Alcohol and health
Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain, alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech and delayed reflexes. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, causing irritability. A2014 World Health Organization report found that alcohol consumption caused about 3.3 million deaths annually worldwide. However, some effects of consumption are beneficial. Although even moderate alcohol consumption increased the risk of death in younger people, the median lethal dose of alcohol in test animals is a blood alcohol content of 0. 45%. This is about six times the level of intoxication. The high tolerance of heavy drinkers may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above 0. 40%. Alcohol limits the production of vasopressin from the hypothalamus and the secretion of this hormone from the pituitary gland.
This is what causes severe dehydration when alcohol is consumed in large amounts and it causes a high concentration of water in the urine and vomit and the intense thirst that goes along with a hangover. Stress and the contraceptive pill may increase the desire for alcohol because these things will lower the level of testosterone. Tobacco has the effect of increasing the craving for alcohol. Cell membranes are permeable to alcohol, so once alcohol is in the bloodstream it can diffuse into nearly every cell in the body. The concentration of alcohol in blood is measured via blood alcohol content, hydration plays a role, especially in determining the extent of hangovers. After excessive drinking, unconsciousness can occur and extreme levels of consumption can lead to alcohol poisoning, alcohol may cause death indirectly, by asphyxiation from vomit. Alcohol can greatly exacerbate sleep problems, during abstinence, residual disruptions in sleep regularity and sleep patterns are the greatest predictors of relapse.
Health effects associated with levels of alcohol intake include an increased risk of alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease. In addition, damage to the nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse
United States Military Academy
It sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River,50 miles north of New York City. It is one of the four U. S. military service academies, the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites and monuments. The majority of the campuss Norman-style buildings are constructed from gray, the campus is a popular tourist destination complete with a large visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the President and Vice President of the United States, students are officers-in-training and are referred to as cadets or collectively as the United States Corps of Cadets. Tuition for cadets is fully funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation, approximately 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating.
Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that a cadet will not lie, steal, the academy bases a cadets leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance, academics and military. Most graduates are commissioned as lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries, since 1959, cadets have been eligible to cross-commission, or request a commission in one of the other armed services, provided that they meet that services eligibility standards. Every year, a small number of cadets do this. The academys traditions have influenced other institutions because of its age and it was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, and its technical curriculum was a model for engineering schools. West Points student body has a rank structure and lexicon. All cadets reside on campus and dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast, the academy fields fifteen mens and nine womens National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams.
Cadets compete in one sport every fall and spring season at the intramural and its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, after Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance, Cadets underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794. In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy and he selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendent
Navy Times reports on the United States Coast Guard. Navy Times is published by Regent Companies Sightline Media Group, Navy Times was founded by Mel Ryder, owner of Army Times Publishing Company, in 1951. Ryder began his career on the staff of Stars and Stripes. In 1921, he joined Willard Kiplinger in forming the Kiplinger Agency and he sold his interest in the agency in 1933 and began publishing Happy Days, a paper for members of the Civilian Conservation Corps. His first order was for 400 copies and the first advertiser was GEICO, in 1940, Ryder started and incorporated the Army Times newspaper. In 1997, Army Times Publishing Company was sold to Gannett, in June 2009, Navy Times started its Scoop Deck blog. In 2015, the GGM group was spun off as part of TEGNA, Gannetts broadcast, GGM was renamed Sightline Media Group. In 2016, TEGNA sold Sightline to Regent, a Los Angeles–based private equity firm, someone whose dedication and concern for fellow service members and community set a standard for all of us.
There is a Marine of the year, Soldier of the year, Sailor of the year, Airman of the year, each service member is nominated by their peers for Military Times selection. The winners are honored at a ceremony on Capitol Hill, in Washington
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, United States. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to historic sites, buildings. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress, students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation, approximately 1,200 plebes enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer, but only about 1,000 midshipmen graduate. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the according to starting salary. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academys Honor Concept, the United States Naval Academys campus is located in Annapolis, Maryland, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay.
