List of Internet top-level domains

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This list of Internet top-level domain extensions contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) at the Root Zone Database.[1][2] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains, as of February 2017, the root domain contains 1528 top-level domains,[3] while a few have been retired and are no longer functional.

Types[edit]

IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[4]

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

Name Entity Administrator[5] Notes IDN DNSSEC
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools, and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name[citation needed], to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes
.net network Verisign is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes
.int international organizations Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, a few grandfathered domains do not meet these criteria. No Yes
.edu education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific higher educational institutions such as, but not limited to, trade schools and universities. In the U.S., its use was restricted in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities, some institutions, such as the Exploratorium, that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes
.gov U.S. national and state government agencies General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to United States governmental entities and agencies as well as qualifying state, county and local municipal government agencies. No Yes
.mil U.S. military United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa "Address and Routing Parameter Area" Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

As of May 20, 2017, there were 255 Country code top-level domains. (For comparison, at the same time the United Nations comprised 193 countries.)

Table legend
Name DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions.
Entity Country, dependency, or region
Explanation Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arrive from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German name for Germany).
Notes General remarks
IDN Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply)
IPv6 Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[6][7] Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates No Yes
.af  Afghanistan Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft) Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla No Yes
.al  Albania Citizenship no longer required No Yes
.am  Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business No Yes Yes Yes
.an  Netherlands Antilles Local presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on 10 October 2010. No Yes
.ao  Angola No Unknown
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ? Yes Yes ?
.ar  Argentina Spanish[cctld 1] Yes Yes Yes
.as  American Samoa Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain Yes Yes Yes
.at  Austria Yes[cctld 2] Yes Yes Yes
.au  Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and must have a minimum 2 year registration period.[8] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. Yes Yes
.aw  Aruba Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens Yes Yes
.ax  Åland Albania already uses .al Yes Yes
.az  Azerbaijan Yes Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes
.bb  Barbados No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh Yes No Yes
.be  Belgium Also unofficially used in the canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[9] Yes Yes Yes[10]
.bf  Burkina Faso No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria Russian and Bulgarian[9] Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain Yes Yes
.bi  Burundi Yes Yes
.bj  Benin Yes Yes
.bl  Saint Barthélemy Not in use
.bm  Bermuda Local corporate registration required Yes Yes
.bn  Brunei Yes No
.bo  Bolivia Yes Yes
.bq  Bonaire Not yet assigned as of 1 December 2015
.br  Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[11] Yes[12] Yes No[cctld 3]
.bs  Bahamas Yes Yes
.bt  Bhutan Yes No
.bv  Bouvet Island Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no). No No No
.bw  Botswana Yes Yes
.by  Belarus Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany Yes Yes
.bz  Belize Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) Yes Yes
.ca  Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements.[13] French[cctld 4] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica Yes[cctld 5] Yes Yes
.ci  Côte d'Ivoire No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands No Yes
.cl  Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan also maintain TLDs. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.co  Colombia Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register. Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica Yes Yes
.cu  Cuba No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde No Yes
.cw  Curaçao Curaçao, West Indies No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus No No
.cz  Czech Republic No[cctld 6] Yes Yes
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[cctld 7] Yes Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti No Yes
.dk  Denmark Yes[cctld 8] Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic No Yes
.dz  Algeria Berber language name: Dzayer No Yes
.ec  Ecuador No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Yes[cctld 9] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara Saguia el-Hamra .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.
.er  Eritrea Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains. No No
.es  Spain España Yes Yes
.et  Ethiopia No No
.eu  European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[cctld 10] Yes Yes Yes[15]
.fi  Finland Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[cctld 11] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands Føroyar Yes Yes
.fr  France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.gb  United Kingdom Great Britain Deprecated.[16] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk. No No
.gd  Grenada Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[17] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana Guyane française No
.gg  Guernsey Commonly used in reference to the gamer slang for "good game". No Yes
.gh  Ghana No No
.gi  Gibraltar Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. No Yes
.gn  Guinea A local contact is required Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale Also used as a free domain service to the public. No
.gr  Greece Yes[cctld 14] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau No Yes
.gy  Guyana No Yes
.hk  Hong Kong Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes Yes Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands No Yes
.hn  Honduras Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary citizens of EU or entity established by virtue of law in the territory of EU   Yes Yes
.id  Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[18] Yes Yes Yes
.ie  Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[19][20] No Yes Yes
.il  Israel Yes Yes No
.im  Isle of Man No Yes
.in  India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). Yes [cctld 15] Yes Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output that is useful for domain hacks. Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq Partial[21] Yes
.ir  Iran Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[cctld 16] No Yes
.je  Jersey -je is used in Dutch to form a diminutive: boek = a book, boekje = a little book it, je also means you in Dutch. No Yes
.jm  Jamaica No No
.jo  Jordan No Yes
.jp  Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. Yes Yes Yes Yes[22]
.ke  Kenya Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer No No
.ki  Kiribati Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis No Yes
.kp  North Korea Korea Democratic People's Republic No No
.kr  South Korea Korea Republic Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait No No
.ky  Cayman Islands Yes Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan No Yes
.la  Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[23] Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein Also unofficially used by entities in Long Island, New York Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka Yes Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia Partial[21] No
.ls  Lesotho No No
.lt  Lithuania Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya No Yes
.ma  Morocco Berber name: Murakuc, French name: Maroc Also used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma Partial[21] Yes
.mc  Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco No Yes
.md  Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. No Yes
.me  Montenegro Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.) Yes Yes
.mf  Collectivity of Saint Martin Not in use
.mg  Madagascar Yes Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands No
.mk  Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in Macedonia No Yes
.ml  Mali Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.mm  Myanmar Yes No
.mn  Mongolia The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[24] No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands Marianas Pacific No Yes
.mq  Martinique No No
.mr  Mauritania No Yes
.ms  Montserrat Unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. No Yes
.mt  Malta No No
.mu  Mauritius No Yes
.mv  Maldives No Yes
.mw  Malawi No Yes
.mx  Mexico Yes Yes
.my  Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[cctld 17] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique No No
.na  Namibia Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia   Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. Yes Yes
.ne  Niger No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua No No
.nl  Netherlands First official country code TLD.[25] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes Yes Yes
.np    Nepal All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. No No
.nr  Nauru Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr. No Yes
.nu  Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[cctld 18] Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand Māori[cctld 19] Yes Yes[26]
.om  Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. No No
.pa  Panama No No
.pe  Peru Yes[cctld 20] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia Polynésie française With Clipperton Island No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea No No
.ph  Philippines No Yes
.pk  Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 No Yes
.pl  Poland Yes[cctld 21] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico Yes Yes
.ps  Palestine[27] West Bank and Gaza Strip. No Yes
.pt  Portugal Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[28]
.pw  Palau Pelew Yes Yes Yes Yes[29]
.py  Paraguay No No
.qa  Qatar No No
.re  Réunion Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania Yes[30] Yes[31] Yes Yes[32]
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija. Former Serbian ISO code SR was assigned to Suriname. No Yes
.ru  Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. No Yes Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[33] Arabic[9] Yes[34] Yes Yes[35]
.sb  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, British Yes No
.sc  Seychelles Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan No Yes
.se  Sweden S/E are the only letters occurring in both Sverige and Sweden Yes[cctld 22] Yes Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore Yes Yes
.sh  Saint Helena Yes[cctld 23] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia Yes[cctld 24] Yes Yes
.sj  Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no). No Yes[36] No
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens No Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone No Yes
.sm  San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark No Yes
.sn  Senegal Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. Yes Yes
.so  Somalia Relaunched on 1 November 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname No Yes
.ss  South Sudan Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz) No Yes
.su  Soviet Union Still in use. Yes[cctld 25] Yes Yes Yes[cctld 26]
.sv  El Salvador No No
.sx  Sint Maarten Yes No
.sy  Syria Yes Yes
.sz  Swaziland Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses. No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey, the official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, it has also been adopted by the community of the game Team Fortress 2.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo No Yes
.th  Thailand Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan No Yes
.tk  Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch. No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is deactivated since 2015. Yes Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan Yes[cctld 27] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia Yes Yes Yes Yes
.to  Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tp  East Timor Timor Português ISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned and .tp is deactivated since 2015. No Yes
.tr  Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[cctld 28] No Yes Yes[37]
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."[38] Yes[cctld 29] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[16] Yes Yes
.um  United States Minor Outlying Islands Not in use
.us  United States of America Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[39] Yes Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan No Yes
.va   Vatican City Vaticano Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State) No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Partial[21] Yes
.ve  Venezuela No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands No Yes
.vn  Vietnam Việt nam Yes[cctld 30] Yes Yes
.vu  Vanuatu Yes Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Western Samoa Marketed for use in general WebSites Yes Yes[40] Yes
.ye  Yemen No No
.yt  Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, Great Britain and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika Yes Yes
.zm  Zambia Yes Yes[cctld 31]
.zw  Zimbabwe No No

