The type was first used by the Northern Pacific Railway and is consequently most commonly known as a Northern. This was combined with the stability at speed brought about by the leading truck. The evolution to the 4-8-4 type occurred in the United States of America soon after the Lima Locomotive Works introduced the concept of Lima Super Power in 1925, the Timken 1111 was subsequently sold to the NP, where it became NP no. 2626, their sole Class A-1 locomotive, the 4-8-4 proved itself suitable for both express passenger and fast freight service. While it was not suited to heavy freight trains and lighter trains were well suited to the type. Most were two-cylinder locomotives, but four classes of three-cylinder 4-8-4s were built, the simplex H class by the Victorian Railways in Australia. The compound 242A1 class of the Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français in France, an experimental high-pressure compound locomotive of the New York Central. Since the 4-8-4 was first used by the Northern Pacific Railway, most North American railroads used this name, but some adopted different names.
Big Apple on the Central of Georgia Railway, Confederation on the Canadian National Railway. Dixie on the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway, greenbrier on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Niagara on the New York Central Railroad, Niágara on the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México and in Brazil. Pocono on the Delaware and Western Railroad, Potomac on the Western Maryland Railway. Western on the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, Wyoming on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The Richmond and Potomac Railroad gave each of its three 4-8-4 classes a separate name, the General of 1937, the Governor of 1938 and the Statesman of 1944. The adhesive weight on a 4-8-4 was limited to about 60% of the engines weight, in a variant, Bowen added a booster to the trailing truck, enabling the big Selkirk to exert nearly 50% more tractive effort than the similar-sized K-1a Northern. A total of 23 4-8-4 locomotives operated in Australia, built to three distinct designs and this necessitated the replacement of their two-wheel trailing trucks with four-wheel bogies.
The booster contributed an additional 8,000 pounds-force to the tractive effort, in their new 4-8-4 configuration, they were reclassified to 500B class. In 1943, the first of twelve streamlined South Australian Railways 520 class locomotives were delivered from the Islington Workshops in Adelaide
This arrangement is commonly called a Mogul. In the United States of America and Europe, the 2-6-0 wheel arrangement was used on tender locomotives. This type of locomotive was built in the USA from the early 1860s to the 1920s. On these early 2-6-0 locomotives, the axle was merely used to distribute the weight of the locomotive over a larger number of wheels. The first American 2-6-0 with a rigidly mounted leading axle was the Pawnee, built for freight service on the Philadelphia. In total, about thirty locomotives of type were built for various American railroads. The railroads noted their increased pulling power, but found that their rather rigid suspension made them prone to derailments than the 4-4-0 locomotives of the day. Many railroad mechanics attributed these derailments to having too little weight on the leading truck, the first true 2-6-0s were built in the early 1860s, the first few being built in 1860 for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The new design required the utilisation of a single-axle swivelling truck, such a truck was first patented in the United Kingdom by Levi Bissell in May 1857.
In 1864, William S. Hudson, the superintendent of Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works and this equalized suspension worked much better over the uneven tracks of the day. The first locomotive built with such a truck was likely completed in 1865 for the New Jersey Railroad. It is likely that the class name derives from a locomotive named Mogul. However, it has suggested that, in England, it derived from the engine of that name built by Neilson. Beyer and Company provided large numbers of standard design 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge Mogul locomotives to several Australian Railways. Twenty 2-6-0 locomotives were built by Les Ateliers de Tubize locomotive works in Belgium for the 1,000 mm CF du Congo Superieur aux Grands Lacs Africains between 1913 and 1924. The first eight, numbered 27 to 34, were built in 1913, followed by six more in 1921, six more of a slightly larger version followed in 1924, numbered 41 to 46. They had 360 by 460 millimetres cylinders and 1,050 millimetres diameter driving wheels, with the versions having a working order mass of 28.8 tonnes.
