Vitaly Vladimirovich Klitschko is a Ukrainian politician and former professional boxer. He serves as Mayor of Kiev and head of the Kiev City State Administration, having held both offices since June 2014. Klitschko is a former leader of the Petro Poroshenko Bloc and a former Member of the Ukrainian Parliament, he became involved in Ukrainian politics in 2005 and combined this with his professional boxing career until his retirement from the sport in 2013. As a boxer, Klitschko is a three-time world heavyweight champion, the second-longest-reigning WBC heavyweight champion of all time, has the fifth-longest combined world championship reign in history at 2,735 days, the third-longest individual WBC heavyweight title streak of all time at 9 consecutive defenses, the fourth-longest combined title streak in the modern heavyweight history at 15 title bouts, he held the WBO title from 1999 to 2000. Standing at 2.01 metres and coming into fights around 250 pounds, Klitschko was renowned for having exceptional ring dominance.
With an 87% knockout percentage, he holds the second highest knockout-to-fight ratios of any world champion in heavyweight boxing history, behind Rocky Marciano while possessing a durable chin. He defeated seven world champions in the course of his career, he was still the reigning WBC world heavyweight champion at 42 years of age when he announced his retirement in December 2013. His only two losses came via a shoulder injury and a deep cut above his eye, both of which were recorded as stoppages rather than outright knockouts. Klitschko is the only heavyweight boxer to have reigned as world champion in three different decades. Along with Oliver McCall and Nikolai Valuev, he is the only world heavyweight champion to have never been knocked down in any fight. Klitschko and George Foreman are the only heavyweight boxers in history to defend a world title after turning 40. Being the first professional boxing world champion to hold a PhD degree, in reference to his punching power, Klitschko's nickname was "Dr. Ironfist".
His younger brother, Wladimir, is a former unified world heavyweight champion. From 2006 until 2015, Vitali and Wladimir dominated heavyweight boxing, a period known as the "Klitschko Era" of the division. Klitschko formally began his political career in 2006 when he placed second in the Kiev mayoral race. In 2010, he founded the party Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform and was elected into parliament for this party in 2012, he was a leading figure in the 2013–2014 Euromaidan protests, he announced his possible candidacy for the Ukrainian presidency but withdrew and endorsed Petro Poroshenko. He was elected Mayor of Kiev on 25 May 2014. Klitschko headed the election list of the winner of the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election, the Petro Poroshenko Bloc, but he gave up his parliamentary seat to stay on as Mayor of Kiev. On 28 August 2015 the UDAR party merged into Petro Poroshenko Bloc. Klitschko thus became the new party leader. Klitschko was reelected as mayor on 15 November 2015. Klitschko revived UDAR, left Petro Poroshenko Bloc with it, in May 2019 and announced that UDAR would take part in the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election autonomously.
UDAR however failed to win any seats. As karate and kickboxing were both banned in the Soviet Union, amateur boxing was one of five sanctioned combat sports available to general public Klitschko took up boxing, being trained by former Soviet boxer, 1974 World Championships bronze medalist Anatoliy Klimanov, a head boxing coach of the CSKA Kyiv Sports Club. After the ban was lifted, Soviets assembled their kickboxing team, Klitschko was its member, he was competing both in amateur boxing and sport karate showing considerable success in all combat sports which he was involved in. Amateur boxing record: 195 wins, 15 losses. Kickboxing record: 34 wins 2 losses He was a kickboxing world champion six times. In 1996, he finished his amateur boxing career and turned professional, signing with the German-based Universum Box-Promotion As an amateur, Klitschko won the super-heavyweight championship at the first World Military Games in Italy in 1995. In the same year he won a silver medal at the World Championships in Berlin, where he was defeated by Russia's Alexei Lezin in the final.
