ca is the Internet country code top-level domain for Canada. The domain name registry that operates it is the Canadian Internet Registration Authority, registrants can register domains at the second level. Third-level registrations in one of the geographic third-level domains defined by the registry were discontinued on October 12,2010, registrants of. ca domains must meet the Canadian Presence Requirements as defined by the registry. The first. ca domain was registered by the University of Prince Edward Island in January 1988. ca Registry, the Canadian Internet Registration Authority is a non-profit Canadian corporation that is responsible for operating the. ca Internet country code Top Level Domain today. It assumed operation of the. ca ccTLD on December 1,2000, on April 15,2008, CIRA registered its one millionth. ca Internet domain name. Any. ca registration has to be ordered via a certified registrar, uBCs registry operations once favoured fourth-level names for purely local entities or third-level names for entities operating solely within one province.
Nationally incorporated companies could have a. ca domain, while provincially incorporated companies required the letters of their province, any of the above listed parties can register a domain with a name of their choosing followed directly by. ca. CIRA stopped accepting new registrations for third-level domains on October 12,2010, citing complexity, gc. ca is actually a standard domain like all other. ca domain names. CIRA does not register domain names under. gc. ca directly, the. mil. ca second-level domain name is a standard domain and is registered to the Department of National Defence. The. mil. ca suffix is used internally by DND on its intranet, internationalized domain names were introduced in January 2013 with a limited selection of characters to allow French language text with diacritics. Names which differ only in diacritical accents must have the same owner, Domain names that begin with the four characters xn-- are otherwise not available for registration. Length must be 2-63 characters, including the xn-- prefix encoding for internationalised domain names, names which match the name of an existing generic three-letter top level domain or the Canadian top level country code are reserved and therefore not available for new registrations.
Certain expletives are not accepted as names, municipal names of individual cities and localities within Canada are reserved nationwide, along with village. ca, hamlet. ca, town. ca, city. ca, ville. ca and the names of Canadian provinces. Exceptions were typically names registered before the restriction was introduced, such as the Canadian Governor General at gg. ca, names which exist at any of the levels are blocked in their availability elsewhere in the. ca hierarchy. Registration, if it can be done at all, requires manual intervention by the prospective registrar as the permission of all existing registrant must be obtained by CIRA. Registering this domain name requires permission from the Registrant that already holds the name, gouv. on. ca, gouv. pe. ca. However, with the agreement of these three parties New Brunswick would indeed be able to register and use gouv. nb. ca, existing third-level domain registrants looking to obtain the corresponding second-level domain are normally advised to use the same initial registrar for both names.
After a thirty-day redemption period, intended to provide the original registrant one final chance to reclaim a suspended name, domains which receive no bids are released and made openly available for new registrations
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions.
Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
be is the Internet country code top-level domain for Belgium. The domain became active in 1989 and was administrated by Pierre Verbaeten of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in 2000, the control of the TLD was transferred to DNS Belgium. As of June 2013 there are 1,392,477 registered domains and it was announced in November 2005 that the initial registration of domains would be free until the beginning of 2006, though with some limits on the number any individual was allowed to register. This was remarkably popular, with some 17,000 registrations coming in on the first day of the promotion, domain names are registered directly at second level. Some of Belgians main academic institutions, such as the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université Libre de Bruxelles, use third-level names under ac. be, any. be registration has to be ordered via a registered agent. The domain has been in use as a logo for the government since 2003. Only recognized UN member states are eligible for a two-letter domain extension, in October 2008, the Flemish government expressed its intention to obtain a three-letter domain code for Flanders, like. vla. vln or. fla.
In 2014. vlaanderen and. brussels were added, administered by DNSBelgium, on the website YouTube, a shortener for YouTube videos is youtu. be, for example www. youtube. com/watch. v= becomes youtu. be/. Google’s chrome experiment, for the 40th anniversary of the Rubiks cube, Chrome cube lab, features many domain hacks like Image Cube, IANA. be whois information List of. be registered agents
RESTENA is the very high speed network for the education and research community of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Operational since 1989 and connected to the global Internet in 1992, the Foundation coordinates Internet resources nationally. It operates the domain registry for the. lu domain. A point-to-point connection service is available for institutions to interconnect remote sites via a private network. A secure Web interface allows the institutions connectivity performance to be monitored and evaluated, service availability is watched and the status is notified by email or SMS. The domain name service includes provision of recursive, authoritative DNS servers for all domain names required by the institutions, the Network Time Protocol service allows synchronising the clocks of all computer and network equipment. This service is available to connected institutions and individual users, a pool of public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses is available for allocation to connected institutions. The ADSL service provides continuous, unlimited access at speeds to all national RESTENA network services.