Most of the CFL was regauged to 3 ft 6 in gauge in 1955, most of them still survived in 1973
Swiss locomotive and railcar classification
It started out as a uniform system for the classification and naming of all rolling stock and unpowered, but had been replaced and amended by the UIC classification of goods wagons. The Swiss classification system was created by the Swiss federal railways department, in 1902, when the Swiss Federal Railways was founded as a government railway, that new railway became bound by the system. The Swiss system is less precise than those other systems in the way it deals with axles, because it refers only to numbers, rather than to arrangements, of powered axles. The Swiss system is more a method of classifying locomotive. The classifications for which the Swiss system provides have always been adapted to new requirements. The last modification to the system occurred in 1968, with the publication of the Directory of the Rolling Stock of the Swiss Private Railways by the Swiss Federal Agency for Transport. For carriages and wagons, the system was progressively replaced from 1968 by the UIC international wagon classification system.
However, all of Switzerlands powered rolling stock initially retained its Swiss type classification or class designation, the standard gauge private railways of Switzerland soon followed the example of the Swiss Federal Railways, and agreement was reached as to the allocation of number ranges. The narrow gauge railways have largely retained the old system for locomotives and passenger carriages, here is a description of the classification system as it operated up to 1989, and as it still operates in respect of narrow gauge private railway motive power. There is no provision for combining the codes A, B, C, D, E, G, R and T, the combination of H and G is possible. HG would therefore be a narrow gauge locomotive, with a mix of adhesion, since 1966, in respect of railcars and tractors, he or hm has meant pure rack rail drive, and eh or mh has meant a mix of adhesion and rack rail drive. Steam powered tank locomotives were given an E, and the maximum speed of the locomotive was designated with a lower case letter.
Thus, an Ea 3/6 was a locomotive with vmax >80 kilometres per hour. With steam locomotives, separate driving mechanisms were displayed, so, for example, a Mallet locomotive was named G 2x2/2 or G 2/3+2/2, and not G 4/4 or G 4/5. Up until 1920, standard gauge locomotives were given the letter F. The class designated as Be 5/7 was therefore originally named Fb 5/7, the designation R was originally intended for locomotives with an axle load of under 16 tonnes. These lightweight locomotives exert less stress on the rails when they negotiate curves, with the introduction of the Re 4/4II, the axle load limit was dropped following extensive testing. Several locomotives were given approval for higher cornering speeds, to which their type designation had not yet been adapted
Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia
The Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia is a private railway operating in the northern provinces of Chile. It proved that a railway with such a narrow gauge could do the work of a gauge railway. It was converted to 1,000 mm metre gauge, the railway started at the Chilean port of Antofagasta. It proceeded up the front range of the Andes to Ollagüe on the Bolivian border, across the Bolivian pampas to Uyuni, at Oruro, the gauge changed to 1,000 mm metre gauge for the remainder of the route to La Paz, the capital of Bolivia. A number of branches were added to various mining fields. The Collahuasi branch reached 4,815 m above sea level, the total length of the 2 ft 6 in gauge lines, including branches and subsidiaries, was 1,537 km. The railway was organised as the Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company, construction started in 1873, with the first section opening late in that year, motive power provided by mules. Steam locomotives were introduced in 1876, and by 1879 the railway had extended about 150 km into the interior, War broke out in 1879 between Chile on one side, and Peru and Bolivia on the other.
One of the causes of the war was an attempt by the Bolivian government to back taxes on the railway. The War of the Pacific ended in 1883, and Chile gained the region around Antofagasta as well as part of Peru. Control of the passed to the Company Huanchaca of Bolivia in 1887. The Huanchilaca company retained the right to operate the railway for a further 15 years, the line reached Oruro in Bolivia, the end of the 2 ft 6 in section, in 1892, and branches continued to be added over subsequent years. British business interests resumed control of the system in 1903. Traffic reached a point where the port of Antofagasta was unable to cope, a new port was opened to the north at Mejillones in 1906, together with a new line bypassing Antofagasta. In 1909 the FCAB purchased the FC Caleta Coloso a Aguas Blancas, although of 2 ft 6 in gauge, the FCCCAB was never integrated into the FCAB, and always operated as a separate entity. The entire region is a desert, with almost no rainfall, the company constructed a system of pipes and reservoirs to bring water for the railway from the high Andes, eventually becoming responsible for supplying Antofagasta with water as well.
