Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company is an American global pharmaceutical company with headquarters located in Indianapolis, Indiana, in the United States. The company also has offices in Puerto Rico and 17 other countries and its products are sold in approximately 125 countries. The company was founded in 1876 by Col. Eli Lilly, Eli Lilly and Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and its shares have been a component of the S&P500 Index since 1971. Lilly was the first company to mass-produce penicillin, the Salk polio vaccine, Lilly is also the worlds largest manufacturer and distributor of psychiatric medications including Prozac, Dolophine, Cymbalta, and Zyprexa. A Fortune 500 corporation, Eli Lilly had revenues of $20 billion in 2008, making it the 148th largest company in the United States, the company is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange and is a member of the S&P500 stock index. Eli Lilly was one of the Nifty Fifty stocks that propelled the mid-twentieth-century bull market, Eli Lilly is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. According to Forbes, Lilly ranked as the 243rd largest public company in the world in 2016, with sales of US$20 billion, as of 1997 it was the largest corporation and the largest charitable benefactor in Indiana. The companys founder was Colonel Eli Lilly, a pharmaceutical chemist, Lilly served as the company president until his death in 1898. A stylized version of his signature appears in the companys red logo. In 1869, after working for drugstores in Greencastle and Indianapolis, Indiana, Lilly became a partner in a Paris, Illinois, Although the drugstore was profitable, Lilly was more interested in medicinal manufacturing than running a pharmacy. He began formulating plans to create a company of his own, Lilly left the partnership with Binford in 1873 and returned to Indianapolis. Lilly opened a manufacturing operation called Johnston and Lilly with John F. Johnston as his partner in 1874. Lilly used his share of the assets, which amounted to an estimated $400 in merchandise and about $1,000 in cash and his new business venture became Eli Lilly and Company. On May 10,1876, Lilly opened his own laboratory in a rented, two-story brick building at 15 West Pearl Street in Indianapolis, the sign outside, above the shops door, read, Eli Lilly, Chemist. One of the first medicines that Lilly began to produce was quinine, the result was a ten fold increase in sales. At the end of 1876, his first year of business, at the end of 1877 sales reached $11,318, and by 1879 they had grown to $48,000. Lilly hired his brother, James, as his first full-time salesman in 1878, James and the subsequent sales team marketed the companys drugs nationally. The company outgrew its first location on Pearl Street, where it remained from 1876 to 1878, in 1881 Lilly purchased a complex of buildings on property at McCarty and Alabama Streets and moved the company to its new headquarters in Indianapoliss south-side industrial area
/ˈfaɪzər/ is an American global pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It is among the worlds largest pharmaceutical companies and it is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 2004. Pfizer develops and produces medicines and vaccines for a range of medical disciplines, including immunology, oncology, cardiology, diabetology/endocrinology. Pfizer was founded in 1849 by cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles F. Erhart in New York City as a manufacturer of fine chemicals and its discovery of Terramycin in 1950 put it on a path towards becoming a research-based pharmaceutical company. It has made numerous acquisitions, including Warner–Lambert in 2000, Pharmacia in 2003, in 2016, Pfizer Inc. was expected to merge with Allergan plc, in a deal that would have been worth $160 billion, to create the Ireland-based Pfizer plc. The merger was called off in April 2016 due to recent new rules from the United States Treasury against inversions, Pfizer is named after German-American Charles Pfizer who co-founded the company with his cousin Charles F. Erhart. There, they produced an antiparasitic called santonin and this was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that really kick-started Pfizers growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the bounded by Bartlett Street, Harrison Avenue, Gerry Street. Pfizers original administrative headquarters was at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan, by 1906, sales totaled $3.4 million. World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate that Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid and were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919. As a result, Pfizer developed expertise in fermentation technology, in the 1940s, penicillin became very inexpensive. As a result, Pfizer searched for new antibiotics with greater profit potential, Pfizers discovery and commercialization of Terramycin in 1950 changed the company from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. To augment its research in technology, Pfizer developed a drug discovery program focusing on in vitro synthesis. Pfizer also established a health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute. By the 1950s, Pfizer had established offices in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, in 1960, the company moved its medical research laboratory operations out of New York City to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut. In 1980 Pfizer launched Feldene, a prescription medication that became Pfizers first product to reach one billion United States dollars in total sales. During the 1980s and 1990s, Pfizer Corporation growth was sustained by the discovery and marketing of Zoloft, Lipitor, Norvasc, Zithromax, Aricept, Diflucan, in this decade, Pfizer grew by mergers, including those with Warner–Lambert, Pharmacia, and Wyeth. In 2003, the company acquired Esperion Therapeutics for $1.3 billion, in 2004, Pfizer announced it would acquire Meridica for $125 million
Merck & Co.