Dialup access via ISDN or analog modem gives less demanding users access to network services, the VPN service provides a secure connection to the network. The service is available to any user connected outside the network wishing to access normally inaccessible intranet services, RESTENA operates the international roaming service eduroam in Luxembourg. Eduroam allows users of participating institutions worldwide to access the Internet from any of these using the access credentials obtained from their home institution. For institutions RESTENA offers on-line email account management, central spam and virus protection, to individual users RESTENA offers value-added email accounts, Webmail and virus protection and a directory service. RESTENA provides a website hosting solution, which includes hard disk space allocation, ftp access for site updates, databases. In addition it offers a dedicated server service as well as dedicated physical servers located in the secure server rooms of RESTENA. RESTENA-CSIRT is RESTENAs Computer Security Incident Response Team
cf is the Internet country code top-level domain for the Central African Republic. It is administered by the Central African Society of Telecommunications, dot CF is an initiative of the Societe Centrafricaine de Telecommunications in Bangui, Central African Republic in partnership with Freenom. The domain has been available for free registration on Freenom website. IANA. cf whois information dot cf page Freenom, a registrar offering. cf registration
Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have developed to do this. The term country code frequently refers to international dialing codes, the E.164 country calling codes and this standard defines for most of the countries and dependent areas in the world, a two-letter a three-letter, and a three-digit numeric code. For more applications see ISO 3166-1 alpha-2. S. government and in the CIA World Factbook, on September 2,2008, FIPS 10-4 was one of ten standards withdrawn by NIST as a Federal Information Processing Standard. GOST7.164 international telephone dialing codes, list of country calling codes with 1-3 digits and these prefixes are legally administered by the national entity to which prefix ranges are assigned. Diplomatic license plates in the United States, assigned by the U. S. State Department, north Atlantic Treaty Organisation used two-letter codes of its own, list of NATO country codes.
They were largely borrowed from the FIPS 10-4 codes mentioned below, in 2003 the eighth edition of the Standardisation Agreement adopted the ISO3166 three-letter codes with one exception. The following can represent countries, The initial digits of International Standard Book Numbers are group identifiers for countries, the first three digits of GS1 Company Prefixes used to identify products, for example, in barcodes, designate numbering agencies. A comparison with ISO, IFS and others with notes United Nations Region Codes
ax is the Internet country code top-level domain of the Åland Islands, introduced in 2006. Previously, most Åland websites were under the. aland. fi subdomain, on February 17,2006, the Finnish parliament approved a modification of the laws regulating Finnish domain names to include the. ax top-level domain. On March 17,2006, Finnish president Tarja Halonen signed the bill into law, the government of Åland began accepting registrations immediately following the changing of the law. On June 9,2006, ICANN approved delegating the. ax top-level domain to the government of Åland, the. ax domain was added to the root zone on June 21,2006, and became active on August 15,2006. The code ax itself comes from the ISO3166 standard, and was assigned to Åland in 2004
af is the Internet country code top-level domain for Afghanistan. It is administered by AFGNIC, a service of the UNDP, registration is made directly at the second level, or on the third level beneath various categorized subdomains at the second level. Third-level domains have restrictions based on which second-level domain they are registered under, registration on second level is unrestricted, but more expensive. All fees are higher for international registrants, the domain was delegated to an Abdul Razeeq in 1997, this only a year after Taliban fighters had captured Kabul and founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. NetNames of London initially maintained the following an agreement with the IANA. IANA. af whois information AFGNIC official site AfghanServer. af registrant
au is the Internet country code top-level domain for Australia. It was first created on 5 March 1986, Domain name policy is managed by. au Domain Administration, with the registry operated by AusRegistry. The domain name was allocated by Jon Postel, operator of IANA to Kevin Robert Elz of Melbourne University in 1986. After an approximately five-year process in the 1990s, the Internet industry created a body called. au Domain Administration to operate the domain. It obtained assent from ICANN in 2001, and commenced operating a new regime for domain registration on 1 July 2002. Since this new regime, any registration has to be ordered via a registrar, oversight of. au is by. au Domain Administration. It is an organisation whose membership is derived from Internet organisations, industry members. The organisation operates with the endorsement of the Australian Government and with the authority of ICANN. Policy for. au is devised by policy development panels and these panels are convened by auDA and combine public input with industry representation to derive policy.
The day-to-day operation of the. au registry technical facility is tendered out by auDA, the current operator is AusRegistry who has performed this role since the initial tender in 2002. AusRegistry does not sell domain registration services direct to the consumer, rather consumers who wish to register a domain must do so via a domain name registrar, after the industrys liberalisation in 2002, there is an active competitive market in registrars with a variety of prices and services. In 2008 auDA changed its policy and allowed changes in ownership of. au domains. AuDA introduced the ISS in October 2013 as a mandatory requirement, discount Domain Name services, Cheaper Domains and Information Brokers, part of the Total Internet Group, are the first three auDA accredited registrars to achieve ISS compliance. The naming rules for. au require registrations under second-level categories that describe a type of entity. com. au and this follows a similar allocation policy to that formerly used in other countries such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
Registrations are currently permitted below a second-level domain, such as yourname. com. au, in April 2016, auDA announced it would introduce registrations directly at the second level, such as yourname. au. Direct registrations are due to be implemented in 2017, registering a domain in the. au namespace requires registrants to have either an exact match or a “close and substantial connection” to their desired domain name. Registration of a. au domain is completed through a reseller, known as a registrar and these domains are managed by the. au Community Domains Trust on behalf of auDA. CGDNs use the state or territorys common abbreviation as the level of the domain
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990
ag is the Internet country code top-level domain for Antigua and Barbuda. Registrations can be made at the second level directly beneath. ag, there are no restrictions on who can register. Aktiengesellschaft, abbreviated AG, is a German term that refers to a corporation that is limited by shares, i. e. owned by shareholders, the term is used in Germany and Switzerland. It has a use for other domain hacks for English words that end in -ag. The Heritage Foundation uses. ag for URL shortening, a German court ruled in July 2004 in second instance that a. ag domain may only be registered by an Aktiengesellschaft and more precisely by an AG that has the same name as the domain. That means that a company with shareholders in Germany with the name X AG, list of. AG Registrars IANA. ag whois information