The FCAB now had two operating divisions, one using 2 ft 6 in gauge, the other 1,000 mm metre gauge, the FCAB already interchanged with metre gauge railways running north-south in western Chile, and there was the prospect of connections with lines from Argentina. Thus, in 1913, the FCAB board made a decision to convert the line to metre gauge throughout, some gauge conversion work was done in 1916, however World War I intervened, and most work was not done till 1928
The arrangement is sometimes known as Olomana after a Hawaiian 0-4-2 locomotive of 1883. The earliest recorded 0-4-2 locomotives were three engines built by Robert Stephenson and Company for the Stanhope and Tyne Railway in 1834. The first locomotive built in Germany in 1838, the Saxonia, was an 0-4-2, in the same year Todd, Kitson & Laird built two examples for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, one of which, LMR57 Lion, has been preserved. The Lion had a top speed of 45 miles per hour, the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway acquired the locomotives Minotaurus and Ajax from the British manufacturer Jones and Evans in 1841, to work the line between Vienna and Stockerau. The locomotive Ajax has been preserved at the Technisches Museum Wien since 1992 and is described as the oldest preserved locomotive on the European continent. In Finland, the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement was represented by the Classes B1, the Finnish Steam Locomotive Class B1 is an 0-4-2ST locomotive, built from 1868 to 1890 by Beyer and Company at their Gorton Foundry works in Manchester, England.
Although the type was not used by any major railroads in North America, Inc. and the Baldwin Locomotive Works produced many small tank locomotives of this type for industrial and plantation work. The 0-4-2T Olomana, built by Baldwin in 1883, is an example of such types, the Olomana arrived in the Kingdom of Hawaii in August 1883, after a two-month journey around Cape Horn. It was owned by Waimanalo Sugar Company on the island of Oahu, in 1905, the Nederlands Indische Spoorweg opened a line between Yogyakarta and Ambarawa via Magelang, a hilly region requiring a rack railway because of the 6. 5% gradients. The 0-4-2T wood burning B25 class was made for line in 1902 by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen. They were four-cylinder compound locomotives with two of the cylinders working the pinion wheels, there are two examples of B25 class locomotive still in operation, namely B25-02 and B25-03. Both were based in Ambarawa, where they have served for more than a hundred years, Locomotive B25-01 may still be found at the entrance to the Ambarawa Railway Museum.
On the island of Sumatra, there are some larger cousins of this class being used for hauling trains, namely the D18. The 0-4-2T arrangement was used by two classes of locomotives operated by the New Zealand Railways Department, the first was the C class of 1873, originally built as an 0-4-0T. The class was found to be unstable at higher than 15 mph. The second and more notable 0-4-2T class, and the one actually built as 0-4-2T, was the unique H class designed to operate the Rimutaka Incline on the Wairarapa Line. The Inclines steep gradient necessitated the use of the Fell mountain railway system, except for a few brief experiments with other classes, the H class had exclusive use of the Incline from their introduction in 1875 until the Inclines closure in 1955. The class leader, H199, is preserved on display at the Fell Engine Museum in Featherston and is the only extant Fell locomotive in the world
In the United States of America and elsewhere the 2-10-2 is known as the Santa Fe type, after the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway that first used the type in 1903. The 2-10-2 wheel arrangement evolved in the United States from the 2-10-0 Decapod of the Atchison, consequently, the ATSF added a trailing truck to the locomotives which allowed them to operate successfully in both directions. These first 2-10-2 locomotives became the forerunners to the entire 2-10-2 family, the trailing truck allows a larger, deeper firebox than that of a 2-10-0. Like all ten-coupled designs, the rigid wheelbase of the coupled wheels presented a problem on curves, requiring flangeless drivers, lateral motion devices. The 2-10-2s inherent problem was the low speed restriction on the type, the 2-10-2 had other inherent restrictions. In addition the 2-10-2, like the 2-6-2, had its main rod connected to the coupled axle, very near to the centre of gravity. The peak of the 2-10-2 design limitations was reached in the United States in 1926 and was overcome with the advent of the superior 2-10-4 design.