Merck Sharp & Dohme outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. The company was established in 1891 as the United States subsidiary of the German company Merck, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government during World War I and subsequently established as an independent American company in 1917. While it operates as Merck & Co. in North America, Merck & Co. is the worlds seventh largest pharmaceutical company by market capitalization and revenue. Its headquarters is located in Kenilworth, New Jersey, Merck & Co. publishes The Merck Manuals, a series of medical reference books for physicians, nurses, and technicians. These include the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, the worlds best-selling medical reference, the Merck Index, a compendium of chemical compounds, was formerly published by Merck & Co. before being acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2012. Merck & Co. traces its origins to its original German parent company Merck, in the 19th century, the Merck company in Darmstadt evolved from a pharmacy to a major pharmaceutical company which pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine. In 1891, family member George Merck emigrated to the United States, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government in 1917 and re-established as an independent American company. Until the end of World War II, the company was led by George W. Merck, Merck & Co. hold the trademark rights to the Merck name in North America, while its former parent company retains the rights in the rest of the world. In 1929, H. K. Mulford Company merged with Sharpe and Dohme and this company brought to the future Merck & Co, Inc vaccine technology, including immunization of cavalry horses in World War I and delivery of a diphtheria antitoxin in 1925. In 1953, Merck & Co. merged with Philadelphia-based Sharp & Dohme, Inc. founded by Alpheus Phineas Sharp and Carl Friedrich Louis Dohme in 1845, becoming the largest US drugmaker. The merger combined Merck & Co. s strength in scientific research and chemical manufacturing with Sharp & Dohmes sales and distribution system, the combined company kept the trade name Merck in the United States and Canada, and as Merck Sharp & Dohme outside North America. In 1965 Merck & Co. acquired Charles E. Frosst Ltd. of Montreal, Canada and created Merck-Frosst Canada, Inc. as its Canadian subsidiary, Merck & Co. closed this facility in July 2010, and the company was renamed Merck Canada in 2011. The company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1970 and it has an operating subsidiary, KBI Inc. which was originally formed as a joint venture with AstraZeneca. In November 1993, Merck & Co. completed a $6 billion purchase of Medco Containment Services Inc. one of the largest mail-order pharmacy and managed-care drug companies. Merck & Co. spun Medco off ten years later, and on August 20,2003, in November 2009, Merck & Co. announced that it would merge with competitor Schering-Plough in a US$41 billion deal. The maneuver was an attempt to preserve Schering-Ploughs rights to market Remicade, the merger was completed on 2009-11-04. As of 2015, Merck Sharp & Dohme remains a subsidiary of the Merck & Co. parent, as of December 2013, the US company had approximately 76,000 employees in 120 countries with 31 factories worldwide. It is one of the seven largest pharmaceutical companies
Public Citizen is a non-profit, liberal / progressive consumer rights advocacy group and think tank based in Washington, D. C. United States, with a branch in Austin, Texas, Public Citizen advocates before all three branches of the United States federal government. Broadly speaking, Public Citizen favors robust corporate accountability and strong government regulation, particularly in the areas of transport, healthcare, the organizations priorities range from campaign finance reform to drug and auto safety and financial reform. The unifying theme is an effort to curb the impact of power on American democracy. Public Citizens pro-regulatory stance has been criticized by the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, Public Citizens slogan is “Corporations have their lobbyists in Washington, D. C. As explained on its website, its goal is “to ensure that all citizens are represented in the halls of power. ”It is a nonprofit organization unaffiliated with any partisan political activity. It survives on donations from its 80,000 supporters and on other income, in the aftermath of Ralph Naders role in the 2000 presidential election, Public Citizen disassociated itself from its founder. Mother Jones also pointed out that Nader’s association with Public Citizen was causing fundraising problems, Public Citizen—and the other groups that Mr. Nader founded—act independently. Ralph Nader, founder Joan Claybrook, first Executive Director Representative Donna Edwards Robert Weissman, Executive Director Mark J. Green Lori Wallach, Director, Global Trade Watch Sidney M