In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No.1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 9th best overall liberal arts college in the U. S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, and is tied for the No.5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No.24 overall in its report Americas Top Colleges, nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes, the U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015, from this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses.
Midshipmen only receive a portion of their pay in cash while the rest is released during firstie year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the academy are addressed as Midshipman, an official military rank. The same term comprises both males and females, upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries
A breathalyzer or breathalyser is a device for estimating blood alcohol content from a breath sample. Breathalyzer is the name for the instrument that tests the alcohol level developed by inventor Robert Frank Borkenstein. It was registered as a trademark on May 13,1954, also, in 1927 a Chicago chemist, William Duncan McNally, invented a breathalyzer in which the breath moving through chemicals in water would change color. One use for his invention was for housewives to test whether their husbands had been drinking, in late 1927, in a case in Marlborough, England, a Dr. Gorsky, Police Surgeon, asked a suspect to inflate a football bladder with his breath. Since the 2 liters of the mans breath contained 1.5 ml of ethanol, in 1931 the first practical roadside breath-testing device was the drunkometer developed by Rolla Neil Harger of the Indiana University School of Medicine. The drunkometer collected a motorists breath sample directly into a balloon inside the machine, the breath sample was pumped through an acidified potassium permanganate solution.
If there was alcohol in the sample, the solution changed color. The greater the change, the more alcohol there was present in the breath. The drunkometer was manufactured and sold by Stephenson Corporation of Red Bank, in 1954 Robert Frank Borkenstein was a captain with the Indiana State Police and a professor at Indiana University Bloomington. His Breathalyzer used chemical oxidation and photometry to determine alcohol concentrations, subsequent breath analyzers have converted primarily to infrared spectroscopy. The invention of the Breathalyzer provided law enforcement with a non-invasive test providing immediate results to determine an individuals breath alcohol concentration at the time of testing, in 1967 in Britain, William Bill Ducie and Tom Parry Jones developed and marketed the first electronic breathalyser. They established Lion Laboratories in Cardiff, Bill Ducie was a chartered electrical engineer and Tom Parry Jones was a lecturer at UWIST. Lion Laboratories won the Queens Award for Technological Achievement for the product in 1980, the Alcolyser was superseded by the Lion Intoximeter 3000 in 1983, and by the Lion Alcolmeter and Lion Intoxilyser.
These models used a fuel cell alcohol sensor rather than crystals, providing a more reliable curbside test, in 1991, Lion Laboratories was sold to the American company MPD, Inc. CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O The electric current produced by this reaction is measured by a microprocessor, Breath analyzers do not directly measure blood alcohol content or concentration, which requires the analysis of a blood sample. Instead, they estimate BAC indirectly by measuring the amount of alcohol in ones breath, two breathalyzer technologies are most prevalent. Desktop analyzers generally use infrared technology, electrochemical fuel cell technology. The U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration maintains a Conforming Products List of breath alcohol devices approved for evidentiary use, as well as for preliminary screening use
Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States
Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States of America is an umbrella term for alcohol consumption by individuals under the age of 21 in the country. Although the minimum age to purchase alcohol is 21 in all states. While a few states completely ban alcohol usage for people under 21, underage drinking has become an activity primarily done behind closed doors. Typically, underage drinkers hide their alcohol consumption by drinking quickly before they go out, brittany Levine explained in her article Pre-Gaming in USA Today that of all drinking events involving pre-partying, 80% involved additional drinking afterward. Some parents are willing to provide alcohol for their children if they drink it in a controlled environment, furnishing alcohol to ones own children is permitted in 31 states, while its illegal to do so for other peoples children in all fifty states. Social host ordinances have been enacted in a number of jurisdictions to attempt to limit the parties where adults may permit minors to drink.