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (17 November 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see IDN Zeichentabelle (PDF, in german language).
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ "About Internationalized Domain Names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  6. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[14]
  7. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  8. ^ (1 January 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from 13 June 2011 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Supported characters (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic): see details
  11. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (Latin): see details
  12. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  14. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ The Hindu. The Hindu http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/info-tech/govt-unveils-bharat-domain-name-in-devanagari/article6356885.ece. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  17. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  18. ^ see [1]
  19. ^ "F.A.Q. for Domain Names with macrons (IDNs) - .nz Domain Name Commission". Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  20. ^ (8 December 2007): see details[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "www.dns.pl: IDN". Retrieved 11 September 2003. 
  22. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  23. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  24. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  25. ^ (28 April 2008) see details Archived 19 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ "ccTLD.su". Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  27. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  28. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  29. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  30. ^ "TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  31. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  Algeria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Jaza'ir Berber name: Dzayer .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hay .am Yes
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla .bd Yes
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel .by No
xn--90ae .бг[41]  Bulgaria Bulgarian Cyrillic bg .bg No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Masr [42] .eg Yes
xn--e1a4c .ею  European Union Bulgarian Cyrillic eyu .eu Yes
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE .ge No
xn--qxam .ελ[41]  Greece Greek Greek el Not in use .gr No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 .hk Yes
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 August 2014 [43] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Urdu Urdu Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārata Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Became available 2015 .in Yes
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--2scrj9c .ಭಾರತ  India Kannada Kannada Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--rvc1e0am3e .ഭാരതം  India Malayalam Malayalam Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--45br5cyl .ভাৰত  India Assamese Bengali Bharatam Not in use .in
xn--3hcrj9c .ଭାରତ  India Oriya Oriya Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgbbh1a بارت.  India Kashmiri Arabic Bharat Not in use .in
xn--h2breg3eve .भारतम्  India Sanskrit Devanagari Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--h2brj9c8c .भारोत  India Santali Devanagari Bharot Not in use .in
xn--mgbgu82a ڀارت.  India Sindhi Arabic Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Persian Persian (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b عراق.  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Iraq Not in use .iq No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al 'Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--mix082f .澳门  Macao Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mix891f .澳門  Macao Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--d1alf .мкд  Macedonia Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd .mk No
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysia .my Yes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd موريتانيا.  Mauritania Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Mauritania Not delegated .mr No
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Maghrib .ma No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Oman .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Urdu Urdu Pakistan .pk Yes
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  Palestinian Authority Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filastīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qatar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Sa'ūdiyyah .sa Yes[34]
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbian Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg Yes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg Yes
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhalese Sinhalese Lanka .lk Partial[21]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilaṅkai .lk Partial[21]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sudan .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl سورية.  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūryā .sy Yes
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn Yes
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Yemen Not delegated .ye No

