Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
.bzh is an approved Internet top level domain. It is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be a top level domain for Brittany and the Breton culture and languages. On 10 May 2013, ICANN has approved the creation of the domain. On 27 February 2014, ICANN has signed the Registry Agreement with the applicant; the idea of applying for a.bzh top level domain was first mentioned in 2004 by Christian Ménard, member of the French Parliament. The introduction of the top level.cat domain in 2006 revived the idea. An online petition, initiated by Mikael Bodlore-Penlaez via the Geobreizh.com website, has mobilized public opinion and encouraged local authorities to state public support for this project. The Conseil Général d'Ille et Vilaine, the Conseil Régional de Bretagne, the Conseil Général du Finistère have unanimously supported the idea of creation of a. bzh. In 2007, the Regional Council of Brittany initiated a feasibility study of the project. Under the direction of a steering committee involving various stakeholders, this study has resulted in 2008 in the establishment of a formal structure to support the Breton application: www.bzh.
The www.bzh association is responsible for establishing the application, gathering the necessary funds to ensure its submission and its promotion within the Breton community. The association in December 2008 has been granted financial support from the Conseil Régional de Bretagne; the online petition has so far received more than 21,000 signatures. List of Internet top-level domains Top-level domain The initiative for. BZH* The. BZH websites directory*
Generalitat de Catalunya
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised. It consists of the Parliament of Catalonia, the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Executive Council of Catalonia; the Generalitat has a budget of €34 billion euros. The Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain on 27 October 2017 as the'Catalan Republic'. In response Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy decided to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and to call a snap regional election for 21 December 2017, after which a new Parliament and a new Catalan government was elected; the independence declaration was turned down by the central Spanish government, members of the Catalan government, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium claiming to be the legitimate government of the Generalitat of Catalonia. Catalonia’s political past as a territorially differentiated community having its own representative and separated institutions, with respect to the sovereign power of the combined Catalan counties, the Crown of Aragon, the Monarchy of Spain and of the Spanish constitutional state, can be divided into four stages, separated by three great ruptures in the legal/public order.
Pau i Treva de Déu was a social movement promoted in the eleventh century as the response of the Church and the peasants to the violences perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns delimited a protected space of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory; this was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges, in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God; the Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King of the Crown of Aragon, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a political entity, approved the Catalan constitutions.
The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283. The medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor, it was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government. Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty. By the early 18th century, as the Nueva Planta decrees were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution was abolished in the Spanish territory as well; the Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia, declared the Catalan Republic on 14 April but reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia and given its modern political and representative function as the autonomous government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic.
The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Lluís Companys. After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1934, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of that year against the Spanish authorities, it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936. In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during all the Francoist dictatorship until 1975; the president of the Generalitat at the time, Lluís Companys, was tortured and executed in October 1940 for the crime of'military rebellion'. Nonetheless, the Generalitat remained its official existence in exile, leaded by presidents Josep Irla and Josep Tarradellas; the succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977, when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government.
Tarradellas, when he returned to Catalonia, made his quoted remark "Ciutadans de Catalunya: ja sóc aquí", reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia, one of the historic nationalities of present-day Spain. After this, the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Sp
Nyan Cat is the name of a YouTube video uploaded in April 2011, which became an Internet meme. The video merged a Japanese pop song with an animated cartoon cat with a Pop-Tart for a torso, flying through space, leaving a rainbow trail behind it; the video ranked at number 5 on the list of most viewed YouTube videos in 2011. On April 2, 2011, the GIF animation of the cat was posted by 25-year-old Christopher Torres of Dallas, who uses the name "prguitarman", on his website LOL-Comics. Torres explained in an interview where the idea for the animation came from: "I was doing a donation drive for the Red Cross and in-between drawings in my Livestream video chat, two different people mentioned I should draw a'Pop Tart' and a'cat'." In response, he created a hybrid image of a Pop-Tart and a cat, developed a few days into the animated GIF. The design of Nyan Cat was influenced by Torres' pet cat Marty, who died in November 2012 from feline infectious peritonitis; the original version of the song "Nyanyanyanyanyanyanya!" was uploaded by user "daniwell" to the Japanese video site Niconico on July 25, 2010.
The song features the Vocaloid Hatsune Miku. The Japanese word nya is onomatopoeic, imitating the call of a cat. On January 30, 2011, a user named "Momomomo" uploaded a cover of "Nyanyanyanyanyanyanya!" Featuring the UTAU voice Momone Momo. The voice source used to create the Momone Momo voice was Momoko Fujimoto, a Japanese woman who lives in Tokyo. YouTube user "saraj00n" combined the cat animation with the "Momo Momo" version of the song "Nyanyanyanyanyanyanya!", uploaded it to YouTube on April 5, 2011, three days after Torres had uploaded his animation, giving it the title "Nyan Cat". The video became a success after being featured on websites including G4 and CollegeHumor. Christopher Torres said: "Originally, its name was Pop Tart Cat, I will continue to call it so, but the Internet has reached a decision to name it Nyan Cat, I’m happy with that choice, too."In March 2019, ownership of the YouTube channel hosting the original Nyan Cat video was transferred to Means TV, a socialist video streaming service.