Before one is eligible to buy and consume alcohol, if a teen has any alcohol-related law violations before they turn 18, they will have a minimum of one year per violation before they are eligible to be licensed. In 2008, McCardell and the presidents of over 100 U. S. colleges and universities launched the Amethyst Initiative, in 2008, Gallup reported that 77% of the population over 21 supported the 21-year drinking age. As it stands, any state that lowers its alcohol purchase or possession age would lose ten percent of its federal highway funding and this could range from a $6 million–150 million loss for any single state. Most states in the U. S. regulate the use of alcohol by those under the age of 21, many believe that anyone under the age of twenty-one can not consume alcohol in the United States. However, this is incorrect because underage drinking is allowed in 31 states with parental consent and 17 states with spousal consent, many parallel State constitutional provisions similar to those contained in the 14th Amendment exist, and State constitutions often have explicit prohibitions against age discrimination, as well.
These questions were litigated before the Supreme Court of Louisiana, in Manuel v. State,692 So. 2d 320, 324–25, the Court originally found such laws criminalizing the possession of alcohol by persons between the ages of 18 and 20 to be repugnant to the Constitution of said State, this decision only applies to the State of Louisiana. Other challenges to the questions of the constitutionality of underage drinking laws have not been made, either in the Courts of the several other States, the prerogative held by police to enforce underage drinking laws is debatable under certain circumstances. Since a hunch is not considered probable cause to detain someone in the United States, according to Frances M. Harding of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the SAMHSAs goal is to change social norms. The Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students program consists of a survey given to students to help them assess their alcohol usage against other students.
It consists of one or two counseling sessions granted to the students to support and not be confrontational regarding their alcohol use. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration created the Talk and they Hear You campaign that involved a mobile app to assist parents with having conversations about alcohol usage to their children
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper. It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D. C. and was founded on December 6,1877 and its current slogan is Democracy Dies in Darkness. Located in the city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for the District of Columbia, the newspaper is published as a broadsheet, with photographs printed both in color and in black and white. The newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes and this includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, the second-highest number ever awarded to a single newspaper in one year, second only to The New York Times seven awards in 2002. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards, in years since, its investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In 2013, its owners, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to billionaire entrepreneur.
The newspaper is owned by Nash Holdings LLC, a holding company Bezos created for the acquisition, the Washington Post is generally regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its reporting on the workings of the White House, Congress. It is one of the two daily broadsheets published in Washington D. C. the other being its smaller rival The Washington Times, unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, the majority of its newsprint readership is in District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia. The Sunday Style section differs slightly from the weekday Style section, it is in a tabloid format, and it houses the reader-written humor contest The Style Invitational. Additional weekly sections appear on weekdays, Health & Science on Tuesday, Food on Wednesday, Local Living on Thursday, the latter two are in a tabloid format.
In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of a focus on. political stories. The newspaper has bureaus in Maryland and Virginia. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily, for many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW. This real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos Nash Holdings in 2013, Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW, in May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C
A midshipman is an officer cadet or a commissioned officer candidate of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. Beginning in the 18th century, an officer candidate was rated as a midshipman. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or masters mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant, promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, and many midshipmen took positions as masters mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college, trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in other navies.
Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, and similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility. Today, these ranks all refer to cadets, but historically they were selected by the monarchy. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662, the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed, midshipman extraordinary, midshipman, by 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, and the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a letter of service from the crown, and were paid at the same rate as midshipmen. Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as Kings letter boys.
Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, by the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or masters mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ships officers, a volunteer, or a seaman. By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship, the school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. Volunteers were paid £6 per year, by 1816, the rating of midshipman ordinary was phased out, and all apprentice officers were rated as midshipmen
United States Air Force Academy
The United States Air Force Academy, is a military academy for officer cadets of the United States Air Force. Its campus is located in the western United States in Colorado, the Academys stated mission is to educate and inspire men and women to become leaders of character, motivated to lead the United States Air Force in service to our nation. It is the youngest of the five U. S. service academies, Graduates of the Academys four-year program receive a Bachelor of Science degree, and are commissioned as second lieutenants in the U. S. Air Force. The Academy is one of the largest tourist attractions in Colorado, admission is extremely competitive, with nominations divided equally among Congressional districts. Recent incoming classes have had about 1,200 cadets, tuition along with room and board are all paid for by the Air Force. Cadets receive a stipend, but incur a commitment to serve a number of years of military service after graduation. All cadets participate in either intercollegiate or intramural athletics, and a character development.