Source:[44]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

English[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.abc Disney Enterprises, Inc.[45]
.academy academic institutes Donuts[donuts 1] Yes Yes
.accountant accountants and accounting firms Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Donuts[donuts 2] Yes Yes
.active general The Active Network Unknown Yes
.actor actors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.adult adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. SITA No No
.agency business associations Donuts[donuts 3] Yes[9] Yes
.airforce defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.analytics Campus IP LLC [45]
.apartments apartments Donuts Yes Yes
.app Phone apps Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.archi architects and architect firms[46] Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[47] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.army defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.art artists, museums, art galleries, dealers, service providers and contractors UK Creative Ideas Yes Yes
.associates business associations Donuts[donuts 4] Yes Yes
.attorney attorneys and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.auction Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.audible Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.author Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.auto Cars Registry Limited[45]
.autos DERAutos Unknown Yes
.aws Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.baby Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.[45]
.bananarepublic The Gap, Inc.[45]
.band Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.bank banks Restricted to banks and savings associations fTLD Registry Services, LLC Unknown Yes
.bar Bars and related industry Punto 2012 Yes Yes
.barefoot Gallo Vineyards, Inc.[45]
.bargains coupons and online sellers Donuts[donuts 5] Yes Yes
.baseball MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC[45]
.basketball Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) [45]
.beauty L'Oréal[45]
.beer breweries and beer aficionados Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.best BestTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.bestbuy BBY Solutions, Inc.[45]
.bet Afilias plc[45]
.bible American Bible Society [45]
.bid auctions dot Bid Limited Yes Yes
.bike bicycles Donuts[donuts 6] Yes[49] Yes
.bingo bingo Donuts Yes Yes
.bio biodiversity, biographies May require compliance with organic agriculture principles.[50] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.biz business Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. NeuStar Yes[9] Yes
.black those who like the color black[51] Afilias Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.blockbuster Dish DBS Corporation[45]
.blog Blogs Automattic [52] Unknown Yes
.blue those who like the color blue[53] Afilias Yes Yes
.boo - Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.book Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC [45]
.bot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.boutique specialized businesses Donuts[donuts 7] Yes Yes
.box individuals and businesses, in order to promote personal cloud storage NS1 Limited Yes Yes
.broadway Celebrate Broadway, Inc.[45]
.broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD[45]
.build construction industry Open Top Level Domain—[54] Plan Bee LLC Yes Yes
.builders construction workers Donuts[donuts 8] Yes Yes
.business businesses Donuts[donuts 9] Yes Yes
.buy Amazon Registry Services, INC[45]
.buzz marketing and social networking DOTSTRATEGY Yes Yes
.cab cabs and taxi companies Donuts[donuts 10] Yes Yes
.cafe coffee industry Donuts Yes Yes
.call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.cam entertainment[55] Acwebconnecting[56] Yes Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Donuts[donuts 11] Yes Yes
.camp camps and camping Donuts[donuts 12] Yes Yes
.cancerresearch Organizations, research institutes and individuals interested in ending cancer through research [57] Australian Cancer Research Foundation Unknown Yes
.capital financial firms Donuts[donuts 13] Yes Yes
.car Cars Registry Limited [45]
.cards general Donuts[donuts 14] Yes Yes
.care healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 15] Yes Yes
.career dotCareer LLC Yes Yes
.careers Employment Donuts[donuts 16] Yes Yes
.cars Automotive Uniregistry Yes Yes
.case CNH Industrial N.V.[45]
.cash financial Donuts[donuts 17] Yes Yes
.casino casinos Donuts Yes Yes
.catering Food service Donuts[donuts 18] Yes Yes
.catholic Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[45]
.center general Donuts[donuts 19] Yes Yes
.ceo CEOs [58] CEOTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD[45]
.channel Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.chat online chat Donuts Yes Yes
.cheap Resellers Donuts[donuts 20] Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.church churches Donuts[donuts 21] Yes Yes
.cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl [45]
.circle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.city general Donuts[donuts 22] Yes Yes
.claims retail, auctions Donuts[donuts 23] Yes Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Donuts[donuts 24] Yes Yes
.click Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Donuts[donuts 25] Yes Yes
.clothing Apparel Donuts[donuts 26] Yes Yes
.cloud Aruba S.p.A.
.club groups, organizations, assemblies, communities, general [59] .CLUB DOMAINS Yes[60] Yes
.coach travel (flights and motor coaches) Donuts Yes Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Donuts[donuts 27] Yes Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Donuts[donuts 28] Yes Yes
.college Educational XYZ.com Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Donuts[donuts 29] Yes Yes
.company business associations Donuts[donuts 30] Yes Yes
.compare iSelect Ltd [45]
.computer Technology Donuts[donuts 31] Yes Yes
.condos Real estate Donuts[donuts 32] Yes Yes
.construction Construction industry Donuts[donuts 33] Yes Yes
.consulting hired advisors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.[45]
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Donuts[donuts 34] Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.cool General interests Donuts[donuts 35] Yes Yes
.coop cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. DotCooperation No Yes
.country general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.coupon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.coupons coupons Donuts Yes Yes
.courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[45]
.credit Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 36] Yes Yes
.creditcard Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 37] Yes Yes
.cruise Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.[45]
.cricket cricket Famous Four Media[ffm 1] Unknown Yes
.cruises cruise businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 38] Yes Yes
.dad families Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.data Dish DBS Corporation [45]
.date online dating Unknown Yes
.dating online dating Donuts[donuts 39] Yes Yes
.day general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.deal Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.deals online shopping and couponing Donuts[donuts 40] Yes Yes
.degree general Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.delivery general Donuts[donuts 41] Yes Yes
.democrat Democratic Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.dental dentists Donuts[donuts 42] Yes Yes
.dentist dentists Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.design graphic art and fashion Top Level Design Yes Yes
.dev development - Google Unknown Unknown
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Donuts[donuts 43] Yes Yes
.diet Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.digital general Donuts[donuts 44] Yes Yes
.direct general Donuts[donuts 45] Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Donuts[donuts 46] Yes Yes
.discount general Donuts[donuts 47] Yes Yes
.diy Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[45]
.docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.doctor Brice Trail, LLC[45]
.dog dog stores and owners Donuts Yes Yes
.domains domain registries Donuts[donuts 48] Yes Yes
.dot Dish DBS Corporation [45]
.download technology Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.duck Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[45]
.earth Interlink Co., Ltd.[45]
.eat restaurants and foodies Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.eco Sustainability minded companies, non-profits and professionals.[61] Open to anyone pledging a commitment to sustainability action.[62] Big Room Inc.[63] No Yes
.education educational institutes Donuts[donuts 49] Yes Yes
.email email Donuts[donuts 50] Yes Yes
.energy energy industry and marketing Donuts[donuts 51] Yes Yes
.engineer engineers and engineering firms Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.engineering engineering firms Donuts[donuts 52] Yes Yes
.enterprises business associations Donuts[donuts 53] Yes Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Donuts[donuts 54] Yes Yes
.esq lawyers, law firms, legal professionals To be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[64] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.estate real estate businesses Donuts[donuts 55] Yes Yes
.events happenings Donuts[donuts 56] Yes Yes
.exchange generic trade Donuts[donuts 57] Yes Yes
.expert generic expertise Donuts[donuts 58] Yes Yes
.exposed general interest Donuts[donuts 59] Yes Yes
.express shipping Donuts Yes Yes
.fail general Donuts[donuts 60] Yes Yes
.faith religion and churches Unknown Yes
.family families Unknown Yes
.fan Asiamix Digital Ltd[45]
.fans general Unknown Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Donuts[donuts 61] Yes Yes
.fashion clothing industry Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fast Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.feedback Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd[45]
.final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br[45]
.finance financial Donuts[donuts 62] Yes Yes
.financial financial Donuts[donuts 63] Yes Yes
.fire Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Donuts[donuts 64] Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fit Fitness and exercise Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.fitness Fitness and exercise Donuts[donuts 65] Yes Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 66] Yes Yes
.florist florists Donuts[donuts 67] Yes Yes
.flowers florists and gardens Uniregistry Yes Yes
.fly travel To be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[65] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.foo web development [66] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.food Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[45]
.foodnetwork Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[45]
.football soccer and American football Donuts Yes Yes
.forsale online retail Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.forum Fegistry, LLC[45]
.foundation charitable organizations Donuts[donuts 68] Yes Yes
.free Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.frontdoor Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[45]
.fun Unknown Unknown
.fund financial Donuts[donuts 69] Yes Yes
.furniture furniture businesses Donuts[donuts 70] Yes Yes
.fyi "for your information" Donuts Yes Yes
.gallery photo and art galleries Donuts[donuts 71] Yes Yes
.game Uniregistry, Corp.[45]
.games United TLD Holdco Ltd.[45]
.garden gardening Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.gift gift-giving Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.gifts gift-giving Donuts[donuts 72] Yes Yes
.gives charities and gift-giving Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.glass window sales and repairs Donuts[donuts 73] Yes Yes
.global general Dot GLOBAL Yes Yes
.gold gold and luxury Donuts Unknown Yes
.golf golf Donuts Yes Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Republican State Leadership Committee Spanish[67] Yes
.graphics graphics Donuts[donuts 74] Yes Yes
.green the environmentally-focused "As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way that negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[68] Afilias Unknown Yes
.gripe opinion sites Donuts[donuts 75] Yes Yes
.grocery Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.[45]
.group Romeo Town, LLC[45]
.guide help sites Donuts[donuts 76] Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.guru generic expertise Donuts[donuts 77] Yes[69] Yes
.hair L'Oreal[45]
.hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.health DotHealth, LLC[45]
.healthcare healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 78] Unknown Yes
.help help sites Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.here generic geographic Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV dotHIV Unknown Yes
.hockey hockey Donuts Yes Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Donuts[donuts 79] Yes Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Donuts[donuts 80] Yes Yes
.homegoods The TJX Companies, Inc.[45]
.homes real estate professionals Dominion Enterprises Unknown Yes
.homesense The TJX Companies, Inc.[45]
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.hospital Ruby Pike, LLC [45]
.host network companies Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.hosting Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.hot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.hotels Booking.com B.V.[45]
.house real estate and construction businesses Donuts[donuts 81] Yes Yes
.how how-to guides Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.[45]
.industries industrial businesses Donuts[donuts 82] Yes Yes
.info information Afilias German[9] Yes
.ing Verbal suffix: e.g., "jump.ing". Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[70] Top Level Design Yes Yes
.institute[71] Donuts[donuts 83] Yes Yes
.insurance fTLD Registry Services LLC[45]
.insure Insurance companies Donuts[donuts 84] Yes Yes
.international international entities Donuts[donuts 85] Yes Yes
.investments financial Donuts[donuts 86] Yes Yes
.jewelry jewelry stores Donuts Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[72] Employ Media No Yes
.joy Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.kim people named Kim
Also means "who" in Turkish
Afilias Unknown Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Donuts[donuts 87] Yes Yes
.land real estate Donuts[donuts 88] Yes Yes
.latino Dish DBS Corporation[45]
.law Restricted to qualified lawyers, courts of law, law schools, and legal regulators.[73] Minds + Machines Group Limited[45]
.lawyer lawyers and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.lease financing Donuts[donuts 89] Yes Yes
.legal lawyers and legal organizations Donuts Yes Yes
.lgbt the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community "Registrants are prohibited from using the .LGBT domain in a manner that is harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, defamatory, or hateful with respect to the LGBT community."[74] Afilias Unknown Yes
.life general Donuts[donuts 90] Yes Yes
.lifeinsurance American Council of Life Insurers[45]
.lighting lighting Donuts[donuts 91] Yes Yes
.like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.limited general Donuts[donuts 92] Yes Yes
.limo limousine businesses Donuts[donuts 93] Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[75] Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.live United TLD Holdco Ltd.[45]
.living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[45]
.loan banks and lenders Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.loans banks and lenders Donuts[donuts 94] Yes Yes
.locker Dish DBS Corporation[45]
.lol LOL: laughing out loud Uniregistry[76] Unknown Yes
.lotto Afilias Unknown Yes
.love dating sites Unknown Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Luxury Partners Yes Yes
.makeup L'Oréal[45]
.management business management Donuts[donuts 95] Yes Yes
.map Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.market marketing services and retailers Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.marketing marketing services Donuts[donuts 96] Yes Yes
.markets financial and stock markets IG Group Unknown Yes
.mba Masters in Business Administration Donuts Yes Yes
.med Medistry LLC [45]
.media general media interests Donuts[donuts 97] Yes Yes
.meet social gatherings, meeting new people Afilias Unknown Yes
.meme Internet memes Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.memorial memorial sites Donuts Yes Yes
.men men Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.menu restaurants Wedding TLD2 Yes Yes
.mint Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.[45]
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Afilias Yes Yes
.mobile Dish DBS Corporation [45]
.mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[45]
.moe Japanese otaku culture; see moe (slang) Interlink Yes Yes
.mom Uniregistry, Corp.[45]
.money financial Donuts Yes Yes
.mortgage mortgage lenders Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.motorcycles motorcycles DERMotorcycles Unknown Yes
.mov Digital video Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.movie movies and cinemas Donuts Yes Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Museum Domain Management Association Latin script[9] Yes
.name individuals, by name Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Verisign Yes[9] Yes
.navy defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.network general Donuts[donuts 98] Yes Yes
.new general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.news news sites Unknown Yes
.ngo Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.ninja general expertise Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.now Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.observer news organizations Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
.off Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[45]
.one general .one (top-level domain) Unknown Yes
.ong Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.onl short for "online" I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.online generic Unknown Yes
.ooo general Infibeam No Yes
.open American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.[45]
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[77] Afilias Unknown Yes
.origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[45]
.page Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.partners businesses Donuts[donuts 99] Yes Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Donuts[donuts 100] Yes Yes
.party nightclubs and social gatherings Famous Four Media[ffm 2] Unknown Yes
.pay Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.pet Afilias plc[45]
.pharmacy pharmacies "All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[78] National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Unknown Yes
.phone Dish DBS Corporation [45]
.photo photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 101] Yes Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 102] Yes Yes
.physio physical therapists Must be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[79][80] PhysBiz Unknown Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 103] Yes Yes
.pid Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.pin Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.pink those who like the color pink Afilias Yes Yes
.pizza pizza parlors Donuts[donuts 104] Yes Yes
.place general Donuts[donuts 105] Yes Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Donuts[donuts 106] Yes Yes
.plus generic Donuts Yes Yes
.poker Poker players and sites Afilias[n 4] Unknown Yes
.porn adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[81] Universal Postal Union No[82] Yes
.press publishing and journalism Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.prime Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.pro professions/professionals Registry Services Corporation No Yes
.productions studio/art businesses Donuts[donuts 107] Yes Yes
.prof Professors, teachers and learning Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.promo Afilias plc[45]
.properties real estate Donuts[donuts 108] Yes Yes
.property real estate Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.protection XYZ.COM LLC[45]
.pub bars and pubs Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.qpon coupons dotCOOL Unknown Yes
.racing racing Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.radio European Broadcasting Union (EBU)[45]
.read Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.realestate dotRealEstate LLC[45]
.realtor realtors To be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[83] Real Estate Domains Unknown Yes
.realty Fegistry, LLC[45]
.recipes recipes and cooking Donuts[donuts 109] Yes Yes
.red those who like the color red[84]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Afilias Yes Yes
.rehab Rehab centers and support sites Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.reit real estate investment trusts Restricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[85] National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Unknown Yes
.ren Renren users (ren means "people/person" in Mandarin Chinese pinyin Restricted TLD[86] Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co. Unknown Yes
.rent Real estate professionals and small businesses xyz.xyz Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Donuts[donuts 110] Yes Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Donuts[donuts 111] Yes Yes
.report business services Donuts[donuts 112] Yes Yes
.republican Republican Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rest Restaurants and related industry Punto 2012 Yes[87] Yes
.restaurant restaurants Donuts[donuts 113] Yes Yes
.review public reviews Unknown Yes
.reviews public reviews Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.rip memorial sites[88] Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rocks general Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.room Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.rugby World Rugby Strategic Developments Limited [45]
.run running and jogging Donuts Yes Yes
.safe Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.sale retail Unknown Yes
.save Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.scholarships scholarship related Scholarships.com[89][90] Unknown Unknown
.school schools Donuts[donuts 114] Yes Yes
.science science-related sites dot Science Unknown Yes
.search Charleston Road Registry Inc.[45]
.secure Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.security XYZ.COM LLC[45]
.select iSelect Ltd[45]
.services business services Donuts[donuts 115] Yes Yes
.sex adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.shoes shoes Donuts[donuts 116] Yes Yes
.shop GMO Registry, Inc.[45]
.shopping Over Keep, LLC[45]
.show entertainment and vlogs Donuts Yes Yes
.showtime CBS Domains Inc.[45]
.silk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.singles online dating Donuts[donuts 117] Yes Yes
.site general Unknown Yes
.ski STARTING DOT LIMITED[45]
.skin L'Oréal[45]
.sky Sky International AG[45]
.sling Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation [45]
.smile Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.soccer soccer Donuts Yes Yes
.social general interest Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.software computer software Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.solar solar-power Donuts[donuts 118] Yes Yes
.solutions business services Donuts[donuts 119] Yes Yes
.song Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.space as a creative space Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.spot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.spreadbetting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD[45]
.storage Self Storage Company LLC [45]
.store stores Radix Registry Yes Yes
.stream dot Stream Limited[45]
.studio art, fitness, & entertainment Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.study OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[45]
.style fashion Donuts Yes Yes
.sucks gripe sites Vox Populi Unknown Yes
.supplies manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 120] Yes Yes
.supply manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 121] Yes Yes
.support help pages Donuts[donuts 122] Yes[91] Yes
.surf surfing Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.surgery healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 123] Yes Yes
.systems technology Donuts[donuts 124] Yes Yes
.talk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.tax financial Donuts Yes Yes
.taxi taxi services Donuts Yes Yes
.team team sports Donuts Yes Yes
.tech technology Dot Tech LLC Yes Yes
.technology technology Donuts Yes Yes
.tel Internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[92] Yes
.tennis tennis Donuts Yes Yes
.theater theaters and cinemas Donuts Yes Yes
.theatre XYZ.COM LLC[45]
.tickets Accent Media Limited[45]
.tips general help topics Donuts Yes Yes
.tires tire manufacturers Donuts Yes Yes
.today general Donuts Yes Yes
.tools manufacturing industries Donuts Yes Yes
.top general Jiangsu Bangning Unknown Yes
.tours tourism Donuts Yes Yes
.town generic geographic Donuts Yes Yes
.toys toy businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.trade businesses Yes Yes
.trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD[45]
.training training and how-tos Donuts Yes Yes
.travel travel and tourism industry related sites Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No Yes
.travelersinsurance Travelers TLD, LLC[45]
.trust Artemis Internet Inc[45]
.tube Latin American Telecom LLC[45]
.tunes Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.uconnect FCA US LLC.[45]
.university young adults, university life Donuts Yes Yes
.vacations travel Donuts Yes Yes
.ventures funding for start-ups Donuts Yes Yes
.vet veterans and veterinarians Yes Yes
.video video sharing Unknown Yes
.villas real estate and/or travel businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.vip Minds + Machines Group Limited[45]
.vision eye-care businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.vodka Vodka-related businesses and interest Yes Yes
.vote democratic elections and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[93] Afilias Unknown Yes
.voting polling sites Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.voyage travel Donuts Yes Yes
.wang general
Wǎng is a Chinese Mandarin pinyin rendering of 网 ("web" or "portal").[94]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Yes[95] Yes
.watch Watches Donuts Yes Yes
.watches Richemont DNS Inc.[45]
.weather International Business Machines Corporation[45]
.webcam Web cam shows and video sharing Yes Yes
.website general Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[96]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[97]
No Yes
.wedding wedding-oriented businesses Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.whoswho general An open TLD, any person or entity is permitted to register. Conceived for those cited in one of the Who's Who reference titles published around the world, the registry was opened for use by private individuals, and for-profit and nonprofit entities, including those with social media aspirations. Registry policies allow for rapid takedown of non-compliant domains, for violations including imposturous registration of another's names, and proscribed uses, including pornography or adult services/applications. Who's Who Registry Yes Yes
.wiki wikis "An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation" Top Level Design Yes Yes
.win games, Microsoft Windows Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.wine Wine Unknown Unknown
.winners The TJX Companies, Inc.[45]
.work general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.works general Donuts Yes Yes
.world general Donuts Yes Yes
.wow Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.wtf general Donuts Yes Yes
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Uniregistry Yes Yes
.xyz general XYZ.com Yes[98] Yes
.yachts DERYachts, LLC [45]
.yoga yoga Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.you Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.zero Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.zone general Donuts Yes Yes