Locomotives with a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement were used in a number of countries around the world, including those in North America, Western Europe, continental Europe saw a fair number of 2-10-2s, although the type was always less popular than 2-8-2 Mikados and 2-10-0 Decapods. A large number of European 2-10-2s were tank locomotives, taking advantage of the nature of the wheel arrangement. The metre gauge General Manuel Belgrano Railway in Argentina operated the E2 series of 2-10-2 locomotives and these required modification by Livio Dante Porta to achieve their full potential. Ten more powerful examples were introduced into service in 1964, two classes of 2-10-2 locomotives were used in the Belgian Congo. Two locomotives were built by Du Haine Saint-Pierre for the CF du Congo Superieur aux Grands Lacs Africains in 1937 and they had 510 by 530 millimetres cylinders and 1,060 millimetres diameter coupled wheels, with a working order mass of 64.7 tonnes. One locomotive was built for the CF du Bas-Congo au Katanga by Société Anonyme John Cockerill in 1947, numbered 901, in 1916, Canadian National Railways took delivery of ten Class T-1-a 2-10-2s from an order made by the short-lived Canadian Government Railways and built by ALCO.
Ten more were delivered from the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1918, Canadian Locomotive Company produced five T-2-as in 1924. Ten ALCOs named T-3-as were acquired from the Boston and Albany Railroad in 1928, Canadian Locomotive Company produced the last series of 2-10-2s for CNR, a batch of 15 T-4-as in 1929, and 18 T-4-bs in 1930. The 2-10-2s began to be scrapped in the mid-1950s, with the last models being used until 1961, there are two surviving CNR 2-10-2 locomotives. One is no.4008 on display at the CNR Station in Rainy River, ON, the mainstay of Chinese steam was their 2-10-2 locomotives. This was the arrangement of the Chinese QJ class locomotives that were based on the Soviet LV class
A Meyer locomotive is a type of articulated locomotive. The design was never as popular as the Garratt or Mallet locomotives and it can be best regarded as 19th Century competition for the early compound Mallet and the Fairlie articulated designs. The Meyer was the brainchild of Frenchman Jean-Jacques Meyer, who took out a patent on the design in 1861, the first locomotive, an 0-4-0+0-4-0 named LAvenir, was built by Société J. F. Cail et Cie. in 1868 with the support of a state subsidy. No wheels are affixed to the boiler, all are mounted on bogies placed directly under the boiler/cab unit. This compares with a Mallet, where the set of wheels are attached to the frame. Therefore, boiler overhang is less than that of the Mallet locomotive on a curve of the same radius, Meyers are usually set up as a tank engine, with the boiler/cab unit carrying the water and fuel supplies. A disadvantage of the design is that the firebox is directly above the power unit. With two power bogies, flexible steam pipes must be provided to all cylinders and this was difficult to achieve with 19th Century technology.
Early Mallet locomotives had compound cylinders, so high pressure steam was provided to the power unit. Meyer locomotives were most common in continental Europe, particularly Germany, a number of Meyer locos can still be found on the narrow gauge railways in Saxony. The Switzerland Bernina Railway had two rotary snowplows built by Schweizerische Lokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik in 1910 and 1912. To work on the curves of the 1,000 mm meter gauge mountain railway they had to be selfpropelled. Both have been preserved, Xrot d 9213 is still in working condition on the Rhaetian Railway, based in Pontresina, the Kitson Meyer is most closely associated with Kitson & Co. of Leeds, but was built by other locomotive builders. The design originated from an idea by Robert Stirling, Locomotive Superintendent of the Anglo-Chilian Nitrate & Railway Company, after placing an order with Kitsons for some conventional locos, he approached them with his ideas for an articulated loco. Kitsons further developed the idea, the first loco being constructed in 1894, the Meyer design was modified by moving the rear power unit further back and allowed the firebox to be between the two power units, thus allowing a larger firebox.
The length of engine was increased, with the extra length behind the cab being used for water tanks. Some designs had a chimney at the rear to avoid the need for an exhaust steam pipe running the length of the engine. Kitson Meyers were widely used in South America, particularly on the Colombian and Chilean railways and it was regarded as the best performing of all articulated designs for railway lines that constantly curved
The 0-6-4 wheel arrangement appears to have only been used on tank engines and Single Fairlies. The earliest known example was the Moel Tryfan narrow gauge locomotive and it was a Single Fairlie type, built by the Vulcan Foundry near Manchester in 1875. It was followed by the R class and S class, built by the Avonside Engine Company of England for the New Zealand Railways Department between 1878 and 1881, the South Australian Railways K class locomotives were introduced in 1884, designed by William Thow. They were noted to run more smoothly bunker-first, three members of New Zealands S class were sold to the Western Australian Government Railways in 1891. New Zealand’s R class and S class Single Fairlies were popular with crews, the S class were limited to the Wellington Region when they were introduced, but the R class were distributed throughout the country. All were withdrawn by 1936, but R class no.28 is preserved as an exhibit in a Reefton park. This wheel arrangement provided the bulk of the power for the 3 ft 6 in Nederlandsche-Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorwegmaatschappij in the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek.
