Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have developed to do this. The term country code frequently refers to international dialing codes, the E.164 country calling codes and this standard defines for most of the countries and dependent areas in the world, a two-letter a three-letter, and a three-digit numeric code. For more applications see ISO 3166-1 alpha-2. S. government and in the CIA World Factbook, on September 2,2008, FIPS 10-4 was one of ten standards withdrawn by NIST as a Federal Information Processing Standard. GOST7.164 international telephone dialing codes, list of country calling codes with 1-3 digits and these prefixes are legally administered by the national entity to which prefix ranges are assigned. Diplomatic license plates in the United States, assigned by the U. S. State Department, north Atlantic Treaty Organisation used two-letter codes of its own, list of NATO country codes.
They were largely borrowed from the FIPS 10-4 codes mentioned below, in 2003 the eighth edition of the Standardisation Agreement adopted the ISO3166 three-letter codes with one exception. The following can represent countries, The initial digits of International Standard Book Numbers are group identifiers for countries, the first three digits of GS1 Company Prefixes used to identify products, for example, in barcodes, designate numbering agencies. A comparison with ISO, IFS and others with notes United Nations Region Codes
au is the Internet country code top-level domain for Australia. It was first created on 5 March 1986, Domain name policy is managed by. au Domain Administration, with the registry operated by AusRegistry. The domain name was allocated by Jon Postel, operator of IANA to Kevin Robert Elz of Melbourne University in 1986. After an approximately five-year process in the 1990s, the Internet industry created a body called. au Domain Administration to operate the domain. It obtained assent from ICANN in 2001, and commenced operating a new regime for domain registration on 1 July 2002. Since this new regime, any registration has to be ordered via a registrar, oversight of. au is by. au Domain Administration. It is an organisation whose membership is derived from Internet organisations, industry members. The organisation operates with the endorsement of the Australian Government and with the authority of ICANN. Policy for. au is devised by policy development panels and these panels are convened by auDA and combine public input with industry representation to derive policy.
The day-to-day operation of the. au registry technical facility is tendered out by auDA, the current operator is AusRegistry who has performed this role since the initial tender in 2002. AusRegistry does not sell domain registration services direct to the consumer, rather consumers who wish to register a domain must do so via a domain name registrar, after the industrys liberalisation in 2002, there is an active competitive market in registrars with a variety of prices and services. In 2008 auDA changed its policy and allowed changes in ownership of. au domains. AuDA introduced the ISS in October 2013 as a mandatory requirement, discount Domain Name services, Cheaper Domains and Information Brokers, part of the Total Internet Group, are the first three auDA accredited registrars to achieve ISS compliance. The naming rules for. au require registrations under second-level categories that describe a type of entity. com. au and this follows a similar allocation policy to that formerly used in other countries such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
Registrations are currently permitted below a second-level domain, such as yourname. com. au, in April 2016, auDA announced it would introduce registrations directly at the second level, such as yourname. au. Direct registrations are due to be implemented in 2017, registering a domain in the. au namespace requires registrants to have either an exact match or a “close and substantial connection” to their desired domain name. Registration of a. au domain is completed through a reseller, known as a registrar and these domains are managed by the. au Community Domains Trust on behalf of auDA. CGDNs use the state or territorys common abbreviation as the level of the domain
cn is the country code top-level domain for the Peoples Republic of China. Domain name administration in mainland China is managed through a branch of the Ministry of Industry, the registry is maintained by China Internet Network Information Center. Neulevel has entered into a partnership with CNNIC to market. cn outside mainland China, any individual may register for second-level domain names. However, the registry has created a set of predefined second-level domains for certain types of organizations, on 25 June 2010, ICANN approved the use of the internationalized country code top-level domains. 中国 and. 中國 by CNNIC. These two TLDs were added to the DNS in July 2010, CNNIC proposes Chinese domain names in. 公司 and. 网络
cf is the Internet country code top-level domain for the Central African Republic. It is administered by the Central African Society of Telecommunications, dot CF is an initiative of the Societe Centrafricaine de Telecommunications in Bangui, Central African Republic in partnership with Freenom. The domain has been available for free registration on Freenom website. IANA. cf whois information dot cf page Freenom, a registrar offering. cf registration
br is the Internet country code top-level domain for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center, a local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are accepted, with the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, site. art. br is in the art category, institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD. edu. br, although some use. com. br and others use. br. There are some few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the. com. br domain, the. jus. br, and. b. br domains have mandatory DNSSEC use. Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989 by Jon Postel, initially the domain was operated manually by Registro. br, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under. br.