Chinese[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.shouji phone QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.tushu books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.wanggou online shopping Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.weibo microblogging Sina Corporation
.xihuan like QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.

French[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E. [45]
.clinique The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. [45]
.luxe Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.maison "house" Donuts[donuts 125] Chinese, French, German, Spanish[99] Yes
.moi Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.rsvp Invitations and replies Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.sarl Société à responsabilité limitée, Francophone Limited liability company Donuts[donuts 126] Yes Yes

German[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.epost e-mail Deutsche Post AG
.gmbh GmbH Extra Dynamite, LLC
.haus "house" Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.immobilien "real estate" Rightside Group[n 1] German[9] Yes
.jetzt "now" New TLD Company Yes Yes
.kaufen "buy" Rightside Group[n 1] German[9] Yes
.kinder children Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
.reise "travel" Must be an eligible member of the travel business community; also, domain must be used for travel-related purposes.[100] dotreise Latin script[9] Yes
.reisen "traveling" Donuts[donuts 127] German[9] Yes
.schule "school" Donuts[donuts 128] Yes Yes
.versicherung "insurance" Latin script[9] Yes

Hindi[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.desi Hindi for the peoples and cultures of South Asia
See also Desi
Desi Networks Unknown Yes
.shiksha Hindi for "education". Afilias Unknown Yes

Italian[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.casa "house" Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.immo French, German,[101] and Italian abbreviation for "real estate" Donuts[donuts 129] Yes Yes
.moda "fashion" Rightside Group[n 1] Spanish[9] Yes
.voto "vote", for election and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[102] Initially only available to registrations in the United States.[103] Afilias Unknown Yes

Portuguese[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.bom good Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
.passagens ticket Travel Reservations SRL

Spanish[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.abogado "lawyer" To be restricted to licensed lawyers or law firms.[104] Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.gratis "free" Donuts[donuts 130] Yes Yes
.futbol soccer Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.hoteles hotels Travel Reservations SRL
.juegos "games" Uniregistry Yes[48] Yes
.ltda companies in South America Domains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, and Ecuador.[105] InterNetX Unknown Yes
.soy "I am"
Also refers to the soybean and its food derivatives
Google[n 2] Latin script, Japanese[106] Yes
.tienda "shop", "store" Donuts Spanish Yes
.uno "one", for websites targeting Spanish speaking consumers Spanish Yes
.viajes "travel" Donuts Spanish Yes
.vuelos flights Travel Reservations SRL

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and support second-level IDNs.

Arabic Script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--4gbrim[107] موقع. Arabic Arabic mawqiʿ "site" or "location" Open TLD Yes
.كوم Arabic com com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl [45]
.موبايلي Arabic mobily My mobile (phone) Owned by: GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[45]
.كاثوليك Arabic catholic Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication) [45]
xn--ngbc5azd[107] شبكة. Arabic Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
.بيتك Arabic baytak your home Owned by: Kuwait Finance House [45]
xn--mgbab2bd[107] بازار. Persian Arabic bâzâr "market" or "bazaar" Open TLD Yes

Chinese characters[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--3ds443g[107] .在线 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[108]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[107] .中文网 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngwén wǎng "(written) Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[108]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[107] .移动 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) yídòng "movement" or "mobile" Open TLD Yes
xn--ses554g[107] .网址 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhǐ "network address" or "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--io0a7i[107] .网络 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngluò "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qx5d[107] .公司 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) gōngsī "business organization" or "company" Open TLD Yes
xn--czru2d[107] .商城 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shāngchéng "mall" Open TLD Yes
xn--nqv7f[107] .机构 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jīgòu "agency" Open TLD Yes
xn--6qq986b3xl[107] .我爱你 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǒ ài nǐ "I love you" Open TLD Yes
xn--czr694b[107] .商标 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) shāngbiāo "trademark" Open TLD Yes
xn--rhqv96g[107] .世界 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shìjiè "world" Open TLD Yes
xn--3bst00m[107] .集团 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jítuán "conglomerate" Open TLD Yes

Cyrillic script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--d1acj3b[107] .дети Russian Cyrillic (Russian) dyeti "kids" or "children" Open TLD Yes
.католик Cyrillic Katolik Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (Pontifical Council for Social Communications) [45]
xn--j1aef[107] .ком Russian Cyrillic (Russian) kom com
xn--80asehdb[107] .онлайн Russian Cyrillic (Russian) onlain "online" Open TLD Yes
xn--c1avg[107] .орг Russian Cyrillic (Russian) org "org" or "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aswg[107] .сайт Russian Cyrillic (Russian) sait "site" Open TLD Yes