Between 1893 and 1898,17546 Tonner 0-6-4T steam locomotives were placed in service, the other eighteen locomotives in this order were delivered directly to the IMR, who diverted two of them to Lourenço Marques in Mozambique. In 1912, the remaining CSAR locomotives were assimilated into the South African Railways, the CFM eventually had at least thirty 46 Tonner locomotives in service. Between 1897 and 1898, some 46 Tonners were sold by the NZASM to the CFM, the two locomotives which were delivered after the outbreak of the war and diverted to Lourenço Marques upon arrival, were taken onto the CFM roster at the end of the war. Later, between 1911 and 1920 during the CSAR and SAR eras, six more were sold to the CFM, other than examples for export, 0-6-4T locomotives enjoyed a brief vogue in the United Kingdom prior to the First World War, but were not widely used. Nine locomotives of type were supplied by Beyer, Peacock. William Dean built three crane tanks in 1901, and Kitson & Co. of Leeds supplied nine locomotives to the Lancashire and East Coast Railway in 1904.
Other examples included the Midland Railway 2000 Class of 1907, the Highland Railway Drummond 0-6-4T Class of 1909, the SECR J class of 1913, the type was eventually superseded by the popular 2-6-4T locomotive
This locomotive type is most often referred to as a Berkshire, though the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway used the name Kanawha for their 2-8-4s. In Europe, this arrangement was mostly seen in mainline passenger express locomotives and, in certain countries. In the United States of America, the 2-8-4 wheel arrangement was a development of the enormously successful United States Railroad Administration 2-8-2 Mikado. It resulted from the requirement for a locomotive with even greater steam heating capacity, the most practical solution was to add a second trailing axle to spread the increased weight of a larger firebox. The first American 2-8-4s were built for the Boston and Albany Railroad in 1925 by Lima Locomotive Works, the railroads route across the Berkshire mountains was a substantial test for the new locomotives and, as a result, the name Berkshire was adopted for the locomotive type. In Europe, 2-8-4 tender locomotives were designed mainly for passenger express trains, european 2-8-4 tank locomotives were a logical transition from the 2-8-2T locomotive types, allowing larger fireboxes and larger coal bunkers.
They were mainly used for suburban services in heavily populated suburban areas of big cities. The Western Australian K-class was a class of 2-8-4T steam locomotives of the Western Australian Government Railways, between 1893 and 1898, the WAGR took delivery of 24 of these locomotives from Neilson and Company. They entered service on the Eastern Railway between Midland Junction and Northam, the South Australian Railways operated 2-8-4s. Fleet construction commenced in 1930 and by the end of 1943, the design of these locomotives was based on American practices. After they were withdrawn from service by 1958, they were all scrapped, the heavy Class 214 1’D2’ two-cylinder simple expansion express passenger locomotive was developed in Austria in 1927. It was designed by engineers of the Floridsdorf Werke and was the largest Austrian steam locomotive, designed for the West railway express train service, they were to be used to haul 580 tons express trains from Wien Westbahnhof in Vienna over 317 kilometres to Salzburg.
This mainline has three approximately 11. 3-kilometre long banks with gradients between 1 in 91 and 1 in 125, two prototypes were built in two-cylinder and three-cylinder versions. When tested, the two-cylinder version proved to be superior to the three-cylinder Class 114 version, in 1936, no.214.13 reached a speed of 156 kilometres per hour, the highest speed ever attained by an Austrian steam locomotive. The regular speed limit was 120 kilometres per hour, from 1938, the Deutsche Reichsbahn designated the locomotives class 12.0. In the summer of 1939, they hauled 600 tons express trains out of Vienna over Wienerwald at a speed of 65 kilometres per hour, in 1945, seven of these locomotives were taken over by the Soviet Military Administration when they occupied the Russian Zone in Austria. These locomotives had T painted before their numbers and were marked CCCP. The Russians did not transfer these locomotives out of Austria and, when they withdrew their forces in September 1955