At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET, the HEPnet, as such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the. br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software, in 2017, accounts associated with DNS records of Brazilian banks were hacked. Kasperskys researchers pointed out to a vulnerability in NIC. brs website, nICs director at the time, Frederico Neves, denied that NIC. br was hacked, although NIC admitted the vulnerability. To register any domains under. br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Registro. br, Entities legally established in Brazil as a company or a physical person that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a legally established in Brazil can do it by following specific rules. The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters is accepted since 2005, minimum of 2 and maximum of 26 characters, not including the category.
For example, in the field XXXX. COM. BR, valid characters are, the hyphen, and the following accented characters, à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ç. To maintain the integrity of the registry, Registro. br sets up an equivalence mapping to compare domain names with, the mapping is done by converting accented characters and the cedilla for their non-accented versions and c, and discards hyphens. A new domain will only be allowed to be registered when there is no equivalent to a pre-existing domain, ATO. BR - Actors B. BR - Exclusively for banking environment use. BIO. BR - Biologists BLOG. BR - Blogs BMD. BR - Biomedics CIM. BR - Realtors CNG. BR - Scenographers CNT. BR - Accountants COM. BR - Commercial websites in general and individuals. COOP. BR - Cooperatives ECN. BR - Economy EDU. BR - Higher education institutions ENG. BR - Engineers ESP. BR - Sports ETC. BR - Entities that do not fit in other categories ETI. BR - I. T
bw is the Internet country code top-level domain for Botswana. It is administered by the University of Botswana, most current registrations are at the third level beneath second-level names such as co. bw and org. bw, but some second-level registrations exist. The most visited. bw domain is google. co. bw by Google Inc. in Botswana, Botswana Telecommunications Corporation operates a WHOIS service for. bw domains
bf is the Internet country code top-level domain for Burkina Faso. The registry site, is the ARCE site, a document purporting to be an official registration form can be found at the URL http, //www. artel. bf/IMG/File/domaine-bf. pdf
cc is the Internet country code top-level domain for Cocos Islands, an Australian territory of 5.4 square miles and about 600 inhabitants. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus — a country the UN does not recognise — uses the. cc domain, registration is made directly at second-level. The. cc domain is preferred by many cycling clubs, as well as churches and Christian organizations, since CC could be an abbreviation for Christian Church or Catholic Church. Some open-source/open-hardware projects, such as the Arduino project, use a. cc for their pages, since CC is the abbreviation for Creative Commons. Business owners in Southern Massachusetts are rapidly adopting Cape Cod CC domains for local identity, canadian Club whiskey has used. cc domains for marketing purposes. A number of domain names are maintained by CoCCA, including com. cc, net. cc, edu. cc. Although no longer actively promoted on the CoCCA web site, they will still register third-level domain names on request and they are not official hierarchies, they are domains owned by companies who offer free subdomain registration.
The CO. CC company offered two free. cc subdomains, as well as discounts for ordering as many as 15,000 domain names at a time. Step-by-step instructions for registrants on how to use well known hosting services like Blogger, Windows Live, due to previously large use by website spammers of sub-domains from co. cc, in July 2011 Google removed over 11 million. co. cc websites from its search results. Googles JohnMu recommended that individuals who have legitimate sites on the. co. cc subdomain send a reconsideration request to Google to have their specific site excluded from the ban. The abundance of cheap. co. cc domains had used by those who sold fake anti-virus programs. During 2012-2014, the co. cc website and name servers are no longer online, there was no formal statement by the company, but they did stop accepting new registrations some time before they closed
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
bi is the Internet country code top-level domain for Burundi. It is administered by the Burundi National Center of Information Technology, the registry site states that. BI Registry has a rather liberal policy about domain names as soon as the domain name is in relation with the business name or one of its marks. The general principle is that a domain must reflect the truth, registrations are open to anybody worldwide, but are not supposed to be registered or used for misleading purposes, though apparently no pre-screening is done to ensure this. The site states that We strongly discourage the use of suffixes of our country for misleading people and we remind that. bi stands for Republic of Burundi and for nothing else. This is apparently intended to discourage the repurposing of. bi as has been done with other ccTLDs, or the use in domain hacks where the TLD becomes part of a word or phrase. Use of bi in the sense of bisexuality is likely the sort of thing they are aiming to prevent and it is used by the Israeli company Vision.
bi, which develops Business Intelligence software. There does not seem to be much use at all, either within or outside Burundi
ax is the Internet country code top-level domain of the Åland Islands, introduced in 2006. Previously, most Åland websites were under the. aland. fi subdomain, on February 17,2006, the Finnish parliament approved a modification of the laws regulating Finnish domain names to include the. ax top-level domain. On March 17,2006, Finnish president Tarja Halonen signed the bill into law, the government of Åland began accepting registrations immediately following the changing of the law. On June 9,2006, ICANN approved delegating the. ax top-level domain to the government of Åland, the. ax domain was added to the root zone on June 21,2006, and became active on August 15,2006. The code ax itself comes from the ISO3166 standard, and was assigned to Åland in 2004