Other script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e[107] .संगठन Hindi Devanagari saṅgaṭhana "organization" Open TLD Yes
.कॉम Hindi Devanagari com
.नेट Hindi Devanagari net
.닷컴 Korean Hangul dotcom
.닷넷 Korean Hangul dotnet
xn--9dbq2a[107] .קום Hebrew Hebrew qom "com" Open TLD Yes
xn--q9jyb4c[107] .みんな Japanese Japanese (Hiragana) minna "everyone" Open TLD [109] Yes
.セール Japanese Japanese sēru sale Owned by: Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[45]
.ファッション Japanese Japanese fuasshon fashion
.ストア Japanese Japanese sutoa store
.ポイント Japanese Japanese pointo point
.クラウド Japanese Japanese kuraudo cloud
.コム Japanese komu com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl [45]
.คอม Thai Thai com

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

Africa[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.africa Africa [45]
.capetown Cape Town, South Africa [110] Unknown Yes
.durban Durban, South Africa [111] Unknown Yes
.joburg Johannesburg, South Africa [112] Unknown Yes

Asia[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.abudhabi Abu Dhabi [45]
.arab League of Arab States [113]
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Chinese, Japanese, Korean[9] Yes
.doha Doha [45]
.dubai Dubai [45]
.krd  Kurdistan This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Kurdistan [114][115] Kurdish Yes
.kyoto Kyoto, Japan [116]
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [117] Japanese[9] Yes
.okinawa Okinawa, Japan Japanese Yes
.osaka Osaka, Japan [45]
.ryukyu Ryukyu Islands, Japan [118] Unknown Yes
.taipei Taipei, Taiwan [119] Unknown Yes
.tatar Tatar peoples and places Tatarstan is a region in Russia, though this TLD is meant for the global Tatar community.[120] Unknown Yes
.tokyo Tokyo, Japan [121] Yes Yes
.yokohama Yokohama, Japan [122] Japanese Yes

Europe[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.alsace  Alsace, France [123] Unknown Yes
.amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands [124] Unknown Yes
.bcn Barcelona, Spain [45]
.barcelona Barcelona, Spain Unknown Yes
.bayern  Bavaria, Germany [125] Yes Yes
.berlin Berlin, Germany [126] Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.brussels Brussels, Belgium [127] Latin script[9] Yes
.budapest Budapest, Hungary [128] Unknown Yes
.bzh  Brittany, France ; Breton language and culture Breizh in Breton.[129] This is a TLD for Web sites in the Breton language or related to Breton culture French[9] Yes
.cat  Catalonia; Catalan language and culture This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[130] Catalan[9] Yes
.cologne Cologne, Germany [131] Yes Yes
.corsica  Corsica, France TLD Related to Corsican Culture Unknown Yes
.cymru  Wales [132] Welsh[9] Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[133] Unknown Yes
.frl  Friesland, Netherlands Fryslân in (West) Frisian, one of the twelve provinces in the Netherlands.[134] Unknown Yes
.gal Galicia, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[135] Unknown Yes
.gent Ghent, Belgium [136] Unknown Yes
.hamburg Hamburg, Germany Latin script[9] Yes
.helsinki Helsinki
.irish  Ireland; global Irish community Unknown Yes
.ist İstanbul, Turkey Unknown Unknown
.istanbul İstanbul, Turkey Unknown Unknown
.koeln Cologne, Germany [137] Yes Yes
.london London, United Kingdom [138] Yes Yes
.madrid Madrid, Spain [139] Unknown Yes
.moscow (ru) Moscow, Russia [140] Yes Yes
.nrw North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany [141] Yes Yes
.paris Paris, France [142] French[9] Yes
.ruhr Ruhr, Germany [143] German[9] Yes
.saarland  Saarland, Germany [144] Unknown Yes
.scot  Scotland [145] Unknown Yes
.stockholm Stockholm [45]
.swiss   Switzerland [45]
.tirol  Tyrol, Austria [146] Yes[9] Yes
.vlaanderen  Flanders, Belgium [147] Latin script[9] Yes
.wales  Wales [132] Welsh[9] Yes
.wien Vienna, Austria [148] Latin script[9] Yes
.zuerich Zurich, Switzerland [149] Unknown Yes

North America[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.boston Boston [45]
.miami Miami, USA [150] Unknown Yes
.nyc New York City, USA [151] Spanish[9] Yes
.quebec Québec, Canada [152] Unknown Yes
.vegas Las Vegas, NV, USA [153] Yes Yes

Oceania[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.kiwi New Zealanders [154] Latin script[9] Yes
.melbourne Melbourne, Australia [155] Unknown Yes
.sydney Sydney, Australia [156] Unknown Yes

South America[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.lat Latin America [157] Spanish[158] Yes
.rio Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [159] Unknown Yes

Internationalized geographic top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN Entity Language Script Transliteration Notes Other TLD IDN DNSSEC
xn--1qqw23a .佛山 Foshan, China Chinese Chinese fóshān [160] Yes Yes
.广东 Guangdong Chinese [45]
xn--80adxhks .москва (ru) Moscow, Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) moskva [161] .moscow Russian[9] Yes
.рус (ru) Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rus [45] .ru / .рф
.ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Arabic [45] .abudhabi
‏.عرب‎ Arab Arabic [45]

