It is administered by AFGNIC, a service of the UNDP, registration is made directly at the second level, or on the third level beneath various categorized subdomains at the second level. Third-level domains have restrictions based on which second-level domain they are registered under, registration on second level is unrestricted, but more expensive. All fees are higher for international registrants, the domain was delegated to an Abdul Razeeq in 1997, this only a year after Taliban fighters had captured Kabul and founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. NetNames of London initially maintained the following an agreement with the IANA. IANA. af whois information AFGNIC official site AfghanServer. af registrant
cc is the Internet country code top-level domain for Cocos Islands, an Australian territory of 5.4 square miles and about 600 inhabitants. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus — a country the UN does not recognise — uses the. cc domain, registration is made directly at second-level. The. cc domain is preferred by many cycling clubs, as well as churches and Christian organizations, since CC could be an abbreviation for Christian Church or Catholic Church. Some open-source/open-hardware projects, such as the Arduino project, use a. cc for their pages, since CC is the abbreviation for Creative Commons. Business owners in Southern Massachusetts are rapidly adopting Cape Cod CC domains for local identity, canadian Club whiskey has used. cc domains for marketing purposes. A number of domain names are maintained by CoCCA, including com. cc, net. cc, edu. cc. Although no longer actively promoted on the CoCCA web site, they will still register third-level domain names on request and they are not official hierarchies, they are domains owned by companies who offer free subdomain registration.
The CO. CC company offered two free. cc subdomains, as well as discounts for ordering as many as 15,000 domain names at a time. Step-by-step instructions for registrants on how to use well known hosting services like Blogger, Windows Live, due to previously large use by website spammers of sub-domains from co. cc, in July 2011 Google removed over 11 million. co. cc websites from its search results. Googles JohnMu recommended that individuals who have legitimate sites on the. co. cc subdomain send a reconsideration request to Google to have their specific site excluded from the ban. The abundance of cheap. co. cc domains had used by those who sold fake anti-virus programs. During 2012-2014, the co. cc website and name servers are no longer online, there was no formal statement by the company, but they did stop accepting new registrations some time before they closed
ca is the Internet country code top-level domain for Canada. The domain name registry that operates it is the Canadian Internet Registration Authority, registrants can register domains at the second level. Third-level registrations in one of the geographic third-level domains defined by the registry were discontinued on October 12,2010, registrants of. ca domains must meet the Canadian Presence Requirements as defined by the registry. The first. ca domain was registered by the University of Prince Edward Island in January 1988. ca Registry, the Canadian Internet Registration Authority is a non-profit Canadian corporation that is responsible for operating the. ca Internet country code Top Level Domain today. It assumed operation of the. ca ccTLD on December 1,2000, on April 15,2008, CIRA registered its one millionth. ca Internet domain name. Any. ca registration has to be ordered via a certified registrar, uBCs registry operations once favoured fourth-level names for purely local entities or third-level names for entities operating solely within one province.
Nationally incorporated companies could have a. ca domain, while provincially incorporated companies required the letters of their province, any of the above listed parties can register a domain with a name of their choosing followed directly by. ca. CIRA stopped accepting new registrations for third-level domains on October 12,2010, citing complexity, gc. ca is actually a standard domain like all other. ca domain names. CIRA does not register domain names under. gc. ca directly, the. mil. ca second-level domain name is a standard domain and is registered to the Department of National Defence. The. mil. ca suffix is used internally by DND on its intranet, internationalized domain names were introduced in January 2013 with a limited selection of characters to allow French language text with diacritics. Names which differ only in diacritical accents must have the same owner, Domain names that begin with the four characters xn-- are otherwise not available for registration. Length must be 2-63 characters, including the xn-- prefix encoding for internationalised domain names, names which match the name of an existing generic three-letter top level domain or the Canadian top level country code are reserved and therefore not available for new registrations.
Certain expletives are not accepted as names, municipal names of individual cities and localities within Canada are reserved nationwide, along with village. ca, hamlet. ca, town. ca, city. ca, ville. ca and the names of Canadian provinces. Exceptions were typically names registered before the restriction was introduced, such as the Canadian Governor General at gg. ca, names which exist at any of the levels are blocked in their availability elsewhere in the. ca hierarchy. Registration, if it can be done at all, requires manual intervention by the prospective registrar as the permission of all existing registrant must be obtained by CIRA. Registering this domain name requires permission from the Registrant that already holds the name, gouv. on. ca, gouv. pe. ca. However, with the agreement of these three parties New Brunswick would indeed be able to register and use gouv. nb. ca, existing third-level domain registrants looking to obtain the corresponding second-level domain are normally advised to use the same initial registrar for both names.
After a thirty-day redemption period, intended to provide the original registrant one final chance to reclaim a suspended name, domains which receive no bids are released and made openly available for new registrations
bi is the Internet country code top-level domain for Burundi. It is administered by the Burundi National Center of Information Technology, the registry site states that. BI Registry has a rather liberal policy about domain names as soon as the domain name is in relation with the business name or one of its marks. The general principle is that a domain must reflect the truth, registrations are open to anybody worldwide, but are not supposed to be registered or used for misleading purposes, though apparently no pre-screening is done to ensure this. The site states that We strongly discourage the use of suffixes of our country for misleading people and we remind that. bi stands for Republic of Burundi and for nothing else. This is apparently intended to discourage the repurposing of. bi as has been done with other ccTLDs, or the use in domain hacks where the TLD becomes part of a word or phrase. Use of bi in the sense of bisexuality is likely the sort of thing they are aiming to prevent and it is used by the Israeli company Vision.