In his autobiography, published in Germany in 2004, the boxer revealed that he tested positive for a banned steroid in 1996. He attributed the presence of the drug to treatment of a leg injury, but was dismissed from the Ukrainian boxing team and missed the Atlanta Olympics, his brother Wladimir moved up from heavyweight to super heavyweight to take his place in the squad and won the Olympic gold medal. His amateur record was 195–15 with 80 knockouts. Klitschko began his professional boxing career in 1996, winning his first twenty-four fights by either early knockout or technical knockout, he and Wladimir signed with the German athlete-promotion company Universum. With both brothers holding PhDs and being multilingual, their refined and
The National Forest Management Act of 1976 is a United States federal law, the primary statute governing the administration of national forests and was an amendment to the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, which called for the management of renewable resources on national forest lands. The law was a response to lawsuits involving various practices in the national forest, including timber harvesting. Zieske v Butz was the lawsuit brought by members of the Pt Baker Association on Prince of Wales Island against the US Forest Service's first environmental impact statement; the suit halted logging on the NW tip of the island which consisted of 400,000 acres and resulted in a call by the timber industry for Congressional action to undo the lawsuit. The main objectives of NFMA are to require the U. S. Forest Service to develop plans for national forests, set standards for timber sales, create policies to regulate timber harvesting; the purpose of these objectives is to protect national forests from permanent damages from excessive logging and clear cutting.
Congress requires the Forest Service, in conjunction with other applicable agencies, to assess and plan for the nation's renewable resource use, the current demand, anticipated demands, environmental and economic impacts. NFMA changed forest planning by obliging the United States Forest Service to use a systematic and interdisciplinary approach to resource management, it provided for public involvement in preparing and revising forest plans. NFMA established and expanded several Forest Service trust funds and special accounts, it expanded upon the land and resource management plans outlined in the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, started by requiring the Forest Service to do an inventory of all its lands, followed by a zoning process to see what uses land was best suited for - dubbed the "suitability determination." These plans required alternative land management options to be presented, each of which have potential resource outputs as well as socio-economic effects on local communities.
The Forest Service, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, contributed considerable resources to the creation of FORPLAN and IMPLAN to estimate the economic effects of these outputs on local communities. At the time NFMA was written, there were conflicting interests in regards to proper forest management; the major player of national forest management at the time was the timber industry. In a post World War II economy, the demand for timber skyrocketed with the housing boom and people were recreating on public lands more than before. Visitors to national parks rose from 50 million in 1950 to 72 million in 1960; the Sierra Club and other conservation groups were fighting for preservation of natural landscapes. The Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960 made it clear that the Forest Service had to manage for non-timber values, like recreation, watershed and fishery purposes, but it was not until NFMA that these uses were embodied by the forest planning process; the 1982 NFMA Planning Regulations describe a planning process designed to integrate the many interests concerning the forest: Identify issues and opportunities.
State and local agency officials, as well as the public, collaborate to identify current issues as well as possible future issues and concerns. The goal of the planning process is to improve the forest to better serve the public. Develop planning criteria. Three main criteria are used for management actions: public policy criteria or the policy outlined in regulatory and statutory guidelines, process criteria or the accepted standard of data analysis, decision criteria or the weight assigned to each management action. Collect data and information necessary to address ICOs. Ensure that data collection meets the process criteria standards. Include data for a'no action' alternative to use as a control during alternative comparison. Analyze the management situation. Group land into strata of similar physical features, such as vegetation, wildlife or soil type, to analyze the effects of management actions. Formulate a broad range of alternatives including a'no action' alternative. Estimate the effects of each alternative on the environment, the economy, society.
Evaluate alternatives by comparing how well each resolves the ICOs. Evaluate each alternative using the planning criteria outlined in step 2. Select a preferred alternative; this is the proposed forest plan. Document the proposal and justify the selection. Explain why other alternatives were not chosen that may have a higher net present value or are more environmentally preferable. Prepare a Record of Decision of the plan. Implement the plan by updating all uses of the forest into conformity of the forest plan. Make the proper budget requests for full implementation. Monitor and evaluate the plan by comparing the actual biological effects of the plan to the projections. Make adjustments where necessary. According to the National Forest Service, some of the key events in implementation of the act were the following:1976 - NFMA was enacted. 1979 - First planning regulations established. 1982 - Revised NFMA planning regulations established. 1989 - Comprehensive review conducted on land management of the Forest Service.
1993 - First revision of forest plan conducted. 1997 - A 13-member Committee of Scientists met to analyze and recommend methods for the Forest Service to improve management of national forests and grasslands. Report was released in 1999. 2000 - The 2000 Planning Rule published. The 2000 Planning Rul