The Nyan Cat music video reached ninth place in Business Insider's top ten viral videos of April 2011, with 7.2 million total views. The original YouTube video has received over 146 million views as of May 30, 2017. Due to its popularity, many new remixes and cover versions have been made, some several hours long. There are ringtones and applications created for operating systems and devices including Windows, iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows Phone, HP webOS. "Nyan Cat Adventure", by 21st Street Games, is an licensed game. An licensed cryptocurrency entitled "Nyancoin" with the domain name nyanco.in was launched in January 2014. Christopher Torres criticized the website www.nyan.cat, which featured a similar-looking cat with the pop tart replaced by a slice of toast, the same background music. The site, which uses the.cat sponsored top-level domain, was described by Torres as "plagiarized". Since 2012 the website has been operated by Torres, shows the authentic version of the cat. On June 27, 2011, the original YouTube video was taken down from the site following a Digital Millennium Copyright Act complaint from someone claiming to be Torres.
Torres issued a statement on his website LOL-comics denying that he was the source of the complaint, contacted Saraj00n and daniwell, who hold the copyright for the video and the song, in order to file a counter-complaint to YouTube. During the period that the video was unavailable for viewing, Torres received numerous abusive e-mails from people who wrongly believed that he had filed the DMCA complaint. On June 28, 2011, the Nyan Cat video was restored to YouTube. In May 2013, Christopher Torres and Charles Schmidt, the creators of Nyan Cat and Keyboard Cat jointly sued 5th Cell and Warner Bros. for copyright infringement and trademark infringement over the appearance of these characters without permission in the Scribblenauts series of video games. Torres and Schmidt have registered copyrights on their characters and have pending trademark applications on the names. Torres released a statement saying that he had tried to obtain compensation from 5th Cell and Warner Bros. for commercial use of the character, but was "disrespected and snubbed" multiple times.
The suit was settled in September 2013, with Torres and Schmidt being paid for the use of the characters. Robot Unicorn Attack Techno Kitten Adventure Cats and the Internet List of Internet phenomena Nyan Cat on LOL-Comics, the original GIF animation by prguitarman, April 2, 2011. Nyan Cat original video on YouTube by saraj00n, April 5, 2011. Official Nyan Cat website
.eus is the top-level domain for the Basque language. The abbreviation eus comes from the Basque endonym euskara, meaning "Basque language". To its creation.eu domain was used for this purpose, although unofficially. In 2008, dotCYMRU, dotEUS, dotSCOT, dotBZH formed ECLID. On 10 June 2013, ICANN approved the creation of the domain. Use of the domain name was restricted until March–April 2014. However, ICANN facilitated an eus qualified launch program that allowed certain websites to claim a.eus domain before this General Registration date. To read about restrictions regarding who and which entities may apply for a.eus domain, see this document, belonging to Puntueus Fundazioa, an internet service provider in San Sebastian, Spain. Domeinuak.eus
The culture of Galicia is the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with the Galicia region of Spain and the Galician people. As with many other Romance languages, Galician-Portuguese emerged as a literary language in the Middle Ages, during the 12th-13th century, when a rich lyric tradition developed. However, in the face of the hegemony of Castilian Spanish, during the so-called Séculos Escuros, from 1530 to 1800, it fell from major literary or legal use, revived again during the 19th century Rexurdimento with such writers as Rosalía de Castro, Manuel Murguía, Manuel Leiras Pulpeiro, Eduardo Pondal. In the 20th century, before the Spanish Civil War the Irmandades da Fala and Grupo Nós included such writers as Vicente Risco, Ramón Cabanillas and Castelao. Public use of Galician was suppressed in Francoist Spain but has been resurgent since the restoration of democracy. Contemporary Writers in Galician include Xosé Luís Méndez Ferrín, Manuel Rivas, Suso de Toro. Galician cuisine uses fish and shellfish.
The empanada is a meat or fish pie, with a bread-like base and crust with the meat or fish filling being in a tomato sauce including onions and garlic. Caldo galego is a hearty soup whose main ingredients are a local vegetable named grelo; the latter is employed in Lacón con grelos, a typical carnival dish, consisting of pork shoulder boiled with grelos and chorizo. Centolla is the equivalent of King Crab, it is prepared by being boiled alive, having its main body opened like a shell, having its innards mixed vigorously. Another popular dish is octopus and served in a wooden plate, cut into small pieces and laced with olive oil, sea salt and pimentón; this dish is called Pulpo a la gallega or in Galician "Polbo á Feira", which translates as "Galician-style Octopus". There are several regional varieties of cheese; the best-known one is the so-called tetilla, named after its breast-like shape. Other regarded varieties include the San Simón cheese from Vilalba and the creamy cheese produced in the Arzúa-Curtis area.
