0-6-0+0-6-0

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0-6-0+0-6-0
Diagram of six driving wheels in two trios, each trio joined by coupling rods
SAR Klasse KM.jpg
Equivalent classifications
UIC class C+C
French class 030+030
Turkish class 33+33
Swiss class 3/3+3/3, 6/6 from the 1920s
Russian class 0-3-0+0-3-0
First known tank engine version
First use c. 1870
Country United Kingdom
Locomotive Double Fairlie
Designer Robert Francis Fairlie
Benefits Total engine mass as adhesive weight
Drawbacks Driver isolated from fireman
First known tender engine version
First use 1903
Country Cape of Good Hope
Locomotive CGR Kitson-Meyer
Railway Cape Government Railways
Designer Kitson and Company
Builder Kitson and Company

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-6-0+0-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of an articulated locomotive with two separate swivelling engine units, each unit with no leading wheels, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. The arrangement is effectively two 0-6-0 locomotives operating back-to-back and was used on Garratt, Double Fairlie, Meyer and Kitson-Meyer articulated locomotives. A similar arrangement exists for Mallet steam locomotives on which only the front engine unit swivels, but these are referred to as 0-6-6-0.

In the United Kingdom, the Whyte notation of wheel arrangement was also used for the classification of electric and diesel-electric locomotives with side-rod coupled driving wheels.[1]

Overview[edit]

The 0-6-0+0-6-0 wheel arrangement was used on Garratt, Double Fairlie, Meyer and Kitson-Meyer locomotives, although in some cases Double Fairlies with this arrangement were also referred to as 0-6-6-0.

Garratt locomotives[edit]

The 0-6-0+0-6-0 was a rare Garratt model. Beyer, Peacock, the owner of the Garratt patent, only built two of this type to 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge for the Buthidaung-Maungdaw Tramway in Burma. Belgian builder Société Anonyme St. Leonard of Liège constructed 31 for the Belgian Congo and two for the roadside tramways of the Belgian SNCV. Hanomag commenced the construction of a single locomotive, which was completed by Henschel for the Limburg Tramway in the Netherlands. This last was the only inside-cylinder Garratt to be built.[2][3]

0-6-0+0-6-0 Garratt production list – All manufacturers[2][3]
Gauge Railway Class Works no. Units Year Builder
750 mm C.F. du Congo 1744 1 1913 St. Leonard, Belgium
750 mm C.F. du Congo 1901-1912 12 1920-21 St. Leonard, Belgium
750 mm C.F. du Congo 2001-2009 9 1924-25 St. Leonard, Belgium
750 mm C.F. du Congo 2040-2049 10 1925-26 St. Leonard, Belgium
2 ft 6 in Buthidaung-Maungdaw Tramway, Burma 5702-5703 2 1913 Beyer, Peacock
1,000 mm SNCV, Belgium Type 23 2121 1 1929 St. Leonard, Belgium
1,000 mm SNCV, Belgium Type 23 2140 1 1930 St. Leonard, Belgium
4 ft 8 12 in Limburg Tramway, the Netherlands 22063 1 1931 Hanomag & Henschel

Kitson-Meyer locomotives[edit]

In 1894, Kitson and Company of Leeds built a modified Meyer articulated locomotive of this wheel arrangement for the Anglo-Chilean Nitrate and Railway Company. Thereafter, the Kitson-Meyer type was widely used in South America, particularly on the Colombian and Chilean railways, the four which were built for Southern Africa were not successful.[4]

Usage[edit]

Belgian Congo[edit]

Belgian Congo type 2MB Garratt no. 112

Between 1913 and 1926, Belgian locomotive builders Société Anonyme St. Leonard of Liège constructed 31 Garratt 0-6-0+0-6-0 locomotives for the 750 mm (2 ft 5 12 in) gauge Compagnie du C.F. du Congo in the Belgian Congo. The locomotives were delivered in four batches, one in 1913, twelve in 1920-21, eight in 1924-25 and the last ten in 1925-26.[3]

Ireland[edit]