Each of the components of the program is intended to give cadets the skills, prior to the Academys establishment, air power advocates had been pushing for a separate Air Force Academy for decades. As early as 1918, Lieutenant Colonel A. J, hanlon wrote, As the Military and Naval Academies are the backbone of the Army and Navy, so must the Aeronautical Academy be the backbone of the Air Service. No service can flourish without some such institution to inculcate into its embryonic officers love of country, proper conception of duty, and highest regard for honor. Mitchells arguments did not gain traction with legislators, and it was not until the late 1940s that the concept of the United States Air Force Academy began to take shape. Support for an air academy got a boost with the National Security Act of 1947 and this was only intended to be a short term fix and disagreements between the services quickly led to the establishment of the Service Academy Board by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal.
Following the recommendation of the Board, Congress passed legislation in 1954 to begin the construction of the Air Force Academy, the legislation established an advisory commission to determine the site of the new school. Among the panel members were Charles Lindbergh, General Carl Spaatz, and Lieutenant General Hubert R. Harmon, the original 582 sites considered were winnowed to three, Illinois, Lake Geneva and the ultimate site at Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Secretary of the Air Force, Harold E. Talbott, Air Training Command began developing a detailed curriculum for the Academy program. The early Air Force Academy leadership had the model of West Point and Annapolis in designing a curriculum, faculty. While at Lowry, they were housed in renovated World War II barracks, there were no upper class cadets to train the new cadets, so the Air Force appointed a cadre of Air Training Officers to conduct training. The ATOs were junior officers, many of whom were graduates of West Point and they acted as surrogate upper class cadets until the upper classes could be populated over the next several years
Francis E. Warren Air Force Base
See Francis E. Warren at the link. Francis E. Warren Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located approximately 3 miles west of Cheyenne and it is one of three strategic missile bases in the U. S. It was named in honor of Francis E. Warren in 1930, Warren AFB is home of the 90th Missile Wing, assigned to the Twentieth Air Force, Air Force Global Strike Command. The 90 MW operates the LGM-30G Minuteman III ICBM, with facilities in Southeast Wyoming, Western Nebraska. It is the home of Twentieth Air Force, which commands all U. S. Air Force ICBMs, Warren AFB is the oldest continuously active military installation within the Air Force, established in 1867 by the United States Army as Fort David Allen Russell. The facility came under United States Army Air Forces control on 1 June 1947, the 90th Missile Wing is commanded by Colonel Stephen Kravitsky. Twentieth Air Force, co-located at Warren AFB, has been under the command of Major General Anthony Cotton since 2015, Warren AFB is a census-designated place and had a resident population of 3,072 at the 2010 census.
Unlike most Air Force Bases, Warren AFB has no runway for fixed-wing aircraft, the only conventional airfield ever located at F. E. Warren AFB was a single dirt strip. This field, never used by pilots, was made famous by World War I ace Captain Eddie Rickenbacker who crashed his plane on the field. The airfield was used in 1919 by the Western Flying Circus, due to extensive soil and groundwater contamination, the Warren AFB has been a superfund site listed on the National Priorities List since February 21,1990. As of 2014, the DOD has spent $15, a Restoration Advisory Board is established. The extent of the underground TCE plume is unknown, data analysis due to be completed 2015 will inform about its size, Atlas missile site No.3 was acquired in the late 70s and used as a car salvage yard. It was not until 2001 when the Corps began investigating Cheyenne missile sites for TCE contamination, that a 1. 5-mile-long contamination plume at the site, the clean up is expected to cost $175 million. In August 15, the Corps stated that it wants to more data before recommending a remedy.
The history of the dates back to the Railroad Act of 1862. This included an installation on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in the Wyoming Territory. On 4 July 1867, the railroad established its mountain region headquarters at Crow Creek Crossing, a few weeks later, the U. S. Cavalry moved from temporary headquarters in Cheyenne to a point 3 miles west and established Fort D. A. Russell. Thus,1867 was the beginning of a city and a fort, detachments of the 30th Infantry formed the first garrison, under the command of Colonel John D. Stevenson