The latter area produces high-quality beef. A classical dessert is filloas, crêpe-like pancakes made with flour, broth or milk, eggs; when cooked at a pig slaughter festival, they may contain the animal's blood. A famous almond cake called Tarta de Santiago is a Galician sweet speciality produced in Santiago de Compostela. Galicia has 30 products with Denominación de orixe, some of them with Denominación de Origen Protegida. D. O. and D. O. P. are part of a system of regulation of quality and geographical origin among Spain's finest producers. Galicia produces a number of high-quality wines, including Albariño, Ribeira Sacra and Valdeorras; the grape varieties used are local and found outside Galicia and Northern Portugal. Just as notably from Galicia comes the spirit Aguardente—the name means burning water—often referred to as Orujo in Spain and internationally or as caña in Galicia; this spirit is made from the distillation of the pomace of grapes. As in the rest of Spain, football is the most popular sport in Galicia.
Deportivo de La Coruña, from the city of A Coruña, is the region's most successful club. Celta de Vigo, from Vigo, are a major club and are Deportivo's principal regional rivals; when the two sides play, it is referred to as the Galician derby. SD Compostela from Santiago de Compostela and Racing Ferrol from Ferrol are two other notable club sides. To Catalonia and the Basque Country, Galicia periodically fields a regional team against the international opposition. Other popular sports in Galicia include futsal and basketball. Galicia is noted for a great tradition of maritime sports, both sea and river-based - sports such as rowing, yachting and surfing. Los Suaves: hard rock/heavy metal band active since the early 1980s, from Ourense Deluxe: pop/rock band from A Coruña led by Xoel López Los Limones: indie rock/indie pop/post-rock group from Ferrol led by Ferrol born Santi Santos, active since the early'80s Siniestro Total: punk rock band Os Resentidos: led by Antón Reixa in the 1980s Heredeiros da Crus: rock band singing in Galician language Triángulo de Amor Bizarro: indie rock/noise pop/post-punk band Luar na Lubre: a band inspired by traditional Galician Celtic music.
They have collaborated with other musicians. Carlos Núñez: he has collaborated with a great number of artists, being notable his long-term friendship with The Chieftains. Susana Seivane: virtuoso piper, she descends from a family of pipe makers and stated she preferred pipes instead of dolls during her childhood. Milladoiro Cristina Pato Día de San Xosé on 19 March Día do Traballo on 1 May Día das Letras Galegas on 17 May Día da Patria Galega known as St. James the Apostle Day on 25 July Día da Nosa Señora on 15 August Entroido, or Carnival, is a traditional celebration in Galicia disliked and forbidden by the Catholic Church. Famous celebrations are held in Laza, Verín, Xinzo de Limia. Festa do Corpus Christi in Ponteareas, has been observed since 1857 on the weekend following Corpus Christi and is known for its floral carpets, it was declared a Festival of Tourist Interest in 1968 and a Festival of National Tourist Interest in 1980. Arde Lucus, in June, celebrates the Celtic and Roman history of the city
The cat is a small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family; the cat is either a house cat, kept as a pet, or a feral cat ranging and avoiding human contact. A house cat is valued for its ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey, they are predators who are most active at dusk. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. Compared to humans, they see better in the dark and have a better sense of smell, but poorer color vision. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species. Cat communication includes the use of vocalizations including mewing, trilling, hissing and grunting as well as cat-specific body language.
Cats communicate by secreting and perceiving pheromones. Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. Domestic cats can be shown as registered pedigreed cats, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, evoking population control, it was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC. However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat was found in Cyprus, where a cat skeleton was excavated close by a human Neolithic grave dating to around 7500 BC. African wildcats were first domesticated in the Near East; the leopard cat was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U. S. by number of pets owned, with 95 million cats owned. As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned; the number of cats in the UK has nearly doubled since 1965. The origin of the English word cat and its counterparts in other Germanic languages, descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial, it has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus,'domestic cat', from catta, compare Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, Old Church Slavonic kotъ, among others. The Late Latin word is thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska,'wildcat', Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa. Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau,'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t, but John Huehnergard says "the source was not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."
Huehnergard opines it is "equally that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen considers the word to be native to Germanic and Northern Europe, suggests that it might be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi,'female stoat', Hungarian hölgy,'stoat'. In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort. An alternative word is English puss. Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Irish puisín or puiscín; the etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. A group of cats can be referred to a glaring. A male cat is called a tom or tomcat An unspayed female is called a queen in a cat-breeding context. A juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten.
In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling. The male progenitor of a cat a pedigreed cat, is its sire and its mother is its dam. A pedigreed cat is one. A purebred cat is one. Many pedigreed and purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats, or as random-bred, moggies, or mongrels or mutt-cats; the semi-feral cat, a outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are wary of human interaction. Domesti