Córas Iompair Éireann no. CC1, generally known as the Turf Burner, was a prototype 0-6-0+0-6-0 articulated steam locomotive designed by Oliver Bulleid. The locomotive shared some of the characteristics of Bulleid's previous attempt to develop a modern steam locomotive, the Southern Railway's Leader class. The locomotive had a relatively short career and was never used in front-line service.[5]

South Africa[edit]

CGR Fairlie no. E34, c. 1878

In 1876, the Cape Government Railways (CGR) placed a single experimental Double Fairlie side-tank locomotive in service on the Cape Eastern system, working out of East London. Built by Avonside Engine Company, it was the first articulated locomotive to enter service in South Africa and also the first locomotive to be equipped with Walschaerts valve gear, after some shortcomings were brought to the attention of the locomotive builders, a second Double Fairlie which incorporated these improvements was delivered and placed in service in 1878.[6][7][8]

The Kitson-Meyer type was tried out by three railways in Southern Africa; in 1903, Kitson persuaded the CGR, the Beira and Mashonaland Railway (B&MR) and the Central South African Railways (CSAR) to try their new 0-6-0+0-6-0 Kitson-Meyer articulated steam locomotive. In 1903, one locomotive was delivered to the CGR and two to the B&MR and, in 1904, one to the CSAR. Unlike a Garratt, both engine units on these locomotives were arranged with the cylinders aft of the coupled wheels. All three railways found their Kitson-Meyers to be poor steamers and, as built, none of these locomotives had a long service life, the three CGR and B&MR locomotives were all scrapped by 1912. In 1906, the CSAR modified its Class M locomotive by reducing the diameter of the cylinders to bring them within the range of the boiler’s steam generating capacity. While this reduced the locomotive’s tractive effort, it improved its performance sufficiently to allow it to survive in service longer than the other three; in 1912, it was assimilated into the South African Railways and designated Class KM.[4][8][9]

United Kingdom[edit]

The only steam locomotive example of this type of engine in the United Kingdom was the Leader, it was originally commissioned by the Southern Railway but it was completed by British Railways in 1949. The locomotive was a class of experimental articulated steam locomotive, produced in the United Kingdom to the design of the innovative engineer Oliver Bulleid, the Leader was effectively a Meyer locomotive since both sets of drivers were articulated. It was built in an attempt to extend the life of steam traction by eliminating many of the operational drawbacks associated with existing steam locomotives.[10]

BR Class 13 Hump shunter

The 0-6-0+0-6-0 configuration was also applied to diesel-electric locomotives when British Rail created the Class 13 in 1965, this was done by permanently coupling two Class 08 0-6-0DE shunting engines as "master and slave" units, the latter with its cab removed. In North American terminology, this is referred to as a "cow and calf" arrangement, the modification came about because of a need to provide more powerful shunting locomotives for the Tinsley Marshalling Yard.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whyte notation
  2. ^ a b Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives produced by Beyer, Peacock, retrieved 10 November 2012 
  3. ^ a b c Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives from Other Builders, retrieved 10 November 2012 
  4. ^ a b Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 31, 84. ISBN 0869772112. 
  5. ^ Shepherd, Ernest (2004). Bulleid and the Turf Burner and Other Experiments with Irish Steam Traction. KRB Publications, Southampton. p. 70. ISBN 0-9542035-8-5
  6. ^ Dulez, Jean A. (2012). Railways of Southern Africa 150 Years (Commemorating One Hundred and Fifty Years of Railways on the Sub-Continent – Complete Motive Power Classifications and Famous Trains – 1860–2011) (1st ed.). Garden View, Johannesburg, South Africa: Vidrail Productions. p. 21. ISBN 9 780620 512282. 
  7. ^ Abbott, Rowland A.S. (1970). The Fairlie Locomotive, (1st ed.). South Devon House, Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles, Newton Abbot. pp. 34, 36-38. ISBN 0 7153 4902 3.
  8. ^ a b Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 25–27, 31–32, 69–70, 130–132. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. 
  9. ^ Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 9, 15, 46 (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
  10. ^ Day-Lewis (1964), The Leader locomotive