Brand top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.aaa American Automobile Association, Inc. [45]
.aarp AARP [45]
.abarth Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.abb ABB Ltd [45]
.abbott Abbott Laboratories, Inc. [45]
.abbvie AbbVie Inc. [45]
.accenture Accenture plc [45]
.aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH & Co. KG [45]
.aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux [45]
.aetna Aetna Life Insurance Company [45]
.afl Australian Football League [45]
.agakhan Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation) [45]
.aig American International Group, Inc. [45]
.aigo aigo Digital Technology Co,Ltd. [45]
.airbus Airbus S.A.S. [45]
.airtel Bharti Airtel Limited [45]
.akdn Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation) [45]
.alfaromeo Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.alibaba Alibaba Group Holding Limited [45]
.alipay Alibaba Group Holding Limited [45]
.allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [162] Unknown Yes
.allstate Allstate Fire and Casualty Insurance Company [45]
.ally Ally Financial Inc. [45]
.alstom ALSTOM [45]
.americanexpress American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. [45]
.amex American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. [45]
.amica Amica Mutual Insurance Company [45]
.android Google (Android) [163] Unknown Yes
.anz Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited [45]
.aol AOL Inc. [45]
.apple Apple Inc. [45]
.aquarelle Aquarelle.com Group [164] Unknown Yes
.aramco Aramco Services Company [45]
.audi AUDI Aktiengesellschaft [45]
.auspost Australian Postal Corporation [45]
.axa AXA [165] Yes[9] Yes
.azure Microsoft Corporation [45]
.baidu Baidu, Inc. [45]
.barclaycard Barclays [166] Unknown Yes
.barclays Barclays [166] Unknown Yes
.bauhaus Werkhaus GmbH [45]
.bbc British Broadcasting Corporation [45]
.bbt BB&T Corporation [45]
.bbva Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A. [45]
.bcg The Boston Consulting Group, Inc. [45]
.bentley Bentley Motors Limited [45]
.bharti Bharti Enterprises (Holding) Private Limited [45]
.bing Microsoft Corporation [45]
.blanco BLANCO GmbH + Co KG [45]
.bloomberg Bloomberg IP Holdings LLC [167] Unknown Yes
.bms Bristol-Myers Squibb Company [45]
.bmw Bayerische Motoren Werke AG [168] No Yes
.bnl Banca Nazionale del Lavoro [169] Unknown Yes
.bnpparibas BNP Paribas [170] Unknown Yes
.boehringer Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH [45]
.bond Bond University Limited [45]
.booking Booking.com B.V. [45]
.bosch Robert Bosch GMBH [45]
.bostik Bostik SA [45]
.bradesco Bradesco [171] Unknown Yes
.bridgestone Bridgestone Corporation [45]
.brother Brother Industries, Ltd. [45]
.bugatti Bugatti International SA [45]
.cal Google (Google Calendar) [172] Unknown Yes
.calvinklein PVH gTLD Holdings LLC [45]
.canon Canon Inc. [45]
.capitalone Capital One Financial Corporation [45]
.caravan Caravan International, Inc. [173] Unknown Yes
.cartier Richemont DNS Inc. [45]
.cba Commonwealth Bank Of Australia [45]
.cbn The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc. [45]
.cbre CBRE, Inc. [45]
.cbs CBS Domains Inc. [45]
.cern CERN [174] Unknown Yes
.cfa CFA Institute [45]
.chanel Chanel International B.V. [45]
.chase JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association [45]
.chintai Chintai Corporation [45]
.chrome Google (Google Chrome) [175] Unknown Yes
.chrysler FCA US LLC. [45]
.cisco Cisco Technology, Inc. [45]
.citadel Citadel Domain LLC [45]
.citi Citigroup Inc. [45]
.citic CITIC Group [176] No Yes
.clubmed Club Méditerranée S.A. [45]
.comcast Comcast IP Holdings I, LLC [45]
.commbank Commonwealth Bank Of Australia [45]
.creditunion CUNA Performance Resources, LLC [45]
.crown Crown Equipment Corporation [45]
.crs Federated Co-operatives Limited
(Co-Operative Retailing System)
[177] Unknown Yes
.cuisinella Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisinella) [178] Unknown Yes
.dabur Dabur India Limited [45]
.datsun Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. [45]
.dealer Dealer Dot Com, Inc. [45]
.dell Dell Inc. [45]
.deloitte Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu [45]
.delta Delta Air Lines, Inc. [45]
.dhl Deutsche Post AG [45]
.discover Discover Financial Services [45]
.dish Dish DBS Corporation [45]
.dnp Dai Nippon Printing Co. [179] Unknown Yes
.dodge FCA US LLC. [45]
.dunlop The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company [45]
.dupont E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company [45]
.dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [180] Unknown Yes
.edeka Edeka [181] Unknown Yes
.emerck Merck KGaA [182] Unknown Yes
.epson Seiko Epson Corporation [45]
.ericsson Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson [45]
.erni ERNI Group Holding AG [45]
.esurance Esurance Insurance Company [45]
.etisalat Emirates Telecommunications Corporation (trading as Etisalat) [45]
.eurovision European Broadcasting Union (EBU) [45]
.everbank EverBank [183] Unknown Yes
.extraspace Extra Space Storage LLC [45]
.fage Fage International S.A. [45]
.fairwinds FairWinds Partners, LLC [45]
.farmers Farmers Insurance Exchange [45]
.FedEx Federal Express Corporation [45]
.ferrari Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.ferrero Ferrero Trading Lux S.A. [45]
.fiat Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.fidelity Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC [45]
.firestone Bridgestone Licensing Services, Inc. [45]
.firmdale Firmdale Holdings [184] Unknown Yes
.flickr Yahoo! Domain Services Inc. [45]
.flir FLIR Systems, Inc. [45]
.flsmidth FLSmidth A/S [185] Unknown Yes
.ford Ford Motor Company [45]
.fox FOX Registry, LLC [45]
.fresenius Fresenius Immobilien-Verwaltungs-GmbH [45]
.forex Dotforex Registry Ltd [45]
.frogans OP3FT Solely for use by the Frogans technology[186] Yes[9] Yes
.frontier Frontier Communications Corporation [45]
.fujitsu Fujitsu Limited [45]
.fujixerox Xerox DNHC LLC [45]
.gallo Gallo Vineyards, Inc. [45]
.gallup Gallup, Inc. [45]
.gap The Gap, Inc. [45]
.gbiz Google [187] Unknown Yes
.gea GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft [45]
.genting Resorts World Inc. Pte. Ltd. [45]
.giving Giving Limited [45]
.gle Google [188] Unknown Yes
.globo Grupo Globo [189] No Yes
.gmail Google (Gmail) [190] Unknown Yes
.gmo GMO Internet [191] Unknown Yes
.gmx 1&1 Mail & Media (Global Message Exchange) [192] Unknown Yes
.godaddy Go Daddy East, LLC [45]
.goldpoint Yodobashi Camera Co., Ltd. [45]
.goodyear The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company [45]
.google Google [193] Unknown Yes
.grainger Grainger Registry Services, LLC [45]
.guardian The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America [45]
.gucci Guccio Gucci S.p.a. [45]
.hbo HBO Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.hdfc Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited [45]
.hdfcbank HDFC Bank Limited [45]
.hermes Hermes International [45]
.hisamitsu Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. [45]
.hitachi Hitachi, Ltd. [45]
.hkt PCCW-HKT DataCom Services Limited [45]
.honda Honda Motor Co., Ltd. [45]
.honeywell Honeywell GTLD LLC [45]
.hotmail Microsoft Corporation [45]
.hsbc HSBC [194] Unknown Yes
.htc HTC corporation [45]
.hughes Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation [45]
.hyatt Hyatt GTLD, L.L.C. [45]
.hyundai Hyundai Motor Company [45]
.ibm IBM [195] Unknown Yes
.ieee IEEE Global LLC [45]
.ifm ifm electronic gmbh [45]
.ikano Ikano S.A. [45]
.imdb Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.infiniti Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. [45]
.intel Intel Corporation [45]
.intuit Intuit Administrative Services, Inc. [45]
.ipiranga Ipiranga Produtos de Petroleo S.A. [45]
.iselect iSelect Ltd [45]
.itau Itau Unibanco Holding S.A. [45]
.itv ITV Services Limited [45]
.iveco CNH Industrial N.V. [45]
.jaguar Jaguar Land Rover Ltd [45]
.java Oracle Corporation [45]
.jcb JCB Co., Ltd. [45]
.jcp JCP Media, Inc. [45]
.jeep FCA US LLC. [45]
.jpmorgan JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association [45]
.juniper Juniper Networks, Inc. [45]
.kddi KDDI Corporation [45]
.kerryhotels Kerry Trading Co. Limited [45]
.kerrylogistics Kerry Trading Co. Limited [45]
.kerryproperties Kerry Trading Co. Limited [45]
.kfh Kuwait Finance House [45]
.kia Kia Motors Corporation [45]
.kindle Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.komatsu Komatsu Ltd. [45]
.kpmg KPMG International Cooperative (KPMG International Genossenschaft) [45]
.kred KredTLD [196] Unknown Yes
.kuokgroup Kerry Trading Co. Limited [45]
.lacaixa Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona [197] Unknown Yes
.ladbrokes Ladbrokes International PLC [45]
.lamborghini Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. [45]
.lancaster Lancaster [45]
.lancia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.lancome L'Oréal [45]
.landrover Jaguar Land Rover Ltd [45]
.lanxess Lanxess Corporation [45]
.lasalle Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated [45]
.latrobe La Trobe University [198] Unknown Yes
.lds The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[199] [200] Unknown Yes
.lego LEGO Juris A/S [45]
.liaison Liaison Technologies, Incorporated [45]
.lexus Toyota Motor Corporation [45]
.lidl Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH & Co. KG [45]
.lifestyle Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc. [45]
.lilly Eli Lilly and Company [45]
.lincoln Ford Motor Company [45]
.linde Linde Aktiengesellschaft [45]
.lipsy Lipsy Ltd [45]
.lixil LIXIL Group Corporation [45]
.locus Locus Analytics LLC [45]
.lotte Lotte Holdings Co., Ltd. [45]
.lpl LPL Holdings, Inc. [45]
.lplfinancial LPL Holdings, Inc. [45]
.lundbeck H. Lundbeck A/S [45]
.lupin Lupin Limited [45]
.macys Macys, Inc. [45]
.maif Mutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF) [45]
.man MAN SE [45]
.mango MANGO [201] Latin script[9] Yes
.marriott Marriott Worldwide Corporation [45]
.maserati Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. [45]
.mattel Mattel Sites, Inc. [45]
.mcd McDonald’s Corporation [45]
.mcdonalds McDonald’s Corporation [45]
.mckinsey McKinsey Holdings, Inc. [45]
.meo MEO Serviços de Comunicações e Multimédia, S.A. [45]
.metlife MetLife Services and Solutions, LLC [45]
.microsoft Microsoft Corporation [45]
.mini BMW (Mini) [202] No Yes
.mit Massachusetts Institute of Technology [45]
.mitsubishi Mitsubishi Corporation [45]
.mlb MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC [45]
.mma MMA IARD [45]
.monash Monash University [203][204] No Yes
.mormon The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[199] [205] Unknown Yes
.moto Motorola Trademark Holdings, LLC [45]
.movistar Telefónica S.A. [45]
.msd MSD Registry Holdings, Inc. [45]
.mtn MTN Dubai Limited [45]
.mtpc Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation [45]
.mtr MTR Corporation Limited [45]
.mutual Northwestern Mutual MU TLD Registry, LLC [45]
.mutuelle Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française [45]
.nadex Nadex Domains, Inc [45]
.nationwide Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company [45]
.natura Natura Cosméticos S.A. [45]
.nba NBA Registry, LLC [45]
.nec NEC Corporation [45]
.netflix Netflix, Inc. [45]
.neustar Neustar [206] No Yes
.newholland CNH Industrial N.V. [45]
.nexus Google (Google Nexus) [207] Unknown Yes
.nfl NFL Reg Ops LLC [45]
.nhk NHK [208] Unknown Yes
.nico Dwango Co., Ltd. (Niconico) [209] Unknown Yes
.nike Nike, Inc. [45]
.nikon Nikon Corporation [45]
.nissan Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. [45]
.nissay Nippon Life Insurance Company [45]
.nokia Nokia Corporation [45]
.northwesternmutual Northwestern Mutual Registry, LLC [45]
.norton Symantec Corporation [45]
.nra National Rifle Association [210] Unknown Yes
.ntt Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation [45]
.obi OBI Group Holding SE & Co. KGaA [45]
.office Microsoft Corporation [45]
.omega The Swatch Group Ltd [45]
.oracle Oracle Corporation [45]
.orange Orange Brand Services Limited [45]
.orientexpress Orient Express [45]
.otsuka Otsuka Holdings [211] Unknown Yes
.ovh OVH [212] French[9] Yes
.pamperedchef The Pampered Chef, Ltd. [45]
.panasonic Panasonic Corporation [45]
.pccw PCCW Enterprises Limited [45]
.pfizer Pfizer Inc. [45]
.philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. [45]
.piaget Piaget SA [213] Unknown Yes
.pictet Pictet Europe S.A. [45]
.ping Ping Registry Provider, Inc. [45]
.pioneer Pioneer Corporation [45]
.play Charleston Road Registry Inc. [45]
.playstation Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. [45]
.pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft
(founder Reinfried Pohl)
[214] Unknown Yes
.politie Politie Nederland [45]
.praxi Praxi [215] Unknown Yes
.prod Google (products) [216] Unknown Yes
.progressive Progressive Casualty Insurance Company [45]
.pru Prudential Financial, Inc. [45]
.prudential Prudential Financial, Inc. [45]
.pwc PwC [217] Unknown Yes
.quest Quest ION Limited [45]
.qvc QVC, Inc. [45]
.redstone Redstone Haute Couture Co., Ltd. [45]
.reliance Reliance Industries Limited [45]
.rexroth Robert Bosch GMBH [45]
.ricoh Ricoh Company, Ltd. [45]
.rmit Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology [45]
.rocher Ferrero Trading Lux S.A. [45]
.rogers Rogers Communications Canada Inc. [45]
.rwe RWE AG [45]
.safety Safety Registry Services, LLC. [45]
.sakura SAKURA Internet Inc. [45]
.samsung SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD [45]
.sandvik Sandvik AB [45]
.sandvikcoromant Sandvik Coromant [218] Unknown Unknown
.sanofi Sanofi [45]
.sap SAP SE [219]
.saxo Saxo Bank A/S [45]
.sbi State Bank of India [45]
.sbs Special Broadcasting Service Corporation [45]
.sca Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget [220] Unknown Yes
.scb Siam Commercial Bank Thai[9] Yes
.schaeffler Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co. KG [45]
.schmidt Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisines Schmidt) [221] Unknown Yes
.schwarz Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH & Co. KG [45]
.scjohnson Johnson Shareholdings, Inc. [45]
.scor SCOR SE [45]
.seat SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Unipersonal) [45]
.sener Sener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A. [45]
.ses SES [45]
.sew SEW-EURODRIVE GmbH & Co KG [45]
.seven Seven West Media Ltd [45]
.sfr Societe Francaise du Radiotelephone - SFR [45]
.seek Seek Limited [222] No Unknown
.shangrila Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited [45]
.sharp Sharp Corporation [45]
.shaw Shaw Cablesystems G.P. [45]
.shell Shell Information Technology International Inc [45]
.shriram Shriram Capital Ltd. [45]
.sina Sina Corporation [45]
.skype Microsoft Corporation [45]
.smart Smart Communications, Inc. (SMART) [45]
.sncf SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais) [45]
.softbank SoftBank Group Corp. [45]
.sohu Sohu [223] Unknown Yes
.Sony Sony Corporation [45]
.spiegel Spiegel-Verlag [224] Unknown Yes
.stada STADA Arzneimittel AG [45]
.staples Staples, Inc. [45]
.star Star India Private Limited [45]
.starhub StarHub Limited [45]
.statebank State Bank of India [45]
.statefarm State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company [45]
.statoil Statoil ASA [45]
.stc Saudi Telecom Company [45]
.stcgroup Saudi Telecom Company [45]
.suzuki Suzuki Motor Corporation [225] Unknown Yes
.swatch The Swatch Group Ltd [45]
.swiftcover Swiftcover Insurance Services Limited [45]
.symantec Symantec Corporation [45]
.taobao Alibaba Group Holding Limited [45]
.target Target Domain Holdings, LLC [45]
.tatamotors Tata Motors Ltd [45]
.tdk TDK Corporation [45]
.telecity TelecityGroup International Limited [45]
.telefonica Telefónica S.A. [45]
.temasek Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited [45]
.teva Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited [45]
.tiffany Tiffany and Company [45]
.tjx The TJX Companies, Inc. [45]
.toray Toray Industries, Inc. [45]
.toshiba TOSHIBA Corporation [45]
.total Total SA [45]
.toyota Toyota Motor Corporation [45]
.travelchannel Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc. [45]
.travelers Travelers TLD, LLC [45]
.tui TUI AG [226] Unknown Yes
.tvs T V Sundram Iyengar & Sons Private Limited [45]
.ubs UBS AG [45]
.unicom China United Network Communications Corporation Limited [45]
.uol Universo Online Delegated to UOL subsidiary UBN Internet.[227] Unknown Yes
.ups UPS Market Driver, Inc. [45]
.vanguard The Vanguard Group, Inc. [45]
.verisign VeriSign, Inc. [45]
.vig Vienna Insurance Group AG Wiener Versicherung Gruppe [45]
.viking Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd. [45]
.virgin Virgin Enterprises Limited [45]
.visa Visa Worldwide Pte. Limited [45]
.vista Vistaprint Limited [45]
.vistaprint Vistaprint Limited [45]
.vivo Telefónica Brasil S.A. [45]
.volkswagen Volkswagen Group of America Inc. [45]
.volvo Volvo Holding Sverige Aktiebolag [45]
.walmart Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. [45]
.walter Sandvik AB [45]
.weatherchannel International Business Machines Corporation [45]
.weber Saint-Gobain Weber SA [45]
.weir Weir Group IP Limited [45]
.williamhill William Hill [228] Unknown Yes
.windows Microsoft Corporation [45]
.wme William Morris Endeavor Entertainment [229] Unknown Yes
.wolterskluwer Wolters Kluwer N.V. [45]
.woodside Woodside Petroleum Limited [45]
.wtc World Trade Centers Association [230] Unknown Yes
.xbox Microsoft Corporation [45]
.xerox Xerox DNHC LLC [45]
.xfinity Comcast IP Holdings I, LLC [45]
.xperia Sony Mobile Communications AB [45]
.yahoo Yahoo! Domain Services Inc. [45]
.yamaxun Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.yandex Yandex [231] Unknown Yes
.yodobashi YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD. [45]
.youtube Google (YouTube) [232] Unknown Yes
.zappos Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [45]
.zara Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (INDITEX, S.A.) [45]
.zip Charleston Road Registry Inc. [45]
.zippo Zadco Company [45]

