A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries. Posts are typically displayed in chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of an individual, occasionally of a small group. In the 2010s, multi-author blogs have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors, MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other microblogging systems helps integrate MABs, Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, in that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments.
Many blogs provide commentary on a subject or topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, and others function more as online brand advertising of an individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to blogs, web pages. The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although focus on art, videos, music. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources and these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts, on 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide, according to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today.
However, Blogger does not offer public statistics, Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22,2014. The term weblog was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997, the short form, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used blog as both a noun and verb and devised the term blogger in connection with Pyra Labs Blogger product, in the 1990s, Internet forum software, created running conversations with threads
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, since 1854. It is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats, the newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald. As at February 2017, The Age had a weekday circulation of 88,000. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000 and these represented year-on-year declines of 8% to 9%. The Ages website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia respectively, SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month. The newspaper went compact in March 2013, with the Saturday and Sunday editions retaining the broadsheet format, on 22/23 February 2014, the final weekend edition were produced in broadsheet format with these too converted to compact format on 1/2 March 2014. The Ages parent company Chief executive officer, Greg Hywood, has foreshadowed the end of the print edition of the newspaper, with some analysts saying this will occur during 2017.
The Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, the first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856, Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, and his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, in 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezers heirs and McEwans and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victorias leading newspaper, in circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, and by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the worlds most successful newspapers. Under Symes control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, Syme was originally a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers.
In the 1890s, The Age was a supporter of Australian federation. After Symes death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939, by the 1940s, the papers circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, and its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the extremely conservative Argus, it lost much of its political identity. The historian Sybil Nolan writes, Accounts of The Age in these years generally suggest that the paper was second-rate, walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, querulous and turgid are some of the epithets applied by other journalists. In 1942, David Symes last surviving son, Oswald Syme and he modernised the papers appearance and standards of news coverage. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off and this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, and in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication
The word is a neologism created as a homophone of fishing due to the similarity of using a bait in an attempt to catch a victim. According to the 3rd Microsoft Computing Safer Index Report released in February 2014, communications purporting to be from social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are often used to lure victims. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware, Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users, and exploits weaknesses in current web security. Attempts to deal with the number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness. Phishing attempts directed at individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. Attackers may gather information about their target to increase their probability of success. This technique is, by far, the most successful on the internet today, the attachment or link within the email is replaced with a malicious version and sent from an email address spoofed to appear to come from the original sender.
It may claim to be a resend of the original or a version to the original. Several phishing attacks have been directed specifically at senior executives and other high-profile targets within businesses, in the case of whaling, the masquerading web page/email will take a more serious executive-level form. The content will be crafted to target an upper manager and the role in the company. The content of a whaling attack email is often written as a legal subpoena, customer complaint, whaling scam emails are designed to masquerade as a critical business email, sent from a legitimate business authority. The content is meant to be tailored for upper management, whaling phishermen have forged official-looking FBI subpoena emails, and claimed that the manager needs to click a link and install special software to view the subpoena. Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email appear to belong to the spoofed organization, misspelled URLs or the use of subdomains are the common tricks used by phishers.
Another common trick is to make the text for a link suggest a reliable destination. Many email clients or web browsers will show previews of where a link will take the user in the left of the screen. This behaviour, may in some circumstances be overridden by the phisher, phishers have even started using images instead of text to make it harder for anti-phishing filters to detect text commonly used in phishing emails. However, this has led to the evolution of more sophisticated anti-phishing filters that are able to recover hidden text in images and these filters use OCR to optically scan the image and filter it. Once a victim visits the website, the deception is not over
A drug is any substance that, when inhaled, smoked, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue, causes a physiological change in the body. In pharmacology, a drug, called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from plants, but more recently by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System and this classifies drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties. Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the nervous system, altering perception. They include alcohol, a depressant, and the nicotine and caffeine. These three are the most widely consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide and are considered recreational drugs since they are used for rather than medicinal purposes. Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens and amphetamines and some of these are used in spiritual or religious settings.
Some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side effects, excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition. The transitive verb to drug arose and invokes the psychoactive rather than properties of a substance. A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition, the use may be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies and these medications are designated by the letter P on the label. The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country, medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them.
Those that are not patented are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder, pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System and this groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties
Tokelau is an island country in the southern Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400. Its capital rotates yearly between the three atolls, Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, Swains Island being the nearest, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. Until 1976, the name was Tokelau Islands. Tokelau is a leader in energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world. Tokelau is a free and democratic nation with elections every three years, all run as independents, there are no political parties in Tokelau. The most spoken language in Tokelau is Tokelauan, at 93. 5%, a dependent territory of New Zealand, it is sometimes referred to by its older colonial name, the Union Islands. In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly designated Tokelau a non-self-governing territory, Tokelau is officially referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government.