bi, which develops Business Intelligence software. There does not seem to be much use at all, either within or outside Burundi
Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, with a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europes 16th-largest country. Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period and its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Persians, Romans, Goths and Huns. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State, the following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, in December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgarias transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgarias population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised, most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are industry, power engineering. The countrys current political structure dates to the adoption of a constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic, animal bones incised with man-made markings from Kozarnika cave are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, the latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation. Some of these first gold smelters produced the coins and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure and this site offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria, and kept it until 479 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control, by this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria. From the 6th century the easternmost South Slavs gradually settled in the region, in 680 Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska
au is the Internet country code top-level domain for Australia. It was first created on 5 March 1986, Domain name policy is managed by. au Domain Administration, with the registry operated by AusRegistry. The domain name was allocated by Jon Postel, operator of IANA to Kevin Robert Elz of Melbourne University in 1986. After an approximately five-year process in the 1990s, the Internet industry created a body called. au Domain Administration to operate the domain. It obtained assent from ICANN in 2001, and commenced operating a new regime for domain registration on 1 July 2002. Since this new regime, any registration has to be ordered via a registrar, oversight of. au is by. au Domain Administration. It is an organisation whose membership is derived from Internet organisations, industry members. The organisation operates with the endorsement of the Australian Government and with the authority of ICANN. Policy for. au is devised by policy development panels and these panels are convened by auDA and combine public input with industry representation to derive policy.
The day-to-day operation of the. au registry technical facility is tendered out by auDA, the current operator is AusRegistry who has performed this role since the initial tender in 2002. AusRegistry does not sell domain registration services direct to the consumer, rather consumers who wish to register a domain must do so via a domain name registrar, after the industrys liberalisation in 2002, there is an active competitive market in registrars with a variety of prices and services. In 2008 auDA changed its policy and allowed changes in ownership of. au domains. AuDA introduced the ISS in October 2013 as a mandatory requirement, discount Domain Name services, Cheaper Domains and Information Brokers, part of the Total Internet Group, are the first three auDA accredited registrars to achieve ISS compliance. The naming rules for. au require registrations under second-level categories that describe a type of entity. com. au and this follows a similar allocation policy to that formerly used in other countries such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
Registrations are currently permitted below a second-level domain, such as yourname. com. au, in April 2016, auDA announced it would introduce registrations directly at the second level, such as yourname. au. Direct registrations are due to be implemented in 2017, registering a domain in the. au namespace requires registrants to have either an exact match or a “close and substantial connection” to their desired domain name. Registration of a. au domain is completed through a reseller, known as a registrar and these domains are managed by the. au Community Domains Trust on behalf of auDA. CGDNs use the state or territorys common abbreviation as the level of the domain
bt is the Internet country code top-level domain for the Kingdom of Bhutan. It is administered by the Bhutan Ministry of Communications
cn is the country code top-level domain for the Peoples Republic of China. Domain name administration in mainland China is managed through a branch of the Ministry of Industry, the registry is maintained by China Internet Network Information Center. Neulevel has entered into a partnership with CNNIC to market. cn outside mainland China, any individual may register for second-level domain names. However, the registry has created a set of predefined second-level domains for certain types of organizations, on 25 June 2010, ICANN approved the use of the internationalized country code top-level domains. 中国 and. 中國 by CNNIC. These two TLDs were added to the DNS in July 2010, CNNIC proposes Chinese domain names in. 公司 and. 网络
co is the Internet country code top-level domain assigned to Colombia. It is administered by. CO Internet S. A. S, the. co domain is used by many established brands for social and mobile media, such as Twitter, Google Inc. When they took over administration of the. CO domain. CO Internet S. A. S, implemented new domain policies that were more flexible than the historic ones that had been administered by the University of the Andes. The new policies were adjusted to international best practices and defined in consultation with local and international communities. With the new policies, Colombia would be able to sell domain names to the world, such as widgets. co. To celebrate the launch of second-level domains, the registry auctioned the first single letter. CO domain name e. CO during Internet Week on June 10,2010. A video of the auction can be here, For a purchase price of $81,000. Proceeds were donated to a cause of the winners choice. As of January 2014, that number has grown to over 1.6 million.
CO domains registered, with respect to search engine optimization, Google confirmed that it will rank. co domains appropriately if the content is globally targeted. Google has confirmed that it will treat. co as a gccTLD for purposes of indexing, april 26,2010 – June 10,2010, Sunrise B allowed trademarks of national effect to apply for exact match domains. June 21,2010 – July 13,2010, Landrush allowed anyone to apply for domain names of commercial value. July 20,2010. co domains became generally available, the third level domain registrations closely mirror the traditional IANA. com /. net /. org /. gov /. edu /. mil hierarchy, with the addition of a national equivalent of. name. In 2001, the university began to consider the possibility of marketing the domain as an alternative to the generic top-level domains, in turn the university wrote to ICANN, rejecting the governments objections and stating their intention to appoint a subcontractor to handle the commercialisation of the domain. At a meeting on December 11,2001, Holguín asked the Consultative Chamber, as a result of that process, through Resolution 001652 of 2008, the Ministry approved new policies that would govern the administration of the. CO TLD. A public procurement process began which resulted in the award of the contract to.
CO Internet SAS. On July 20,2010, second level. co domains became available to the rest of the world on a first-come, first-served basis. In a historic moment for Colombia and the. CO domain extension, the meetings host was. CO Internet S. A. S. The registry operator of the. CO domain, in 2014. CO Internet S. A. S was acquired by Neustar for US$109 Million, and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Neustar