Internationalized brand top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN TLD Entity Script Transliteration Comments DNSSEC
.ارامكو Aramco Services Company Arabic [45]
‏.اتصالات‎ Emirates Telecommunications Corporation (trading as Etisalat) Arabic [45]
.联通 China United Network Communications Corporation Limited Chinese [45]
xn--fiq64b .中信 CITIC Group Chinese zhōngxìn [233] Yes
.香格里拉 Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited Chinese [45]
.淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited Chinese [45]
.大众汽车 Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Chinese [45]
xn--vermgensberater-ctb .vermögensberater Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [234] Yes
xn--vermgensberatung-pwb .vermögensberatung Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [235] Yes
xn--qcka1pmc .グーグル Google Katakana gūguru [236] Yes
xn--flw351e .谷歌 Google Chinese
(Simplified)
gǔgē [237] Yes
.工行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited Chinese [45]
.嘉里 Kerry Trading Co. Limited Chinese [45]
.嘉里大酒店 Kerry Trading Co. Limited Chinese [45]
.飞利浦 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Chinese [45]
.诺基亚 Nokia Corporation Chinese [45]
.電訊盈科 PCCW Enterprises Limited Chinese [45]
.香格里拉 Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited Chinese [45]
.淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited Chinese [45]
.大众汽车 Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Chinese [45]
xn--cg4bki .삼성 Samsung Hangul samseong [238] Yes

Special-Use Domains[edit]

ICANN/IANA has created some Special-Use domain names which are meant for special technical purposes. ICANN/IANA owns all of the Special-Use domain names.[239]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.example Not installed as a domain name, but usable in text as an example.
example.com, example.net and example.org are also reserved for this purpose but are active sites.
Unknown
.invalid Not installed as a domain name, but usable in testing as a domain which wouldn't work. Unknown
.local Local network Unknown
.localhost Points back to own computer Unknown
.onion Connection to the Tor network Unknown
.test Meant for testing DNS software Unknown
.i2p Use in I2P Software as Top Level Domain for resolving End-to-End and anonymity Websites
.glue Use in Opennic Service as Top Level Domain

IDN Test TLDs [edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains, these testing domains were abolished on 31 October 2013.[240] Each of these TLDs encoded a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[241][242]

Each of these domains contained only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language, these example.test sites were test wikis used by ICANN.