The basis of Tokelaus legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, in 1992, the head of government was established, who is elected every 3 years. The national anthem is God Save the Queen, Tokelau continues to decrease in population. The largest settlement in Tokelau is Fale, Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world and has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning north wind, the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, and was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976, Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes 8° and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. They lie about 500 kilometres north of Samoa, the atolls are Atafu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island.
Their combined land area is 10.8 km2, the atolls each have a number of coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of Tokelau is just 5 metres above sea level, there are no ports or harbours for large vessels, all three atolls have a jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are shipped. Tokelau lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone belt, Swains Island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau, which claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. This established a defined boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau. Tokelauans have proved reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm
Twitter is an online news and social networking service where users post and interact with messages, restricted to 140 characters. Registered users can post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them, users access Twitter through its website interface, SMS or a mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco, United States, Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, in 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has described as the SMS of the Internet. As of 2016, Twitter had more than 319 million monthly active users. On the day of the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, Twitters origins lie in a daylong brainstorming session held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo.
Jack Dorsey, a student at New York University. The original project name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr. The developers initially considered 10958 as a code, but changed it to 40404 for ease of use. Work on the project started on March 21,2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9,50 PM Pacific Standard Time, Dorsey has explained the origin of the Twitter title. we came across the word twitter, and it was just perfect. The definition was a short burst of inconsequential information, and chirps from birds, and thats exactly what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as a service for Odeo employees. Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitters startup until 2011, Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007. Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview, With Twitter and they called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didnt replace anything.
There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is, Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network, the tipping point for Twitters popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000, the Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages, remarked Newsweeks Steven Levy
Intel Security Group is an American global computer security software company headquartered in Santa Clara and the worlds largest dedicated security technology company. The company has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Intel since February 2011, on September 7,2016, Intel announced a strategic deal with TPG Capital to convert Intel Security into a joint venture between Intel and TPG Capital called McAfee. TPG Capital will be the majority owner with 51% of McAfee, the company was founded in 1987 as McAfee Associates, named for its founder John McAfee, who resigned from the company in 1994. McAfee was incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1992, Network Associates was formed in 1997 as a merger of McAfee Associates, Network General, PGP Corporation and Helix Software. The company restructured in 2004, beginning with the sale of its Magic Solutions business to Remedy, the FSA team oversaw the creation of a number of other technologies that were leading edge at the time, including firewall, file encryption, and public key infrastructure product lines.
While those product lines had their own individual successes including PowerBroker and it is fair to say that McAfee remains best known for its anti-virus and anti-spam product lines. On August 19,2010, Intel announced that it would purchase McAfee for $48 a share in a deal valued at $7.68 billion. On January 6,2014, Intel CEO Brian Krzanich announced during the Consumer Electronics Show the name change from McAfee Security to Intel Security, the companys red shield logo will remain and the firm will continue to operate as a wholly owned Intel subsidiary. John McAfee, who no longer has any interest in the company, I am now everlastingly grateful to Intel for freeing me from this terrible association with the worst software on the planet. These are not my words, but the words of millions of irate users, however, as of 2016 the products still bear the name McAfee. McAfee products are primarily digital security tools for personal computers and server devices, Stonesoft acquisition On July 8,2013 McAfee completed the tender offer for Finnish network firewall design company Stonesoft Oyj worth $389 million in cash, or about $6.09 a share.
The Next Generation Firewall business acquired from Stonesoft was divested to Forcepoint in January 2016, ValidEdge acquisition On February 26,2013 McAfee announced it had acquired the ValidEdge sandboxing technology. NitroSecurity solutions reduce risk exposure and increase network and information availability by removing the scalability, the acquisition closed on November 30,2011. The acquisition enables McAfee to extend its database security portfolio, the acquisition closed on April 6,2011. The acquisition allowed McAfee to complete its diversification into the mobile security space, the acquisition closed on August 25,2010. Trust Digital acquisition On May 25,2010, McAfee announced an agreement to acquire Trust Digital. The acquisition allowed McAfee to extend its services beyond traditional endpoint security, the acquisition closed on June 3,2010. The price for Trust Digital was not disclosed MX Logic acquisition On July 30,2009, McAfee announced plans to acquire managed email, the acquisition provided an enhanced range of SaaS-based security services such as cloud-based intelligence, web security, email security, endpoint security and vulnerability assessment
Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California. Facebook gradually added support for students at other universities. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students, Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, schools attended and so on. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, hobbies or other topics, in groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people, because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies.
Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13,2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poors 500 Index to reach a market cap of $250 billion, Facebook has more than 1.86 billion monthly active users as of December 31,2016. As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, Facebook classifies users from the ages of 13 to 18 as minors and therefore sets their profiles to share content with friends only. Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28,2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore, to accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvards computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online, the site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by the Harvard administration.
Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section and he shared the site with his classmates, and people started sharing notes. The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004 and he said that he was inspired by an editorial about the Facemash incident in The Harvard Crimson. On February 4,2004, Zuckerberg launched Thefacebook, originally located at thefacebook. com. com and they claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation and they filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, within the first month, eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a local area network. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website for a company. Websites are typically dedicated to a topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language. They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors, Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user.
The users application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. As of 2016 end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone, before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as text files without formatting. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website.
Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including computers, laptops, PDAs. A website is hosted on a system known as a web server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves
A firearm is a portable gun - a barreled weapon that launches one or more projectiles, often driven by the action of an explosive force. The first primitive firearms originated in 13th-century China when the fire lance was combined with projectiles. The technology gradually spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, older firearms typically used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability, modern firearms can be described by their caliber or in the case of shotguns their gauge, by the type of action employed together with the usual means of deportment. The word firearms usually is used in a sense restricted to small arms, shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye co-ordination, using either iron sights or optical sights. The accurate range of pistols generally does not exceed 100 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, some purpose-built sniper rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards.
The smallest of all firearms is the handgun, there are three common types of handguns, single-shot pistols and semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have a number of firing chambers or charge holes in a revolving cylinder, semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, and a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round. Each press of the fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately. This is opposed to double-action revolvers which accomplish the end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century, virtually all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders, with the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had largely supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried regularly by military and civilians were semi-automatic, both designs are common among civilian gun owners, depending on the owners intention. A long gun is any firearm that is larger than a handgun and is designed to be held.
Early long arms, from the Renaissance up to the century, were generally smoothbore firearms that fired one or more ball shot. Most modern long guns are either rifles or shotguns, both are the successors of the musket, diverging from their parent weapon in distinct ways. A rifle is so named for the spiral fluting machined into the surface of its barrel. Shotguns are predominantly smoothbore firearms designed to fire a number of shot, shotguns are capable of firing single slugs, or specialty rounds such as bean bags, tear gas or breaching rounds
The copyright holder is typically the works creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement, Copyright infringement disputes are usually resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement, especially when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system, estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary widely and depend on many factors. The terms piracy and theft are often associated with copyright infringement, the original meaning of piracy is robbery or illegal violence at sea, but the term has been in use for centuries as a synonym for acts of copyright infringement. Theft, emphasizes the potential harm of infringement to copyright holders. However, copyright is a type of property, an area of law distinct from that which covers robbery or theft.
Not all copyright infringement results in loss, and the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in 1985 that infringement does not easily equate with theft. The term piracy has been used to refer to the copying, distribution. The practice of labelling the infringement of rights in creative works as piracy predates statutory copyright law. Prior to the Statute of Anne in 1710, the Stationers Company of London in 1557, received a Royal Charter giving the company a monopoly on publication and those who violated the charter were labelled pirates as early as 1603. Copyright holders frequently refer to copyright infringement as theft, courts have distinguished between copyright infringement and theft. For instance, the United States Supreme Court held in Dowling v. United States that bootleg phonorecords did not constitute stolen property, interference with copyright does not easily equate with theft, conversion, or fraud. The Copyright Act even employs a separate term of art to one who misappropriates a copyright.
The terms viewjacking and freebooting both have used to describe the unauthorized rehosting of online media, particularly videos. The terms were coined by YouTubers CGP Grey and Brady Haran in the podcast Hello Internet and Brady came up with the terms in an attempt to find a phrase more emotive than copyright infringement, yet more appropriate than theft. For example, in 2013, the US Army settled a lawsuit with Texas-based company Apptricity, which makes software that allows the army to track their soldiers in real time. In 2004, the US Army paid US$4.5 million for a license of 500 users, while installing the software for more than 9000 users. Major anti-piracy organizations, like the BSA, conduct software licensing audits regularly to ensure full compliance and its just that they want to consume films online and theyre ready to consume films that way and were not necessarily offering them in that way
Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message, especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site. It is named after Spam, a meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch about a menu that includes Spam in every dish. The food is stereotypically disliked/unwanted, so the word came to be transferred by analogy, because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions. A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Pythons Flying Circus. The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat, as the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating Spam, Spam, Spam… Spammity Spam.
In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, in early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America, they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch. Sending an irritating, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming and this was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was used to prevent members of groups from chatting—for instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms. This act, previously called flooding or trashing, known as spamming. The term was applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users. It came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple posting—the repeated posting of the same message, the unwanted message would appear in many, if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. This use had become established—to spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages, the word was attributed to the flood of Make Money Fast messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.
There was an effort to differentiate between types of newsgroup spam, Messages that were crossposted to too many newsgroups at once – as opposed to those that were posted too frequently – were called velveeta. In the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations, the first recorded instance of a mass unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864, when some British politicians received an unsolicited telegram advertising a dentistry shop. The earliest documented spam was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978. Rather than send a message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an assistant, Carl Gartley