DNS Name IDN Transliteration Language Script URL of the test site
(archived at the Wayback Machine)
xn--kgbechtv إختبار. ik͡htibār Arabic Arabic http://مثال.إختبار[dead link]
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bba آزمایشی. ậzmạy̰sẖy Persian Perso-Arabic http://مثال.آزمایشی[dead link]
xn--0zwm56d .测试 cèshì Chinese Simplified Chinese http://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d .測試 cèshì Chinese Traditional Chinese http://例子.測試[permanent dead link][dead link]
xn--80akhbyknj4f .испытание ispytánije Russian Cyrillic http://пример.испытание[dead link]
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g .परीक्षा parīkṣā Hindi Devanagari http://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlp .δοκιμή dokimé Greek Greek http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a .테스트 teseuteu Korean Hangul http://실례.테스트
xn--deba0ad טעסט. test Yiddish Hebrew http://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzah .テスト tesuto Japanese Katakana[243] http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a .பரிட்சை pariṭcai Tamil Tamil http://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Domain registry is operated by United TLD Holdco Ltd. t/a Rightside Registry, a subsidiary of the Rightside Group.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Operated by Charleston Road Registry, Inc., a subsidiary of Google. See [2].
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p A subsidiary of Minds + Machines Group (formerly Top Level Domain Holdings.)
  4. ^ Operating as Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited.
  1. ^ Operating as dotCricket
  2. ^ Operating as Blue Sky Registry
  1. ^ Operating as Half Oaks, LLC
  2. ^ Operating as Knob Town, LLC
  3. ^ Operating as Steel Falls, LLC
  4. ^ Operating as Baxter Hill, LLC
  5. ^ Operating as Half Hallow, LLC
  6. ^ Operating as Grand Hollow, LLC
  7. ^ Operating as Over Galley, LLC
  8. ^ Operating as Atomic Madison, LLC
  9. ^ Operating as Spring Cross, LLC
  10. ^ Operating as Half Sunset, LLC
  11. ^ Operating as Atomic Maple, LLC
  12. ^ Operating as Delta Dynamite, LLC
  13. ^ Operating as Delta Mill, LLC
  14. ^ Operating as Foggy Hollow, LLC
  15. ^ Operating as Goose Cross, LLC
  16. ^ Operating as Wild Corner, LLC
  17. ^ Operating as Delta Lake, LLC
  18. ^ Operating as New Falls, LLC
  19. ^ Operating as Tin Mill, LLC
  20. ^ Operating as Sand Cover, LLC
  21. ^ Operating as Holly Fields, LLC
  22. ^ Operating as Snow Sky, LLC
  23. ^ Operating as Black Corner, LLC
  24. ^ Operating as Fox Shadow, LLC
  25. ^ Operating as Goose Park, LLC
  26. ^ Operating as Steel Lake, LLC
  27. ^ Operating as Puff Willow, LLC
  28. ^ Operating as Trixy Cover, LLC
  29. ^ Operating as Fox Orchard, LLC
  30. ^ Operating as Silver Avenue, LLC
  31. ^ Operating as Pine Mill, LLC
  32. ^ Operating as Pine House, LLC
  33. ^ Operating as Fox Dynamite, LLC
  34. ^ Operating as Magic Woods, LLC
  35. ^ Operating as Koko Lake, LLC
  36. ^ Operating as Snow Shadow, LLC
  37. ^ Operating as Binky Frostbite, LLC
  38. ^ Operating as Spring Way, LLC
  39. ^ Operating as Pine Fest, LLC
  40. ^ Operating as Sand Sunset, LLC
  41. ^ Operating as Steel Station, LLC
  42. ^ Operating as Tin Birch, LLC
  43. ^ Operating as John Edge, LLC
  44. ^ Operating as Dash Park, LLC
  45. ^ Operating as Half Trail, LLC
  46. ^ Operating as Extra Madison, LLC
  47. ^ Operating as Holly Hill, LLC
  48. ^ Operating as Sugar Cross, LLC
  49. ^ Operating as Brice Way, LLC
  50. ^ Operating as Spring Madison, LLC
  51. ^ Operating as Binky Birch, LLC
  52. ^ Operating as Romeo Canyon.
  53. ^ Operating as Snow Oaks, LLC
  54. ^ Operating as Corn Station, LLC
  55. ^ Operating as Trixy Park, LLC
  56. ^ Operating as Pioneer Maple, LLC
  57. ^ Operating as Spring Falls, LLC
  58. ^ Operating as Magic Pass, LLC
  59. ^ Operating as Victor Beach, LLC
  60. ^ Operating as Atomic Pipe, LLC
  61. ^ Operating as Just Maple, LLC
  62. ^ Operating as Cotton Cypress, LLC
  63. ^ Operating as Just Cover, LLC
  64. ^ Operating as Fox Woods, LLC
  65. ^ Operating as Brice Orchard, LLC
  66. ^ Operating as Fox Station, LLC
  67. ^ Operating as Half Cypress, LLC
  68. ^ Operating as John Dale, LLC
  69. ^ Operating as John Castle, LLC
  70. ^ Operating as Lone Fields, LLC
  71. ^ Operating as Sugar House, LLC
  72. ^ Operating as Goose Sky, LLC
  73. ^ Operating as Black Cover, LLC
  74. ^ Operating as Over Madison, LLC
  75. ^ Operating as Corn Sunset, LLC
  76. ^ Operating as Snow Moon, LLC
  77. ^ Operating as Pioneer Cypress, LLC
  78. ^ Operating as Silver Glen, LLC
  79. ^ Operating as John Madison, LLC
  80. ^ Operating as Goose Woods, LLC
  81. ^ Operating as Sugar Park, LLC
  82. ^ Operating as Outer House, LLC
  83. ^ Operating as Outer Maple, LLC
  84. ^ Operating as Pioneer Willow, LLC
  85. ^ Operating as Wild Way, LLC
  86. ^ Operating as Holly Glen, LLC
  87. ^ Operating as Just Goodbye, LLC
  88. ^ Operating as Pine Moon, LLC
  89. ^ Operating as Victor Trail, LLC
  90. ^ Operating as Trixy Oaks, LLC
  91. ^ Operating as John McCook, LLC
  92. ^ Operating as Big Fest, LLC
  93. ^ Operating as Hidden Frostbite, LLC
  94. ^ Operating as June Woods, LLC
  95. ^ Operating as John Goodbye, LLC
  96. ^ Operating as Fern Pass, LLC
  97. ^ Operating as Grand Glen, LLC
  98. ^ Operating as Trixy Manor, LLC
  99. ^ Operating as Magic Glen, LLC
  100. ^ Operating as Sea Goodbye, LLC
  101. ^ Operating as Sugar Glen, LLC
  102. ^ Operating as Sea Corner, LLC
  103. ^ Operating as Foggy Sky, LLC
  104. ^ Operating as Foggy Moon, LLC
  105. ^ Operating as Snow Galley, LLC
  106. ^ Operating as Spring Tigers, LLC
  107. ^ Operating as Magic Birch, LLC
  108. ^ Operating as Big Pass, LLC
  109. ^ Operating as Grand Island, LLC
  110. ^ Operating as Big Hollow, LLC
  111. ^ Operating as Lone Sunset, LLC
  112. ^ Operating as Binky Glen, LLC
  113. ^ Operating as Snow Avenue, LLC
  114. ^ Operating as Little Galley, LLC
  115. ^ Operating as Fox Castle, LLC
  116. ^ Operating as Binky Galley, LLC
  117. ^ Operating as Fern Madison, LLC
  118. ^ Operating as Ruby Town, LLC
  119. ^ Operating as Silver Cover, LLC
  120. ^ Operating as Atomic Fields, LLC
  121. ^ Operating as Half Falls, LLC
  122. ^ Operating as Grand Orchard, LLC
  123. ^ Operating as Tin Avenue, LLC
  124. ^ Operating as Dash Cypress, LLC
  125. ^ Operating as Victor Frostbite, LLC
  126. ^ Operating as Delta Orchard, LLC
  127. ^ Operating as New Cypress, LLC
  128. ^ Operating as Outer Moon, LLC
  129. ^ Operating as Auburn Bloom, LLC
  130. ^ Operating as Pioneer Tigers, LLC
  1. ^ "IANA — Root Zone Database". www.iana.org. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  2. ^ "IANA's list of TLDs in machine-readable format". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "Daily TLD DNSSEC Report". icann.org. ICANN. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  4. ^ "IANA root zone database". Iana.org. Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  5. ^ "Root Zone Database". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "Rules for .au Domains". 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "IANA — Repository of IDN Practices". iana.org. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "DNS Belgium and IPv6" (PDF). economie.fgov.be. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  11. ^ "Domínios .br". Registro.br. 
  12. ^ (9 May 2005) for Portuguese (Brazilian) names: see Anúncio 04/05/2005
  13. ^ .ca#Canadian Presence Requirements
  14. ^ "CZ.NIC - IDN - Internationalized domain names". Nic.cz. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  15. ^ ".eu and IPv6". EURid. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 9780262632980 
  17. ^ Article 1.9 of Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (Recent Georgian version has some updates not causing this article)
  18. ^ "Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  20. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional Practice Guide, Dublin: Law Society of Ireland, 2004, p. 23 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published.
  22. ^ Yasuhiro Orange Morishita (2 September 2003). ".JP technical update (RIPE 46 General Meeting)" (PDF). jprs.jp. Japan Registry Service, Co., Ltd. (JPRS). Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  23. ^ ".LA - The Official .LA Registry". La. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  24. ^ "How can I get a .mo domain if I'm not in Macau?". Quora.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  25. ^ (in Dutch) [3] (Onze mijlpalen), Official website of SIDN
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  27. ^ "Delegation Record for .PS". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  28. ^ "Notícias - dns.pt". Dns.pt. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Registrars". registry.pw. PW Registry. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  30. ^ http://rotld.ro/portal/news/ro/40/index.html
  31. ^ http://rotld.ro/portal/news/en/43/index.html
  32. ^ http://rotld.ro/portal/news/ro/35/index.html
  33. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". 
  34. ^ a b http://www.nic.sa/en/view/news_164
  35. ^ http://www.nic.sa/docs/lectures_and_presentations/IPv6-SaudiNIC_2012.pdf
  36. ^ "TLD DNSSEC Report". ICANN Research. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  37. ^ (21 July 2015), see details
  38. ^ "IANA — Report on the Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 ("Taiwan") domains representing Taiwan in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  39. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY" (PDF). Nic.org.uy. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  40. ^ http://domain.me/me-is-all-about-you-and-all-about-security-with-dnssec/
  41. ^ a b ccTLD applicants who have requested the second and final review
  42. ^ "دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية". Dotmasr.eg. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
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